68502181 Industrial Psychology Notes

View more...


Preview only show first 6 pages with water mark for full document please download


Industrial-Organizational (I-O) Psychology Talent Strategy and Planning Do You Want to Know More About:  Establishing plans to successfully align your organization around a common vision?  Ensuring that your business strategy is supported by your human capital strategy?  Measuring the impact your Human Resources function has on business results? Talent Strategy and Planning Is the Key Talent strategy and planning is a process used to ensure that an organization’s human capital supports desired business outcomes. Talent strategy and planning often includes:  Clarifying the organization’s mission, vision and strategic objectives.  Developing an actionable strategy to achieve desired organizational outcomes.  Identifying and forecasting the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics needed to fulfill the talent strategy.  Establishing success metrics to assess the contribution of the Human Resources function to business outcomes. How Can I/O Psychologists Help? 1. Facilitation. I/O psychologists can successfully facilitate meetings with senior leaders to identify, clarify, and articulate the organization’s mission, vision and strategic objectives in measurable terms. 2. Alignment Meetings. I/O psychologists can help business leaders align talent strategy with organizational strategy. 3. I dentify KSAOs. I/O psychologists can work with subject matter experts to identify the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other personal characteristics required for a specific talent strategy to succeed. 4. Metrics Development. I/O psychologists can develop reliable and valid methods to measure desired organizational outcomes. 5. Change Management. I/O psychologists can design and deliver a change management program to implement new approaches to talent planning, attraction, and retention. 6. Workforce Planning. I/O psychologists can identify and plan for future workplace talent needs. Talent Strategy and Planning Needs: An Example The following is an example of an organization facing talent strategy and planning challenges:  The merger of two electric utilities created one of the nation’s largest energy providers.  The new organization was challenged with integrating two different business strategies, disparate corporate cultures, two geographies, and two different regulatory environments.  The industry itself was experiencing transformational change. Talent Strategy and Planning Needs: The Solution I/O psychologists helped this organization by:  Designing an off-site meeting for the leaders of both organizations to discuss the strategy and goals for the combined organization.  Partnering with the head of Human Resources to map out a talent strategy to support the newly adopted, post-merger strategic focus.  Identifying the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for key positions within the organization.  Completing a talent inventory to reveal gaps in key skill sets, such as financial acumen and marketing.  Closing talent gaps over an 18-month period through a combination of training and external hiring with rigorous selection criteria.  Designing a system by which employees were kept aware of the intentions of the company to retain employees, in order to avoid the deleterious effects of rumors and mitigate the realistic stress that arises from speculation over their future with the company.  Designing and implementing science-based strategies to unite the two corporate cultures to avoid the common merger pitfall of having “a house divided” or warring entities within the company, which inhibits productivity when employees feel marginalized or react against changes their job duties or routines. Talent Strategy and Planning Needs: The Results *The results below are an example of potential outcomes using the solution delineated above. This organization benefited though the following results*:  Alignment on priorities established a culture of collaboration and trust.  Limited turnover during the merger process due to the clarity of the organization’s direction.  Increased market share in a deregulated marketplace.  Cost synergies that exceeded expectations and revenue growth that surpassed forecasts.  Increased bench strength for leadership positions through the improved ability to attract top talent.  Market expansion through more efficient systems and improved talent placement.  Employees feeling more “buy-in” and experiencing less stress, and less negative attitudes toward the new company and corporate culture. Selection Systems Do You Want to Know More About:  Selecting and retaining high-performing employees?  Which tools will best predict on-the-job success at your organization?  Developing a selection process that can withstand legal challenges?  Proactively identifying pools of applicants who will fit your needs? Selection Systems Are the Key Well-developed recruitment and selection systems benefit organizations by:  Increasing revenue and efficiency by hiring highly-qualified applicants with better job performance (e.g., higher sales, higher productivity, better customer service, lower turnover).  Lowering hiring costs per applicant by screening out unqualified applicants early in the hiring process.  Increasing the proportion of successful hires across candidates and providing legally sound methods of assessment of applicant suitability, success, and performance.  Identifying large pools of qualified applicants.  Minimizing turnover through better person/job/organization fit. How Can I/O Psychologists Help? 1. Design a Process. I/O psychologists can design a selection system that fits an organization’s culture and hiring needs by incorporating a variety of established, validated tools such as prescreens, realistic job previews, tests, and interviews. 2. Define Key Qualifications. I/O psychologists can analyze jobs or job families to identify the critical competencies required. 3. Develop Prescreen Assessments. I/O psychologists can develop assessments to screen out applicants early in the process who do not meet minimum qualifications, saving valuable time and resources. 4. Develop and Validate Selection Tests. I/O psychologists can develop tests to measure the critical competencies required on the job and conduct studies to provide statistical evidence for the linkage between test scores and on-the-job performance. 5. Develop Structured I nterviews and Conduct I nterview Training. I/O psychologists can develop interview guides to assess the critical competencies required on the job and train interviewers to use a standardized process that is free from bias and will withstand legal challenges. 6. Conduct Executive Assessments. I/O psychologists can conduct in-depth assessments to identify and develop individuals for executive-level leadership positions. 7. Conduct Assessment Centers. I/O psychologists can conduct in-depth “day-in-the-life” assessments using a variety of instruments (e.g., interviews, group discussions, live role plays). The output from such assessments provides rich information on participants’ strengths and opportunities for improvement. 8. Conduct Legal Audits and Provide Expert Witness Testimony. I/O psychologists are uniquely qualified to audit an organization’s selection system and identify potential legal risks; they can also serve as expert witnesses defending an organization’s selection system. 9. I dentifying Applicant Pools. I/O psychologists can identify sources of qualified applicants, assess those applicants against qualification standards, and help track applicants and selection decisions for reporting purposes. 10. Help I t All Make Sense. I/O psychologists can link the selection process to the key elements of the talent management system within the organization so that job candidates and employees see consistency in language, expectations, and messaging. Selection System Needs: An Example The following is an example of an organization facing challenges with its selection system:  An auto parts company was having difficulty staffing the job of materials handler.  There was very high voluntary turnover in the position.  The materials handler position was fast-paced and physically demanding, and the environment in which materials handlers worked was challenging.  The existing selection process did not measure the skills and abilities required for success on the job. Selection System Needs: The Solution I/O psychologists helped this organization by:  Conducting a job analysis to identify the critical skills and characteristics required for success as a materials handler.  Developing a custom job fit tool to measure candidates’ fit for the job.  Implementing an online pre-employment assessment to measure key work-related personality traits such as detail orientation, adaptability, and accountability.  Developing a realistic job preview to inform candidates of the demands of the job before accepting the position. Selection System Needs: The Results *The results below are an example of potential outcomes using the solution delineated above. This organization benefited over a 12 month period through the following results*:  Retention improved by 87%.  On-the-job performance improved by 23%.  Work speed improved by 8%.  Supervisors ranked high-scorers on the assessment as more effective on the job than low- scorers, providing evidence of the assessment’s validity.  The selection process was legally sound and defensible against challenges. Learning and Development Do You Want to Know More About:  Identifying the key skills and abilities that will allow your employees to deliver better results for your business?  Programs and services to help leaders develop their skills and increase their effectiveness?  Linking training and development activities to your business strategy?  The best approach for teaching new skills (e.g., classroom-based training, on-the-job training)?  Accurately and specifically measuring the return on your development investments? Learning and Development Is the Key The science of psychology is heavily involved with human learning and development. Learning and development helps organizations build and maintain internal capabilities so they can successfully execute their strategies. It includes:  The identification of key employee skills and abilities and the methods for teaching and acquiring them.  Training program design and delivery.  Leadership assessment and development programs.  Internal and external executive coaching.  The metrics used to assess each of these programs. Learning and development programs benefit organizations by:  Improving the bottom-line performanceof the organization by giving employees the skills needed to excel.  Reducing external recruiting costs by developing internal employees and preparing them to take on greater leadership roles.  I ncreasing employee retention by visibly demonstrating to employees an investment in their career development and growth. How Can I/O Psychologists Help? 1. Facilitation. I/O psychologists can help senior leaders to articulate business objectives and identify the key employee skills and abilities required to execute the organization’s business strategies. 2. Defining the Need. I/O psychologists can conduct analyses to determine the most prevalent employee skill gaps in an organization or department in order to prioritize the content and focus of training programs. 3. Building the Learning Strategy and Frameworks. I/O psychologists can help organizations create systems and approaches that align training and development programs with business goals (e.g., driving revenue). 4. Program Design/Delivery. I/O psychologists can design and deliver training content to meet the particular needs of an organization, identifying and focusing on areas where skill gaps exist and adapting messaging and content to the organization’s culture and goals. 5. Leadership Development. I/O psychologists are uniquely qualified to develop programs and processes that enable participants to build and improve leadership skills. This includes but is not limited to the use and interpretation of personality and skill-based assessments, assessment centers, instruction, role plays, and action learning assignments. 6. Executive Coaching. I/O psychologists serve as seasoned and credentialed professionals who work with individuals and teams to help them learn, grow and change. Coaching engagements may focus on imparting specific skills, addressing performance issues on the job, preparing for and facilitating transitions to higher levels of leadership, or supporting broader changes in individual and group behavior. 7. Performance and Program Metrics. Using a results-oriented approach, I/O psychologists can assess the effectiveness of learning and development programs and track individual learners’ achievements as a result of program participation. Learning and Development Needs: An Example The following is an example of an organization facing learning and development challenges:  The organization had not formally identified the skills and abilities its employees needed to execute its business strategy.  The organization had a variety of training programs that had been developed over the years. None of these were aligned with a framework, a strategy, or each other.  The organization’s training and development budget was being spent on “favorite” programs or fads, often identified by individuals without expertise in the science of learning or development methodology.  Senior leaders in the organization contracted executive coaches individually, often without contract or fee regulation, measurable outcomes, or confirmed business needs.  The organization did not actively measure the impact, effectiveness, or value of its learning and development programs. Learning and Development Needs: The Solution I/O psychologists helped this organization by:  Facilitating a review of its business objectives and determining specific employee knowledge, skills, abilities, and other personal characteristics were essential to achieving them.  Developing a framework that aligned the organization’s values and competency models and served as a guideline to ensure consistency across all learning and development programs.  Identifying and prioritizing the critical skill areas the training budget should target in the upcoming fiscal year.  Establishing criteria for executive coaches, regulating fees, and standardizing contracts with time limits and behavioral outcomes for the coaching engagements.  Partnering with business units, internal and external client groups, and other stakeholders to perform a needs assessment that identified skill gaps and development needs; designing and delivering training and development programs tailored to address those needs.  Establishing relevant metrics for all programs and development processes. Learning and Development Needs: The Results *The results below are an example of potential outcomes using the solution delineated above. This organization benefited by realizing the following results*:  Targeted development resources were available to employees at the right time (i.e., “just-in- time” learning).  Development programs were aligned with appropriate career paths.  Training budgets were streamlined to support essential programs.  Executive coaching engagements were established under a clear set of criteria, timelines, and measurable outcomes; financial investment, participant development, and coaching effectiveness were tracked across the organization.  The perceived and realized value of learning and development programs were demonstrated by using reliable and valid metrics that had meaning to stakeholders. Performance Management Do You Want to Know More About:  Assessing employee performance fairly and accurately?  Motivating employees and teams to perform at their maximum capacity?  Providing effective performance feedback and coaching?  Developing employee performance plans that are aligned with organizational goals? Performance Management Is the Key Well-developed performance management programs benefit organizations by:  Aligning employee performance with the organization's strategic goals.  Ensuring that employees receive fair, consistent, and accurate performance feedback that clearly outlines expectations.  Increasing employee motivation and engagement through developmental coaching and feedback discussions.  Ensuring performance appraisal processes are legally defensible. How Can I/O Psychologists Help? 1. Develop Performance Appraisal Tools. I/O psychologists can analyze jobs and develop performance appraisal tools that ensure all supervisors are calibrated to have the same understanding of how poor, average, and above average performance is identified. 2. Develop Structured Rating Processes. I/O psychologists can develop performance management systems that facilitate ongoing performance monitoring and incentivize regular feedback to employees. 3. Train Performance Raters. I/O psychologists can train performance raters to identify and avoid common ratings biases so that ratings are as fair and accurate as possible. I/O psychologists can also train performance raters on how to provide coaching and feedback to employees in ways that increase motivation and facilitate performance enhancement. 4. Set Performance Objectives. I/O psychologists can set specific performance objectives and goals for employees based on scientific evidence that map to the organizations’ strategic goals and maximize employee motivation. 5. Develop Compensation Systems. I/O psychologists can create and implement compensation systems that are aligned with the organizations’ strategic goals and are supportive of organizational values and culture (e.g., pay-for-performance systems), as well as identify other types of incentives that are valued by employees. 6. Conduct Legal Audits and Provide Expert Witness Testimony. I/O psychologists are uniquely qualified to audit an organization’s performance management program and identify potential legal risks; they can also serve as expert witnesses in performance management cases. 7. Develop and Administer 360 Surveys. I/O psychologists can develop, implement, and coach to 360- degree feedback surveys that provide participants with detailed feedback regarding how their performance is viewed by supervisors, peers, direct reports, and/or clients and customers. Performance Management Needs: An Example The following is an example of an organization facing performance management challenges:  A large retail chain was faced with low employee engagement in stores and declining sales.  The existing annual performance review system for supervisors in stores consisted of three items related to overall performance.  The majority of managers rated their employees as “superior” to maximize the provision of merit pay, which was linked to these ratings.  Cost saving measures in the organization necessitated a new performance review system that accurately defined and tracked performance and rewarded only the highest performers. Performance Management Needs: The Solution I/O psychologists helped this organization by:  Analyzing the store supervisor position and identifying the critical tasks performed on the job.  Interviewing key leaders in the organization to determine the organization’s strategic goals and how the store supervisors’ behavior was tied to those goals.  Developing a performance appraisal process to reward behaviors directly related to the organization’s strategic goals.  Training managers to use the new performance rating process in a consistent and unbiased manner.  Aligning the organization’s compensation system to reward performance directly related to meeting strategic objectives. Performance Management Needs: The Results *The results below are an example of potential outcomes using the solution delineated above. This organization benefited by realizing the following results*:  Sales increased by 30%.  Store-level employee engagement (as rated in an annual employee survey) increased by 40%. The largest increase was on survey items related to finding meaning in one’s work and having a clear understanding of how one’s work affects the organization as a whole.  Turnover decreased by 25%. Succession Planning Do You Want to Know More About:  Reducing recruiting costs by identifying and preparing existing employees for future leadership roles?  Predicting future leadership needs and making plans to meet them?  Which criteria to use when promoting employees from within? Succession Planning Is the Key Succession planning is a process to create and manage the organization’s talent pipeline. Succession planning often includes:  Identifying the key positions in an organization and the competencies and experience criteria they require.  Cultivating a pipeline of high-potential talent from which to select new leadership.  Understanding the competencies and skills currently available within the organization. How Can I/O Psychologists Help? 1. Facilitation. I/O psychologists can facilitate meetings with senior leaders to understand key talent needs and anticipate future organizational challenges. 2. Design & Training. I/O psychologists can design succession planning systems that support organizational goals and educate stakeholders on the process. 3. Consensus Building. I/O psychologists can calibrate the management team on the most critical future leadership needs and identify candidates best positioned to meet those needs. 4. Assessment. I/O psychologists can assess employees’ competencies to identify those with the aptitude or potential as well as the specific knowledge, skills, and abilities to fill key positions within the organization. 5. Development. I/O psychologists can create a development process to prepare individuals for future leadership roles. 6. Selection. I/O psychologists can assist the management team with the final determination of the best candidates for a leadership position. 7. Onboarding and Transitioning. Through action planning and coaching, I/O psychologists can support selected candidates during their transition to the next role. Succession Planning Needs: An Example The following is an example of an organization facing succession planning challenges:  A large transportation corporation faced an aging workforce and a retiring chief executive officer.  The organization expected the retirement of roughly 5% of the workforce, or 600–800 people per year for the next five years.  Executives were unsure how to identify high-potential employees and develop them for leadership roles. Succession Planning Needs: The Solution I/O psychologists helped this organization by:  Facilitating a review of the organization’s business objectives and identifying mission-critical knowledge, skills, and abilities.  Building competency models to outline individual building blocks for success and aid in selection.  Assessing internal and external CEO candidates to replace the retiring CEO and offering insight on which candidate could best fill the role.  Assessing 48 high-potential leaders to fill the anticipated vacancies of the retiring workforce.  Creating a process to develop leaders by moving them within the organization for increased opportunities and cross-functional expertise  Establishing an assessment process to identify employees who would make excellent first- level leaders. Succession Planning Needs: The Results* *The following is an example of potential outcomes based on the approach selected to address the situation This organization benefited by realizing the following results*:  Retention efforts aimed at redirecting skilled workers from their intended retirement yielded a 30 improvement.  Potential successors for all key leadership positions were identified, and development plans to prepare these individuals were created.  Profitability increased through greater efficiency (e.g., shortened ramp-up time) and higher- performing leaders.