November 21-22, 2013, New Delhi
Advanced Technologies and Best Practices for
Supercritical Thermal Power Plants
Partnership to Advance Clean Energy – Deployment (PACE-D)
Technical Assistance Program
Organized in association with
This publication is made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for
International Development (USAID). The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of Nexant, Inc. and do
not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government. This publication was prepared under
Contract Number AID-386-C-12-00001.
The U.S. has a long-standing partnership with India on clean coal technology deployment. The
collaboration continues under the U.S.-India Energy Dialogue with USAID/India's energy programs with
support from the U.S. Department of State.
The bilateral cooperation between USAID/India and Government of India in the area of clean coal
technologies began in 1982 with the Alternative Energy Research and Development program. Since then,
USAID/India has successfully implemented several coal-related programs including the Energy
Management Consultation and Training Program (EMCAT); the Program for Accelerating Commercial
Energy Research (ACER); the Program for Accelerating Commercial Energy Research (PACER); the
Indo-U.S. Coal Preparation Program; and the Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevention (GEP) project.
The Partnership to Advance Clean Energy – Deployment (PACE-D) builds on these previous efforts and
aims to support India's transition to a low carbon emissions economy by deployment and transfer of
innovative energy efficiency, renewable energy and cleaner fossil technologies.
The International Conference on Advanced Technologies and Best Practices for Supercritical Thermal
Plants, organized in partnership with the Indian Ministry of Power (MOP), Central Electricity Authority
(CEA) and the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), focuses on bringing together a variety of
stakeholders to facilitate knowledge exchange on the full range of issues associated with cleaner coal
technologies. Domain experts from the U.S. and India will discuss best practices for improving
performance and reliability of existing supercritical power plants; effective environmental, water and
waste management; and advanced material development for ultra-supercritical technology deployment.
USAID is proud to support Indian counterparts in using cleaner technologies to improve the efficiency and
reliability of coal-fired plants in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This conference can contribute
to broader discussions and help shape the way forward for India to replicate best practices to reduce the
environmental impact of its existing power plants.
I thank the MOP, CEA and NTPC for their support and wish you all the best for a successful conference.
Director, Clean Energy & Environment Office
Director, Clean Energy & Environment Office
It gives me great pleasure to learn that an International Conference on “Advanced Technologies and Best
Practices for Supercritical Thermal Power Plants” is being organized under the GOI and USAID's
Partnership to Advance Clean Energy-Deployment (PACE-D) program in association with NTPC and CEA.
In view of the huge demand for capacity additional at faster rate, it is imperative to add MWs through
supercritical and ultra-supercritical (USC) units to take advantage of the factors of economy, flexibility in
operation, improvement in efficiency and reduction in harmful emissions. However, for optimization and
maturing of the supercritical technology in Indian context, there is need to address various issues related
to high temperature material, startups and shutdowns, variations in coal quality, stringent water
The envisaged coverage of the conference i.e. reliability and best practices for supercritical units,
advanced diagnostic tools, strategy for reduction in boiler tube failures, coal blending, environment
management issue, materials for supercritical and ultra-supercritical units etc are very relevant at this
juncture of time. Many of the above issues are related to subcritical units also.
I am sure that the conference will provide an excellent platform for discussions and interactions with
domain experts and foreign utilities in sharing their knowledge and experience for the benefit of the
I wish this international conference all success.
A. K. Jha
A. K. Jha
Table of Contents
1. Overview of USAID PACE-D TA Program 1
2. Conference Overview 2
3. Speaker Profiles 5
Building on its rich experience and carrying forward its partnership, the U.S. and India signed a
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on November 24, 2009, creating the Partnership to Advance Clean
Energy (PACE) program to enhance cooperation on energy security, energy efficiency, clean energy, and
climate change. PACE, a collaborative effort by different U.S. agencies, has two interlinked components: a
Research Component, known as PACE-R, and a Deployment Component, known as PACE-D.
USAID's PACE-D Technical Assistance (TA) Program, part of the overall PACE-D initiative, aims to
accelerate India's transition to a high performing, low emissions, and energy secure economy. The five
year, USD 20 million program, implemented in collaboration with the Ministry of Power and Ministry of
New and Renewable Energy, focuses on:
• Creating an enabling environment for clean energy deployment,
• Building the capacity of stakeholders to design and implement supportive policies and regulations,
• Creating innovative financial mechanisms and facilitating the financial closure of projects, and
• Designing new clean energy programs for faster and more effective acquisition of clean energy
resources in India.
The overall aim of the PACE-D TA Program is to leave a legacy of a transformed energy economy powered
by lower carbon fuels in India.
Partnership to Advance Clean Energy –
Technical Assistance Program
Please visit the program website www.pace-d.com for more information.
PACE-D Technical Assistance Program
• Smart Grid Electric Systems
• Net-Zero Energy Buildings
• Waste Heat Utilization
• Heating, Ventilation & Air
• Off grid for Commercial
& Rural Energy Access
• Regulatory Partnership
• Apex RE Body
• Heat Rate Improvement
• Heat Rate Alliance
• Best Practices for Supercitical
Renewable Energy Cleaner Fossil Technologies
Cross Cutting Components
Clean Energy Finance | Capacity Building & Training | Institutional Strengthening
The Indian power sector has witnessed significant growth in the last decade. The country currently has an
installed capacity of more than 229 GW of power. Of this, nearly 59 percent (135 GW) is fueled by coal.
An additional 71 GW of electrical power generation is planned in the next five years, of which 68 GW will
come from coal-based plants.
With coal expected to remain the lead source of power in India in the coming years, it is critical to focus
on measures that will help mitigate environmental impacts, optimize coal blending, ensure effective use
of waste heat and water, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The international conference on “Advanced Technologies and Best Practices for Supercritical Thermal
Power Plants” organized by the USAID and Ministry of Power's PACE-D TA Program aims to serve as a
knowledge sharing platform for the supercritical technologies. The conference, organized in association
with NTPC and CEA, provides a networking opportunity for participants to interact with their peers,
industry players, policy makers, academia, etc. and collaborate for technology transfer and business
National and international speakers will share best O&M practices for sustainable performance
improvements, coal blending and state-of-the-art technologies for supercritical units. Discussions will also
focus on better management of waste heat and water; and materials for advanced supercritical units.
Agenda at a Glance
Day 1: November 21, 2013
9:00am onwards Registration
9.30 am - 11:00 am Inaugural Session
11:00 am - 11:15 am Tea Break
11:15 am - 1:00 pm Technical Session 1: Supercritical Power Plants - Evolution and Current
1:00 pm - 2:00 pm Lunch
2:00 pm - 4:00 pm Technical Session 2: Supercritical Technology O&M Practices & Systems for
Sustainable Improvement (I)
4:00 pm - 4:15 pm Tea Break
4:15 pm - 5:45 pm Technical Session 3: Supercritical Technology O&M Practices & Systems for
Sustainable Improvement (II)
Day 2: November 22, 2013
9:00 am onwards
9.30 am - 11:00 am Technical Session 4: Environment Management
11:00 am - 11:15 am Tea Break
11:15 am - 1:00 pm Technical Session 5: Advanced Supercritical & Ultra-Supercritical Plants
1:00 pm - 2:00 pm Lunch
2:00 pm - 3:00 pm Technical Session 6: Materials for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Plants
3:00 pm - 4:00 pm Panel Discussion and Conclusion: Future of Supercritical and Ultra
Supercritical Technologies in India and Challenges to Overcome.
4:00 pm - 4:30 pm Valedictory Session
A. K. Jha is currently serving as Director (Technical), NTPC and is responsible for the engineering division,
R&D activities, IT/ERP support and sustainability development function of NTPC. He is also responsible for
concept to complete engineering of NTPC power projects including thermal, hydro, and renewable and
captive coal mining blocks allocated to NTPC.
He is Board member in International Electric Research Exchange (IERE) where NTPC is executive member
and member in Excellence Enhancement Centre (EEC) - an initiative of Indo-German Energy Co-operation.
Mr. Jha has served as Regional Executive Director (North) where he was responsible for entire portfolio
management - four generating stations (5490 MW), two ongoing projects (1008 MW) and four upcoming
new projects (4460 MW) of NTPC. As Executive Director (Project Planning and Monitoring) he managed
the planning and monitoring of the entire portfolio of NTPC's capacity addition program.
He is a graduate in Mechanical Engineering from BIT Sindri, Ranchi University and has done LLB from
A. K. Jha
Director – Technical
Dr. Keith Burnard was appointed as Senior Energy Analyst at the International Energy Agency (IEA) in
Prior to joining the IEA, he enjoyed spells with British Coal, ABB, EPRI and AEA Technology. Dr. Burnard has
spent much of his career working on energy and climate change technology and policy issues, focusing on
fossil fuels and power generation. More recently, he spent some time producing a book on upstream
technologies relating to the production of oil, gas and coal. He has extensive international experience and
has worked in both the public and the private sectors.
Dr. Burnard is a Chartered Engineer. He holds a PhD and MSc from Bristol University and a BSc with
Honours from Liverpool University.
Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Generation: An IEA Perspective
Over the past decade, fossil fuels, and particularly coal, have satisfied the major share of the incremental
growth in primary energy demand. Coal reserves are abundant and widely dispersed, and present a
relatively low-cost energy resource that is used extensively around the world. However, the growing
reliance on coal to meet the rising demand for energy presents a major threat to a low-carbon future. The
average efficiency of the global coal-fired fleet is low. Almost two-thirds of coal demand in the energy
sector is for electricity generation. Very large quantities of coal are combusted to produce 40 percent of the
world's electricity. As consumption rises, so do the levels of both greenhouse and non-greenhouse gases.
Collectively, the large number of coal-fired power generation units around the world hold potential to make
a substantial contribution to a low-carbon future. As large point sources of CO emissions, concerted
efforts to improve their efficiency can significantly reduce coal consumption and lower emissions. Strong
policy drivers will be needed to achieve these goals and to encourage the development and deployment of
This presentation will discuss how high-efficiency, low-emissions coal technologies can contribute to
reducing the growing emissions of CO from coal-fired power generation. It will look at the potential for
deployment of supercritical and ultra-supercritical technologies.
Dr. Keith Burnard
Head, Energy Supply Technology Unit
Energy Policy and Technology Division
International Energy Agency, Paris
Dr. J.P. Shingledecker
Electric Power Research Institute
John Shingledecker is a Senior Project Manager in the Materials & Chemistry research area of the Electric
Power Research Institute (EPRI). He is the leader of EPRI's Program 87, Fossil Materials and Repair.
Dr. Shingledecker is a technical leader for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/Ohio Coal Development
Office Advanced Ultra-supercritical Steam Boiler and Turbine Consortia. He also is a member of the
American Society for Materials and a committee member of the American Society for Mechanical
Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Section II – Materials).
Dr. Shingledecker joined EPRI in 2008 after six years in the Mechanical Properties & Mechanics Group,
Materials Science & Technology Division, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).
He holds bachelors and masters degrees in materials science and engineering from Michigan
Technological University and a PhD in materials science and engineering from the University of Tennessee
The historical evolution of increased power plant efficiency through increasing steam temperature
and pressure was initially led by the U.S. and the operation of the world's first supercritical (SC)
power plants in the 1950 -1960s. Despite these early technological achievements, the majority of the
U.S. fleet remained subcritical until newer larger supercritical plants were introduced through the
1970s and 80s.
As older coal-fired plants have been retired in the U.S., a small number (approximately 13 GW) of new
supercritical units have been built from 2007 to 2013. In this presentation, a brief overview of the
history of supercritical steampower plants will be addressed along with details on the successes and
challenges faced by the new supercritical power plants in the U.S.
II. Materials Technology to Enable High-Efficiency Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Steam Power
The U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Fossil Energy and the Ohio Coal Development
Office (OCDO) have been the primary supporters of a U.S. effort to develop the materials technology
necessary to build and operate an advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) steam boiler and turbine with
steam temperatures up to 760°C (1400°F). Over 10 years, the program has conducted extensive
laboratory testing, shop fabrication studies, field corrosion tests, and design studies.
This presentation will present some of the key consortium successes and ongoing materials research
in light of the next steps being developed to realize A-USC technology in the U.S.
Reliability of Supercritical Power Plants – U.S. Experience
Vinay Nagpal is a mechanical engineer with education in Bombay, India and Boston, U.S. He has over 40
years of experience in the energy industry including power generation by thermal power plants.
Mr. Nagpal's early years were with Babcock and Wilcox USA, in the thermo-hydraulic design of nuclear
power steam generators and heat exchangers, fossil fired drum and once-thru boilers, steam-water
separators and auxiliary equipment such as air heaters. Since the mid 1970s, his focus has been the
design and technology for severe service valves associated with the subcritical and supercritical boilers.
Valves for Turbine Bypass, Boiler Startup, Feed Pump Recirculation, and Steam Attemperation are part of
the severe service applications. In this role, he has worked with and visited hundreds of power generating
plants globally, inclusive of the U.S., China, India, Europe, Mid-east and Africa.
He holds a Bachelor's degree (B. Tech.) from IIT-Bombay and a Master's degree (M.S.) from
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), both in Mechanical Engineering.
Start-up & Shut-down of Supercritical Power Plants - Problems & Strategies
Since the advent of the once-thru boilers, many flow circuit and controls strategies have been deployed for
ensuring steam conditions at the turbine inlet are acceptable under the startup conditions.
The presentation briefly outlines some of these under use in the current global installed fleet of the
supercritical boilers, the severe service valve applications to achieve these, the problems with such valves
as experienced by the users and the current best available practices to improve reliability, maintainability
and heat rate.
The startup control valves, including the turbine bypasses in the modern plants, are exposed to high
pressure drop conditions under modulation. This high pressure drop combined with the fluid process
conditions and the typically selected valve designs result in symptoms of high noise, vibration, poor
control including trips, subsequent low reliability, high maintenance and big invisible heat losses after the
unit is on line.
Commonly, startup valves still use technologies that go way back to 1950s and 1960s. Modern severe
service valve designs, control technologies along with improved piping layout practices can substantially
enhance the plant performance.
Global Valve Solutions
D. K. Dubey is currently serving as General Manager, NTPC and is focused on engineering of steam
generators, water systems, etc. He is also involved in handling various climate change and low carbon
Mr. Dubey joined NTPC in 1981 as an executive trainee and has worked in different disciplines of
engineering, specifically in the field of steam generators. He has also led the engineering department of
NTPC in its western region headquarters.
He is a graduate in Mechanical Engineering and has done MBA in finance.
General Manager (Engineering)
S.N. Ganguly is presently Executive Director (Operation Services), NTPC and is responsible for providing
leadership in operation and maintenance (O&M) to the fleet of over 40000 MW.
Mr. Ganguly joined NTPC in 1979 as an executive trainee and has worked in different areas of O&M of
thermal power plants in various capacities. He has provided excellent leadership as Head of the Station at
Dadri and Vindhyachal and Regional Head at Western Region-I, the largest region in NTPC.
He is a graduate in Mechanical Engineering from Burdwan University, West Bengal. Mr. Ganguly has also
done Advanced Management Programs at Administrative Staff College of India – Hyderabad and IIM-
Bangalore, Fast Track Management program at IIM-Ahmedabad, Leadership Development Programs at
Greenfield, UK and Houston, U.S.
Pradeep Jain has four year experience in O&M, Water Chemistry at Thermal Power plants, Satpura and
Korba (MPEB) from 1982-86. He joined NTPC (R&D) in 1986 and has 26 years of work experience in the
field of water chemistry and corrosion studies in High Pressure Boilers, Turbines and Generators of power
He has specialized in the field of corrosion related problems in power plants, metallurgical related failure
investigations and post-operational chemical cleaning of high-pressure boilers and condensers. Mr. Jain
has carried out solvent selection studies and supervised post-operational chemical cleaning of 53 numbers
of NTPC and 12 numbers of State Electricity Boilers and improved the heat transfer efficiency and heat
rate in the range of 15-25 Kcal/kwh.
He has published research papers in national and international journals and filed two patents for void
fraction measurement techniques.
A. K. Arora is working for 'Centre for Power Efficiency & Environmental Protection' (CenPEEP), NTPC Ltd.
as Addl. General Manager.
He is a mechanical engineer, currently working in the area of performance assessment, testing, analysis
and optimization. He has prior experience in operation and commissioning of 200/500 MW units and has
been actively involved in various diagnostic studies, technology demonstrations and performance
improvement initiatives in NTPC and State Utility stations.
Oxygenated Boiler Water Treatment – A Key to Success in Supercritical Boilers
At present, all volatile treatment (AVT) is applied in boiler and feed water treatment to minimize the
corrosion and reduction of tube failure in subcritical boilers. Oxygenated treatment (OT) is a type of feed
water treatment which is used to further minimize the corrosion in water steam cycle of supercritical
boilers. In OT, high purity oxygen gas is injected at condensate polishing unit outlet and Deaerator outlet.
OT treatment favors the conversion of black colour magnetite (Fe3O4) to brown colour hematite (Fe2O3)
that blocks the pores in the protective magnetite layer and lowers the migration of iron. Injection of
oxygen is controlled automatically by condensate water flow and feed water dissolve oxygen. The major
benefits of the OT are to increase the operating capacity of Condensate Polishing Units (CPU), reduction in
DM water makeup, chemical cost and flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the system.
This presentation will cover the highlights of conversion of AVT to OT treatment guidelines, operation and
control philosophy and benefits of oxygenated treatment observed in supercritical units.
A. K. Arora
Additional General Manager
Stephen Storm is the owner and principal of Stephen Storm, Inc. (SSI) and SX POWERTECH, LLC (a
subsidiary of SSI). Having vast experiences with evaluating combustion, performance and efficiency
opportunities on large utility and industrial steam generators, Mr. Storm has the experience of personally
conducting, leading and managing comprehensive performance improvement programs over the past two
Mr. Storm has been working in India over many years supporting the U.S. Agency for International
Development (USAID) and the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and private utilities on combustion
optimization, performance enhancement and efficiency training programs. The projects have taken him
across the country to several utilities and including projects with NTPC, PSEB, WBPDCL, TNEB, HPGCL,
MSEB, TATA and LANCO. Mr. Storm has also led various multi-phased performance optimization and
efficiency training programs, promoting best practices for operation and maintenance of existing fleet and
future coal fired generating plants.
He is a graduate of Pfeiffer University, Veteran with the United States Coast Guard, member of the ASME,
has served on ASME code committees and is a Certified Energy Manager through the Association of Energy
Combustion and Boiler Performance Optimization Best Practices
There are many factors that influence supercritical boiler performance. Unit design and fuel quality have by
far the major influence on unit performance. However, plant operations, load response, reliability, and
capacity are all inter-related and influence the boiler performance. Thus, any approach to optimization should
be comprehensive in nature, taking into account mechanical adjustments of the firing systems, fuel quality,
boiler cleanliness, airflow measurement, furnace oxygen control and other factors. In an effort to identify
stealth or “hidden” performance issues, a holistic program must be in organized with the various plant
departments committed to achieve and preserve overall plant performance. It is also important to have the
top management's commitment to clearly define the targets, division of responsibility and a monitoring
protocol to ensure success of the efficiency improvement program that is a continuous process.
With a shortage of domestic coals and newly enacted environmental regulations, Indian power plants must
perform well today, or suffer the consequences of increased fuel costs, poor reliability and reduced
generating capability. During plant operations, thermal energy is lost out of the plant's stack, rejected to the
cooling tower and/or used by the plant auxiliary equipment. Thus, an effective boiler performance program
encompasses all these equipment and a deeper understanding of how they are performing during the
operation of the unit.
The intent of this presentation is to provide an overview of how proven and “best practices” have been
utilized for comprehensive management of the combustion and boiler performance.
Stephen Storm Inc.
Warren Ashton is retired from American Electric power (AEP) with 37 years of experience with
supercritical power plants. He is a licensed Professional Engineer with a bachelor of engineering from
Virginia Tech and an Executive MBA from West Virginia University. He is currently principal of Ashton
Consulting Services, LLC.
Mr. Ashton has 26 years of experience involved on-site operation and maintenance of supercritical power
plants. He has led departments responsible for controls and for operations in addition to holding the
position of assistant plant manager at a plant with a 1300MW unit. During his tenure at this plant the 1300
MW supercritical unit completed a world record 607 days of continuous operation. Mr. Ashton's field
experience also included positions integral to the initial startup of a 630 MW supercritical unit and two
1300 MW supercritical units.
He also has vast experience with projects and troubleshooting equipment at both subcritical and
supercritical plants. Projects include AEP Alarm Management Review Team, EPRI fleetwide monitoring
(APR), AEP heat rate team, boiler feed pump reliability study, cooling tower fouling, unit cycling cost study,
minimum load optimization, and unit load response.
O&M Best Practices at American Electric Power
Operating a reliable, efficient world class supercritical unit requires effective O&M practices. AEP has
effectively maintained reliability and efficiency on a fleet with units over 40 years old. This requires an
effective structure and practices that adapt technological advances to the operation and maintenance of
the plant. This presentation will summarize work performed in developing a 'Best Practices Manual for
Indian Supercritical Plants' under the PACE-D TA Program, in cooperation with NTPC. It will focus on best
practices for startup, water chemistry and turbine cycle performance respectively.
Startup and shutdown is one of the most complex operations performed within the power plant, and
supercritical technology significantly increases the complexity of this phase of operation. Similarly, water
chemistry is a fundamental building block to reliability and efficiency. Poor water chemistry has resulted in
catastrophic boiler and turbine failures, and furthermore the importance of water purity is multiplied when
operating supercritical units.
Optimizing Turbine cycle performance in a supercritical unit requires implementing best practices of both
the turbine and all its associated equipment.
Adopting a structure that fosters continuous improvement and implementing the best practices outlined in
this manual will promote reliable efficient operation of the power generating facility.
Ashton Consulting Services, LLC.
Brian Weisker is a graduate of the United States Naval Academy with a Bachelor of Science in Aerospace
Engineering. He is also a graduate of the United States Navy Nuclear Power Program and has served for
several years as an officer onboard the fast-attack submarines USS Tucson, USS Scranton, and USS
Mr. Weisker is a graduate of Tulane University's A.B. Freeman School of Business with a Masters of
Business Administration. After leaving the military service, he served in several corporate and plant roles
with Cinergy Corporation prior to the 2006 merger with Duke Energy. He served as the plant manager at
East Bend Station from 2006-2010, Allen Station from 2010-2012, and is now working at the Marshall
I. Marshall Station: 40 Years of Efficient Operation
Marshal Steam Station is located on Lake Norman approximately 30 miles north of Charlotte, North
Carolina. Unit 1 began commercial operations in 1965, Unit 2 in 1966, Unit 3 in 1969, and Unit 4 in
1970. Marshall Steam Station Units 1 & 2 are 400 MW drum units, and Marshall Units 3 & 4 are 700
MW supercritical units. Marshall has consistently been recognized throughout the utility industry in
the United States for its efficient operations.
This presentation will review the historical efficiency of Marshall Steam Station. An in-depth review
of two significant design characteristics – a skimmer wall designed to provide low temperature
cooling water to each unit and a forced draft air inlet plenum – is included in this presentation.
II. Cliffside Station Environmental Technology
Cliffside Steam Station is located approximately 60 miles west of Charlotte, North Carolina. The
Cliffside Modernization Project consisted of retiring Units 1-4, adding a new wet FGD for Unit 5, and
adding the new Unit 6. Permitting and design/procurement began in the 2005-2006 timeframe.
Commercial Operation began in December 2012.
This presentation will review the equipment installed for the AQCS system installed on Cliffside Unit
6 (Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), Spray-Dry Absorber, Fabric Filter Bag-house, and Flue Gas
De-Sulfurization (FGD) systems) and the system performance to date.
Brian R. Weisker
Station Manager, Marshall Steam Station
Radha Krishnan has more than 37 years of technical and project management support in fossil fuel power
generation and clean coal technologies in domestic and international settings. His areas of expertise
include fluidized bed combustion (FBC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), coal pyrolysis and
gasification, coal liquefaction, fossil plant operations, maintenance and condition assessment,
environmental emissions monitoring and control from fossil plants, efficiency improvement of coal-fired
power plants, and the utilization of coal combustion by-products.
Dr. Krishnan has served as the technical advisor and coordinator for several collaborative projects in the
Indian power sector funded by the USAID, and implemented through the U.S. Department of Energy's
(DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).
Dr. Krishnan has authored/co-authored over 100 technical articles, reports and presentations in the fields
of energy, environmental and power generation technologies, contributed a chapter on “Estimating
Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycle (from mining to utilization) on coal technologies and emissions” led by the
European Commission and USDOE, coauthored a chapter in Fluidization and a chapter on Water Quality
Stream Modeling in the book Scientific Stream Pollution Analysis.
He has doctorate degree in Chemical Engineering from Kansas State University.
Cleaner Fossil Technologies Consultant
PACE-D TA Program
Patrick Abbott's expertise is in mechanical engineering and innovation. He has worked in the Power
Production Industry for 37 years. He currently leads P&RO Solutions Engineering Division. He spent five
years with Commonwealth Edison and 15 years with Florida Power Corporation in both Nuclear and Fossil
Generation Management & Engineering.
Mr. Abbott began work in 1995 with EPRI at the EPRI Maintenance & Diagnostic Center. In 1998, he, in
conjunction with a team of international experts, pioneered EPRI's Heat Exchanger Reliability Optimization
Program. He has produced several industry publications and continues work at the leading edge of power
plant and T&D operations, maintenance and performance optimization.
Mr. Abbott has a Bachelor of Science, Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University and Master of Business
Administration, Nova Southeastern University. He is also a certified maintenance and reliability
“Best Practices” for Work Process Management and Boiler Reliability
Boiler pressure parts and auxiliaries, still remain the major cause of Unit outages. To sustain the reliability,
efficiency and safety of both current and new fossil power generation plants, a team of U.S. experts,
working with a consortium of experts from Cen PEEP/NTPC and through USAID's Partnership to Advance
Clean Energy-Deployment (PACE-D) program, has produced the “Best Practices Manual for Indian
Supercritical Plants”. This paper highlights “best practices” from two chapters of the manual: Chapter 8
“Work Process Management for Improved Availability” and Chapter 9 “Addressing Boiler Reliability.”
Examples are provided in each chapter using Targeted Boiler Management “best practice” elements and
attributes to provide the reader with understanding.
Chapter 8 establishes the status of the management support systems in general, but specifically focuses
on Targeted Boiler Management work processes and practices that are needed to monitor and act
proactively to protect boiler pressure part failure. Industrial“Best Practices” focusing on bench marking the
data sources, the work processes used and the organizational structure for managing the data/information
collection are provided for consideration
Chapter 9 deals with the development of a Boiler Monitoring, Diagnostic and Inspection Plans, using hybrid
methods, that target damage mechanisms and, through resolving their associated root-causes, eliminate
them to prevent tube and header damage. The chapter describes a strategy that utilizes two plans: one for
the boiler in-service and the other with the boiler out-of-service. Each uniquely integrates “best practices”
in pressure part inspection, condition monitoring, diagnostic schemes for a particular boiler that make best
use of operations, engineering and maintenance staff. In addition, topics from”best practices” in root-
cause analysis technique and risk-based methods and decision making processes are described in detail.
Gregory Tanck is in Power Generation Services within Black & Veatch (B&V) Energy. Mr. Tanck's current
role is to establish a Remote Monitoring and Diagnostics Center in Pune, India which is responsible for
monitoring Power Generation and other process facilities to detect and diagnose emerging performance
and maintenance issues. The M&D Center coordinates with the U.S. based M&D Center to provide
extended hours coverage to clients around the world.
Mr. Tanck is also responsible for building a team to meet the needs of Power Generation clients in the
greater South Asia region. Services supported by the Pune, India office include remote monitoring and
diagnostics, plant performance improvement services, fuels management, and reliability consulting.
Previously, Mr. Tanck specialized in combustion optimization and held the lead role in the successful
implementation of integrated neural net based combustion optimization software. Mr. Tanck also has
extensive experience with power plant performance modeling and in executing performance audits.
Performance & Optimization Engineer
Black & Veatch
Ron Griebenow has over 30 year experience in power plant performance and operations training for the
electric power industry. He is a Director in the Energy Services Division of GP Strategies Corporation,
which he joined in 2008 through the acquisition of Performance Consulting Services, Inc. Mr. Griebenow
was the President and co-founder of PCS, which specialized in engineering support, training, and software
products directed toward increasing plant performance and availability, optimizing manpower usage, and
reducing overall operating costs. In addition to his management and business development
responsibilities for PCS, he spent eight years on contract to the Electric Power Research Institute as the
Director of EPRI's Fossil Plant Simulator and Training Center. He is a member of the ASME, a member of
ASME's Committee for Certification of Operators of High Capacity Fossil Fuel Fired Plants, and a member
of ASME PTC 101 (Plant Performance Related Outage Inspections) and PTC 102 (Plant Performance
Related Operating Walkdowns).
Mr. Griebenow is a registered Professional Engineer in the state of South Carolina and holds a B.S. in
Mechanical Engineering from University of Idaho.
Application of Advanced Diagnostic Techniques for Plant Performance and Availability Improvement
First Energy Corporation has recently selected and installed first principles thermodynamic models and
empirical, advanced-pattern recognition-based models to monitor and predict the capacity, efficiency and
condition of the units, systems and equipment in their 16 unit/7 site fleet of coal-fired supercritical power
plants. This single software platform will be used at both the plants and at the new Information Diagnostic
Evaluation and Analysis (IDEA) Center to continually improve the reliability, availability and efficiency of
these power stations.
First principles power plant thermodynamic models are developed for verifying plant design, establishing
performance benchmarks, and evaluating current operating data and in many cases conducting
performance tests. These models are then used to determine the cost of off-design operation, identify
load limiting factors, and quantify the effects of degradation of key plant equipment.
This presentation will provide an overview of the technologies utilized and present several case studies
identifying the problems/issues identified by the system and FirstEnergy diagnostic team(s) and
quantifying the benefits to FirstEnergy.
Director of Energy Services
GP Strategies, Inc.
Dick Edwards is the Officer-in-Charge of USAID/India's Partnership to Advance Clean Energy – Deployment
(PACE-D) project, a USD 20 million, five year project to scale up the use of energy efficiency and
renewable energy technologies and expand clean energy finance across India. A Vice President in Nexant,
Inc.'s Government Consulting division, Mr. Edwards provides global leadership for international technical
assistance programs for sustainable development, including climate change, energy efficiency, demand
side management, renewable energy, clean coal, and energy policy.
Recent consulting assignments (2008-2013) have included serving as team leader and principal author for
an Energy Sector and Strategic Program Assessment for USAID/Indonesia, co-author of a Political
Economy Analysis of South Asia for USAID's South Asia Regional Initiative for Energy program, Team
Leader for a performance evaluation of four USAID-funded climate change programs in China, Officer-in-
Charge for USAID-funded Powering Progress Project to develop the enabling environment for the East
African electricity market (Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Egypt, Sudan and Libya)
and Team Leader for a USAID assessment and program design to decrease the use of charcoal in post-
Mr. Edwards joined Nexant, Inc. in 2008 following a career as a Foreign Service Officer with the U.S.
Agency for International Development, where he led energy and environment programs in Morocco, India,
Egypt and Sri Lanka.
Sarajit Sen graduated as a Mechanical Engineer in 1980 from NIT, Durgapur and joined ACC Babcock Ltd
as a graduate trainee. He has had 17 years of boiler engineering, commissioning and plant O&M
experience in India, China, Zimbabwe and United Kingdom with Babcock in India and UK before he took up
positions in business operations within the group.
Prior to taking up his present position as Managing Director, Power Service business of Doosan Power
Systems India Pvt. Ltd., Mr. Sen was based in the European headquarter of Doosan Babcock's Service
Operation in the UK, responsible for sales and business development of the aftermarket business in UK
Doosan Power Systems India Ltd.
Kenneth Hennon has almost 30 years experience in the execution and management of performance
testing and related services. His responsibilities include office financial performance, personnel and
resource scheduling, subcontractor and client relationships, purchase order acceptance, and project
budgeting for field service groups conducting thermal performance and emissions testing, analysis, and
consulting for power plant systems and components.
Mr. Hennon is an active participant in numerous test code writing committees. He currently serves as the
vice-chairman of the Cooling Technology Institute's (CTI) “Performance and Technology” committee which
has purview over all of the CTI performance test codes. He also chairs the CTI ATC-140 Drift Test code
committee and is a voting member of the CTI ATC-105 Thermal Test Code, CTI Plume Abatement Test
Code, ASME PTC-23 (Atmospheric Water Cooling Equipment), ASME PTC-30 (Air Cooled Heat
Exchangers) and ASME PTC-51 (Gas Turbine Inlet Conditioning) code committees.
Prior to coming to CleanAir, Mr. Hennon was the Operations Manager-Technical Manager II for Power
Generation Technologies (PGT), a division of ESC. His responsibilities included division financial
performance for the business unit conducting performance testing and analysis of power plants and plant
Heat Rejection Cycle Analysis: A Means to Recover Lost Megawatts and Reduce Greenhouse Gas
The major components of a typical heat rejection cycle consist of a cooling tower, condenser, and
circulating water pumps. The performance of all three components is critical to the plant efficiency and
availability - especially in the summer months when these systems are stressed and a premium is paid for
generation. Increased heat rate associated with underperforming components at fossil fueled plants
results in a corresponding increase in greenhouse gas emissions.
Plants that have underperforming heat rejection systems pay a year-round price in heat rate. Plants with a
fixed heat input (combined cycle or nuclear) experience a loss in net plant capacity. Often the heat
rejection cycle does not receive any scrutiny in the plant until backpressure limitations cause summertime
curtailment. The major components of the heat rejection cycle often slowly degrade over time and their
impact to plant heat rate is overlooked until catastrophic failure occurs or plant generation is curtailed to
avoid a backpressure limitation trip.
This presentation discusses the advantages of looking systematically at the heat rejection cycle and
presents case studies comparing component impact on turbine backpressure.
Kenneth W. Hennon
Sr. Vice President
Clean Air Engineering
Manjit Singh is currently serving as Member (Thermal, Central Electricity Authority (CEA). His focus is on
the design, construction and maintenance of thermal generating units in India.
Mr. Singh has over 36 years of experience in CEA in various areas of engineering. He has been actively
associated in system and operational planning, commerce, protection and performance of electric power
systems comprising thermal, gas, hydro and nuclear generation in India on national and regional basis. His
focus has particularly been in the Western and North Eastern regions; and inter-connected operations with
the neighboring regional grids - Northern, Southern and Eastern.
Mr. Singh has done M.Sc in Engineering and belongs to Central Power Engineering Service of 1975 batch
Central Electricity Authority
Ram Narula has over 52 years of experience in design, procurement and construction of conventional power
generation (coal, nuclear, combined cycle and gasification) and alternative energy projects.
Mr. Narula started his profession career in 1962 with BHEL and after serving for eight years immigrated to
the U.S.A. He worked for Bechtel Power Corporations for almost 40 years in various positions of increasing
responsibility with the last ten as their Principal Vice President and Chief Technology Officer. At Bechtel his
main responsibilities included project development, new technology risk assessment and mitigation and
establishing plant performance guarantees. He championed innovation and technical excellence and
provided functional oversight of over 150 distinguished engineers and scientists.
He was elected as Bechtel Fellow for his contribution to Bechtel and the Engineering profession. He served
as the chairman of Bechtel Fellows company's brain trust and advisory body to the Bechtel Board
Mr. Narula is also an ASME Fellow, served on ASME C&S Board for eight years and is a recipient of Edison
Electric Institute's Prime Movers Award. He has served as a member of National Coal Council, an advisory
body to the U.S. Secretary of Energy for the last 13 years. Ram retired from active service in 2011 and is
currently serving on Boards, Advisory Boards or as a senior advisor for six companies.
He has a BS in Mechanical, MS in Nuclear and an MBA. He has published over 110 papers, including a book
chapter on Supercritical Power Plant Technology and has one patent to his credit.
Status of Global Advanced Ultra supercritical Power plant programs
While the shale gas boom and low gas price in the U.S. are making all the headlines, significant
breakthrough and progress in the development of nickel based super alloys to commercialize the Advanced
Ultra supercritical (A-USC) has largely gone un-noticed in the popular press. Five major A-USC programs are
underway in the world (namely in Europe, U.S., Japan, China and India) to raise the steam temperature to
as high as 700-760C and thereby raise the power plant thermal efficiency to approaching 50 percent HHV.
While all these programs are aimed at significantly reducing CO emissions from a coal fired power plant,
an additional benefit from reduced coal consumption per unit of electricity in China and India is to relieve
their overburdened coal transportation infrastructure.
The presentation will detail the progress made to date and challenges being addressed in each of these
programs in developing new materials of construction for the boiler and steam turbine components though
component testing programs either completed, underway or contemplated.
Narula Energy and Environment Consultants
Bob Purgert, President of Energy Industries of Ohio, is a native Ohioan who began his career at Wright
Patterson Air Force Base negotiating and administering contracts for the Air Force Materials Laboratory.
Mr. Purgert returned to his hometown of Cleveland and headed the Procurement Operations Branch at
NASA's-Glenn Research Center. During his tenure Mr. Purgert was responsible for overseeing contracting
policy and procedures for energy, propulsion and space launch vehicle programs.
He joined the private sector where he worked at area defense contractors. These included Cleveland
Pneumatic Landing Gear, Physics International Co., and Thompson Casting Company. He has written and
had a number of technical articles published including “The need for Government/Industry Partnerships”.
He has participated at many international conferences and presented papers in Europe and at India's Indira
Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research.
Mr. Purgert was a driving force for creating Energy Industries of Ohio to aid Ohio's basic energy intensive
industries to successfully compete for federal technology dollars. His organization continues to work with
these industries and also the base-load power generation sector by overseeing major programs for clean
coal technologies and next generation nuclear systems.
Robert M. Purgert
Energy Industries of Ohio
John L. Marion is the Director of Technology and R&D Execution for ALSTOM Power's Boiler Businesses,
responsible for R&D worldwide.
Mr. Marion has a broad technical background in boilers and power, with an early career focus on
combustion systems, emissions control, and numerical modeling. He has held leadership positions in
R&D, Engineering, Strategic Planning, and Business Development.
Mr. Marion has an MBA from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1996), and a B.S. (1980) and a M.S. (1981)
degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Massachusetts.
State-of-the-Art Ultra-Supercritical (USC) and Readiness for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Steam
In its World Energy Outlook, the IEA estimates that long-term world power generation installed base and
electricity production will increase by 73 percent by 2030. In this reference scenario, fossil fuels represent
the major share of power generation with slightly more than two thirds of the electricity generated in
2030 from coal, oil, or gas. India is a significant contributor to this global growth and its society a
beneficiary of this development. The demands on scarce resources and the impacts to the environment
(solid, liquid, gaseous emissions including CO ) will be coincident with this increase in fossil power
generation. To address such demands, improvements in generation efficiency are a “no-regrets” action
which reduces demands and the potential impacts.
Improvement to generation efficiency has been steady over the history of the power generation industry
and shall continue with all methodologies exploited. In the case of the steam power plant, this will
include reduction of stack losses, improved combustion, coal drying, advanced controls, reduction in
auxiliary power demands, improved steam turbine aerodynamics, flue gas heat recovery and other
measures, as well as increases to the underlying thermodynamic cycle by increases in steam temperature
and pressure. Today, new units built are mostly supercritical (SC) and ultra-super critical (USC), and the
future outlook is to plants with advanced ultra-supercritical (AUSC) conditions.
This presentation will discuss the latest ultra-supercritical and the way forward for a advanced ultra-
supercritical steam power plants.
John L. Marion
Director Technology and R&D
Paul Weitzel is employed as a Technical Consultant in New Product Development, Advanced Technology
Design and Development, Technology Division, Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group at Barberton,
Ohio. His involvement with B&W spans 45 years, beginning as a Field Service Engineer at Kansas
City/Denver starting up boiler equipment and is currently responsible for the Advanced Ultra Supercritical
steam generator product development.
Early in his career, on a leave of absence, he served in the U.S. Navy as an Engineering Duty Officer aboard
the USS Midway as Assistant Boilers Officer, as an Engineering Officer of the Watch Underway, and at
Hunters Point Naval Shipyard San Francisco as a Ship Superintendent for repair and overhauls, primarily for
the main propulsion plants - always on ships with B&W boilers. Primary assignments with B&W have been
in engineering and service roles with a technical interest in thermodynamics, fluid dynamics and heat
transfer supporting performance and design of steam generators. He was the performance design engineer
for the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustion steam generator and for circulation design of the
Millmerran (Australia) spiral once through supercritical steam generators. He has held positions as Technical
Services Manager Field Service and Engineering Services Manager Technology.
Mr. Weitzel has done BS Mechanical Engineering from the University of Missouri – Rolla.
Advanced Technologies & Best Practices for Supercritical Thermal Power Plants - Babcock & Wilcox
Company Steam Generators for USC (600C) and AUSC (760C) Steam Conditions
Increasing the efficiency of the Rankine regenerative-reheat steam cycle to improve the economics of
electric power generation and to achieve lower cost of electricity has been a long sought after goal. Coal
fired Ultra Supercritical (USC) at 600C is the current state-of-the-art. Advanced Ultra-Supercritical (A-USC)
development for materials to reach 760C (1400F) is a goal in the next step of development to reduce
environmental impact. The efficiency improvement of 700C plus operation over a 600C power plant results
in about an 11 percent plus reduction in fuel consumed and carbon dioxide emission. The reduced flue gas
weight per MW generated reduces cleanup costs for the lower sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and
particulate. The fuel handling infrastructure and transportation impact costs are also reduced.
The operation and startup of the 700C plant will be similar in control methods and techniques to a 600C
plant. Because of the expense of nickel alloy components, how the steam generator is configured and
arranged in the plant relative to the steam turbine, will be a strong economic force for changes from the
conventional layout arrangement. Due to arrangement features, the steam temperature control range and
the once through minimum circulation will be slightly different.
This presentation will focus on improving the efficiency for coal-fired power generation technology.
Paul S. Weitzel
Technical Consultant and Team Leader
Dr. T. Jayakumar
T. Jayakumar serves as the Director, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic
Research (IGCAR), Department of Atomic Energy. He is also Professor and Dean (Engineering Sciences at
IGCAR), Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI).
Mr. Jayakumar has developed high temperature materials and manufacturing technologies for sodium cooled
fast breeder reactors and advanced ultrasuper critical technology and assessed the structural integrity and
life extension of engineering components and systems. He has also been involved in systematic and
comprehensive analysis of several metallurgical failures of engineering components and research on ancient
Indian cultural heritage through systematic investigations on Delhi Iron Pillar, South Indian Bronzes, Pallava
Coins and Hampi Musical Pillars.
Mr. Jayakumar has done B.Tech and M.S. in Metallurgical Engineering from the Regional Engineering
College, Warangal, and Indian Institute of Technology-Chennai respectively. He is also a Doctorate in
Engineering from the University of Saarland, Saarbruecken, Germany.
Former Senior Energy Adviser
S. Padmanaban has over 30 years of experience in strategic planning and implementation of national,
regional and unit level energy management programs in the power, industrial and agricultural sectors in
His key areas of expertise include design of national energy efficiency strategies and programs, energy
efficiency financing, industrial co-generation, clean energy technologies, rural electrification and distributed
generation power projects.
Mr. Padmanaban recently retired as the Deputy Director and Senior Energy & Environment Advisor at the
Office of Environment, Energy & Enterprise, USAID. He also held the position of Director, South Asia
Regional Initiative for Energy (SARI/E), an USAID supported program for advancing regional energy
cooperation and development among South Asian countries.
He has been responsible in conceptualizing and designing several Indo-U.S. bilateral programs including
Energy Conservation and Commercialization (ECO) and Water-Energy Nexus and Distribution Reforms
Upgrades and Management (DRUM).
Mr. Padmanaban is a Mechanical Engineer from the University of Madras, a Post Graduate in Fuel Efficiency
from NPC, India and a diploma in Energy Management from UCTI, Italy.
U.S. Agency for International Development
1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20523
Tel: (202) 712-0000
Fax: (202) 216-3524