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International Journal of Digital Library Services IJODLS | Geetanjali Research Publication 127 V VVo ool ll . .. 4 44, ,, A AAp ppr rri ii l ll – –– J JJu uun nne ee 2 220 001 114 44, ,, I II s sss ssu uue ee - -- 2 22 w www www ww. .. i ii j jj o ood ddl ll s ss. .. i ii n nn ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print) CLIKS MODEL FOR KNOWLEDGE SHARING THROUGH CLOUD COMPUTING Dr. U. Nagalingam Deputy Librarian, Pondicherry University, Puducherry [email protected] K. Palanivel Systems Analyst, Pondicherry University, Puducherry [email protected] Abstract In the present trends, Knowledge sharing is important aspects of most modern organizations. Ideas about how to stimulate and inspire knowledge sharing abound, but without much theorizing. The objective of this paper is to design a knowledge sharing model for library and information users using SOA and clouds. The proposed knowledge sharing model is called CLIKS model. Keywords: Knowledge Sharing Model, Cloud Computing, Server-Oriented, Interoperability, Web Service. 1.INTRODUCTION Cloud Computing offers many interesting possibilities for libraries that may help to reduce technology cost and increase capacity reliability, and performance for some type of automation activities. Cloud computing has made strong inroads into other commercial sectors and is now beginning to find more application in library and information centers. The cloud computing pushes hardware to more abstract levels. Most of us are acquainted with fast computing power being delivered from systems that we can see and touch. Information and data storage are the main function of libraries, particularly those with digital collections storing large digital files can stress local server infrastructures. The files which are needed to be backed up, maintained, and reproduced for patrons. This can strain the data integrity as well as hog bandwidth. Moving data to the cloud may be a leap of faith for some library professionals, a new technology and on the surface it is believed that library would have some control over this data or collections. However, with faster retrieval times for requests and local server space it could improve storage solutions for libraries. Cloud International Journal of Digital Library Services IJODLS | Geetanjali Research Publication 128 V VVo ool ll . .. 4 44, ,, A AAp ppr rri ii l ll – –– J JJu uun nne ee 2 220 001 114 44, ,, I II s sss ssu uue ee - -- 2 22 w www www ww. .. i ii j jj o ood ddl ll s ss. .. i ii n nn ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print) computing or IT infrastructure that exists remotely , often gives users increased capacity and less need for updates and maintenance, and has gained wider acceptance among librarians. With this background, authors of this paper have proposed a new Knowledge Sharing Model for Digital Library users in the cloud environment. The proposed model is called CLIKS i.e., Cloud Computing Library Knowledge Sharing Model. 2.KNOWLEDGE SHARING Knowledge Sharing is a platform for the students, faculty and researchers to share their expertise, unique deployments, best practices or any relevant topic of their interest. Knowledge sharing is the distribution of knowledge or what has been learned and it is this concept which is at the heart of the learning organization. Senge (1990, p. 3) defined a learning organization as ‘organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together’. If individuals acquire learning but share nothing with each other it will be difficult to develop the organization as learning Centre. Knowledge sharing requires a sharing mindset which entails: a sharing of vision, a sharing of values, a sharing of knowledge, a sharing of communication and information, openness and trust (Ipe, 2003). 3. CLOUD COMPUTING Cloud Computing is a broad term that describes a broad range of services. As with other significant developments in technology, many vendors have seized the term “Cloud” and are using it for products that sit outside of the common definition. In order to truly understand how the Cloud can be of value to an organization, it is first important to understand what the Cloud really is and its different components. Since the Cloud is a broad collection of services, organizations can choose where, when, and how they use Cloud Computing. The Characteristics of Cloud computing are self-healing, multi-tenancy, scalable, virtualized, flexible, etc., as state below; 1. Self-Healing: Any application or any service running in a cloud computing environment has the property of self-healing. In case of failure of the application, there is always a hot backup of the application ready to take over without disruption. International Journal of Digital Library Services IJODLS | Geetanjali Research Publication 129 V VVo ool ll . .. 4 44, ,, A AAp ppr rri ii l ll – –– J JJu uun nne ee 2 220 001 114 44, ,, I II s sss ssu uue ee - -- 2 22 w www www ww. .. i ii j jj o ood ddl ll s ss. .. i ii n nn ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print) 2. Multi-tenancy: With cloud computing, any application supports multi-tenancy - that is multiple tenants at the same instant of time. The system allows several customers to share the infrastructure allotted to them without any of them being aware of the sharing. This is done by virtualizing the servers on the available machine pool and then allotting the servers to multiple users. 3. Scalable: Cloud computing services are linearly scalable. The system is able to break down the workloads into pieces and service it across the infrastructure. 4. Service-oriented: Cloud computing systems are all service oriented - i.e. the systems are such that they are created out of other discrete services. 5. Virtualized: The applications in cloud computing are fully decoupled from the underlying hardware. The cloud computing environment is a fully virtualized environment. 6. Flexible: Another feature of the cloud computing services is that they are flexible. They can be used to serve a large variety of workload types - varying from small loads of a small consumer application to very heavy loads of a commercial application Service delivery in Cloud Computing comprises three different service models, namely Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). The three service models or layer are completed by an end user layer that encapsulates the end user perspective on cloud services. If a cloud user accesses services on the infrastructure layer, for instance, she can run her own applications on the resources of a cloud infrastructure and remain responsible for the support, maintenance, and security of these applications herself. If she accesses a service on the application layer, these tasks are normally taken care of by the cloud service provider. Figure 1: Cloud Computing mode l International Journal of Digital Library Services IJODLS | Geetanjali Research Publication 130 V VVo ool ll . .. 4 44, ,, A AAp ppr rri ii l ll – –– J JJu uun nne ee 2 220 001 114 44, ,, I II s sss ssu uue ee - -- 2 22 w www www ww. .. i ii j jj o ood ddl ll s ss. .. i ii n nn ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print) 3.1.A brief list of potential areas of improvement could include: 1. Most library computer systems are built on pre-Web technology 2. Systems distributed across the Net using pre-Web technology are harder and more costly to integrate 3. Libraries store and maintain much of the same data hundreds and thousands of times 4. With library data scatter across distributed systems the library’s Web presence is weakened 5. With libraries running independent systems collaboration between libraries is made difficult and expensive 6. Information seekers work in common Web environments and distributed systems make it difficult to get the library into their workflow 7. Many systems are only used to 10% of their capacity. Combining systems into a cloud environment reduces the carbon footprints, making libraries greener These improvements can be grouped into three basic areas: technology, data and community. Each offers some general and some unique opportunities for libraries. Looking first at the technology that most current library systems employ several benefits of cloud computing solutions surface. In the context of the knowledge economy, knowledge resource has become the main resource affecting productivity development. And university libraries are the main departments of storing, processing and spreading knowledge. So how to provide users with efficient transmission of information and knowledge services became urgent task for librarians today. However, the Emergence of Cloud Computing accelerated library's development. And the establishment of shared public cloud can save manpower and material resources greatly among university libraries. Therefore, with the aid of Cloud Computing, librarians won't have to maintain their own equipment’s or deal with consultations personally. And librarians will have more time and energy to offer users with their needed knowledge-based services but not only information. 4. EXISTING KNOWLEDGE SHARING MODELS The existing knowledge sharing models are Lodhi Cultural Based Model, Syed Ikhsan and Rowland Knowledge Transfer Model, Taylor and Wright Model, Supar et al. model and Mohd Model and presented below. International Journal of Digital Library Services IJODLS | Geetanjali Research Publication 131 V VVo ool ll . .. 4 44, ,, A AAp ppr rri ii l ll – –– J JJu uun nne ee 2 220 001 114 44, ,, I II s sss ssu uue ee - -- 2 22 w www www ww. .. i ii j jj o ood ddl ll s ss. .. i ii n nn ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print) According to Small and Sage, a model is a representation of reality and most of the knowledge management models are theoretical in the sense that they are an imagined process or mechanism that has been developed to describe a phenomenon. There are several KS models suggested by researchers. The variety of models exists due to researchers view of knowledge from different perspectives analyses a few KS models and frameworks such as SECI model , actors framework model best practice , knowledge transfer model and knowledge stickiness. Those models could be used to improve understanding on factors affecting KS in organizations. However none of the models mentioned addressed specifically KS in public organizations. A few recent KS models were identified to have their relevancy in understanding the factors affecting KS in public organization particularly those suggested by Lodhi, S and others. 4.1. Lodhi Cultural Based Model In a study in six post-graduate institutions in Pakistan, Lodhi suggested a culture based KS model after realizing that previous models want to differentiate between knowledge and knowledge assets. Most of knowledge management models did not consider human interaction as the main factor. Culture based model underlines the border between knowledge and knowledge assets. The model considers that the only source of knowledge in an organization as its employees. Other materials such as books, manuals etc. are not the true source of knowledge but they represent knowledge assets. This model emphasizes that knowledge cannot exists as a different entity outside human cognition. In other words, knowledge in real meaning cannot be separated from human mind. According to Lodhi four factors influence knowledge flow in organization which are communication channel, individual attitude, group attitude and organizational policies/culture. This model considers individual attitude as firstly they acquire new knowledge from others and secondly transfer knowledge to colleagues in the group. Mutual respect, equality and indiscrimination are important in KS between individuals. Individual interact between them to develop a group where good individuals will become good groups. This model looks dynamic group as important to increase KS. Organizational policies develop corporate culture and play an important part for the development of knowledge sharing and innovation activities in an organization. International Journal of Digital Library Services IJODLS | Geetanjali Research Publication 132 V VVo ool ll . .. 4 44, ,, A AAp ppr rri ii l ll – –– J JJu uun nne ee 2 220 001 114 44, ,, I II s sss ssu uue ee - -- 2 22 w www www ww. .. i ii j jj o ood ddl ll s ss. .. i ii n nn ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print) 4.2. Syed Ikhsan and Rowland Knowledge Transfer Model Syed Ikhsan and Rowland studied the relationship between organizational elements and knowledge transfer performance and knowledge asset in a ministry in Malaysia. Among the organizational elements identified are organizational culture, organizational structure, technology, human resource and directives from politicians as shown in Figure 2. The study shows that there are significant relationships between some of the variables and either the performance of knowledge transfer or the creation of knowledge assets. They suggest that it may be necessary for organizations to consider some of the elements that show a relationship between the variables in implementing knowledge management strategy within an organization particularly public sector. 4.3. Taylor and Wright Model In a study to investigate KS I in one public service in the United Kingdom, proposed a six- factor model to identify factors that influence the readiness of a healthcare organization to share knowledge effectively. Those factors are open leadership environment; learn from failure, information quality, customer oriented, satisfaction from process change and change vision. The findings of the study indicates that an innovative culture, a capacity to learn from failure and good information quality have a significant relationship with successful knowledge sharing. 4.4. Supar et al. Model A study by Supar (2006) identified factors influencing KS among academic staff and its impact on performance in three selected higher institutions in Malaysia. Those factors are cultural factor, technological factor, communication factor and organizational support factor. Findings from the study indicated that management support, solidarity, expert vs. distributed model, knowledge sharing to be included in work process, presence of IT for the purpose of knowledge sharing and mentoring are positively related to knowledge sharing and that knowledge sharing is positively related to performance. 4.5. Mohd Model The proposed model provides foundation for subsequent research to firstly investigate factors affecting KS in public sector and secondly, seek to identify the relationship between KS, organizational performance and service delivery. The proposed conceptual model is drawn International Journal of Digital Library Services IJODLS | Geetanjali Research Publication 133 V VVo ool ll . .. 4 44, ,, A AAp ppr rri ii l ll – –– J JJu uun nne ee 2 220 001 114 44, ,, I II s sss ssu uue ee - -- 2 22 w www www ww. .. i ii j jj o ood ddl ll s ss. .. i ii n nn ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print) upon the knowledge-based theory of the firm and a few recent knowledge sharing models as discussed above. The knowledge-based theory of the firm considers knowledge as the most strategically significant resource of the firm. Previous knowledge sharing models reveal a number of factors affect knowledge sharing in an organization. In the proposed conceptual model, the factors are categorized into 3 categories: individual dimension, organizational dimension and technological dimension. The categorization is based on Olikowski’s model influences and reciprocal interaction between people, technology and organizations. 5. CLIKS MODEL We proposed a knowledge sharing model for academic staff. The factors that influence knowledge sharing are individual factors, organizational factors, and technological factors. Personality: Personality can be categorized into two types: extravert and introvert (Jung). According to Jung, introvert people have the more problems in interacting with other people compared to the extravert. Many researchers believe that the ability of the staff to share knowledge, to initially depend on their communication skills both oral and written. Motivation: Motivation is crucial when sharing tacit knowledge, it is more difficult than sharing explicit knowledge. To be motivated to share of interest or personal meaning would lead to someone having a more positive attitude towards sharing knowledge. The CLIKS consists of User layer, Application layer, Database layer and Storage layer. The Cloud User Layer allows the users of the DLS. The different users are has cloud consumer, cloud broker and cloud provider. The consumer layer is more strictly and carefully separated from the services and service provider to allow pooling and substitution of cloud services or providers. The second layer is the application layer in which cloud applications provide software over the internet as a service without having to install the software on the user’s computer and letting the software run when needed instead of all the time wasting precious system resources. The Cloud Application layer includes applications that run off the Cloud and are available to Web users or enterprises on a pay-as-you-go, anytime-anywhere basis. The PaaS delivers a computer platform used as a service which helps save money by taking out the need to by computer hardware and software as cloud computing provides a platform to use applications. International Journal of Digital Library Services IJODLS | Geetanjali Research Publication 134 V VVo ool ll . .. 4 44, ,, A AAp ppr rri ii l ll – –– J JJu uun nne ee 2 220 001 114 44, ,, I II s sss ssu uue ee - -- 2 22 w www www ww. .. i ii j jj o ood ddl ll s ss. .. i ii n nn ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print) The IaaS defines a platform virtualization environment as a service there by eliminating the need of buying servers, renting data server space and network equipment. Users can use the infrastructures and be billed like a utility service there for saving them a lot of money that can be spent in other places. This layer provides all the necessary computer hardware and server software that is involved in providing the cloud computing services to clients and their users. CLIKS provides a globally distributed caching layer to speed the delivery of services. DL Applications can be often made to perform better and run faster by caching critical pieces of data in memory. Frequently accessed data, layers of HTML fragments, results of time- consuming/expensive database queries, search results, sessions, results of complex calculations and processes are usually very good candidates for cache storage. In general not all application architectures will benefit from having a caching solution in their system, example applications that are read intensive, will usually have better performance gains using cache whereas write intensive applications may not get much benefit. The Storage Layer represents the database software itself (SQL parser, query optimizer, execution engine, etc.). This is what we commonly think of as "the database." CLIKS Model Figure 2: CLIKS Model International Journal of Digital Library Services IJODLS | Geetanjali Research Publication 135 V VVo ool ll . .. 4 44, ,, A AAp ppr rri ii l ll – –– J JJu uun nne ee 2 220 001 114 44, ,, I II s sss ssu uue ee - -- 2 22 w www www ww. .. i ii j jj o ood ddl ll s ss. .. i ii n nn ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print) In terms of its system architecture, the CLIKS is closely connected with a various Library application systems. Therefore, before it is constructed, its integration with other application systems must be considered. As a flexible architecture of integration services, the SOA makes those systems more flexible and integral. Furthermore, cloud computing is highly advantageous, for enormous amount of service-oriented Web Services can be stored and managed in the cloud. Therefore, the shipyard need not invest a great deal of money in IT devices meant to store masses of information. Instead, as an Internet user, the shipyard can enjoy the cloud-based SaaS. CLIKS based applications are particularly suited for taking advantage of virtualized hardware resources and cloud infrastructure. Virtualization of resources can reduce the maintenance requirements considerably. Dynamic computational needs of processing documents and Web applications can take advantage of the elasticity provided by cloud infrastructure. Most of the data stored is freely available on the Web. This aspect data enables easy adoption of cloud infrastructure. 6. CONCLUSION Cloud Computing is a rapidly accelerating revolution within IT and will become the default method of IT delivery, moving into the future – organizations would be advised to consider their approach towards beginning a move to the clouds sooner, rather than later. Libraries have the opportunity to improve their services and relevance in today’s information society. Cloud computing is one avenue for this move into the future. It can bring several benefits for libraries and give them a different future. The cooperative effect of libraries using the same, shared hardware, services and data rather than hosting hardware and software on behalf of individual libraries—can result in lowering the total costs of managing library collections and enhancing the both library user’s experience and library staff workflows. While local library systems served an important purpose earlier in library automation they now represent a tremendous duplication of effort. Each library builds and maintains a database, buys equipment and installs and updates the software. In fact, some libraries can get stuck in perpetual upgrade mode, which involves lots of testing and retesting and time- consuming customization. International Journal of Digital Library Services IJODLS | Geetanjali Research Publication 136 V VVo ool ll . .. 4 44, ,, A AAp ppr rri ii l ll – –– J JJu uun nne ee 2 220 001 114 44, ,, I II s sss ssu uue ee - -- 2 22 w www www ww. .. i ii j jj o ood ddl ll s ss. .. i ii n nn ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print) 7.REFERENCES 1. Abdullah, R. dan Selamat, M. H.2007.” Facilitating knowledge sharing with groupware among faculty communities in higher learning institution”. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 2007. 2. Amin, S.H.M., Zawawi, A.A., dan Timan, H. 2011. “To Share or Not to Share Knowledge: Observing the Factors. Colloquium on Humanities, Science and Engineering Research”. IEEE: 860-864. 3. Becerra-Fernandez, I., dan Sabherwal, R.2010. Knowledge Management: Systems and Processes. New York.: M.E. Sharpe. 4. Bhatt, G. D. 2001. “Knowledge Management in Organizations: Examining the Interaction between Technologies, Techniques, and People”. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(1): 68-75. 5. Brazelton, J. and Gorry, A. 2003. “Creating a Knowledge-Sharing Community: If You Build It, Will They Come?” Communications of the ACM, 46(2): 23-25. 6. Ipe, M. 2003. “Knowledge Sharing in Organizations: A Conceptual Framework”. Human Resource Development Review, 2(4): 337-359. 7. Ismail, M.B. dan Yusof, Z.M. 2008 .”Knowledge Sharing Models: Do They Really Fit Public Organzations?”. IEEE, 2008. 8. Ismail, M.B. and Yusof, Z.M. 2008.”The Impact of Individual Factors on Knowledge Sharing Quality”. Journal of Organizational Knowledge Management,210:1-13. 9. Jain K.K., Sandhu M.S. dan Sidhu G.K.2007. “Knowledge Sharing among Academic Staff: A Case Study of Business School in Klang Valley Malaysia”. JASA (2): 23- 29. 10. Kim, S., Suh, E., and Hwang, H. 2003. “Building the Knowledge Map: An Industrial Case Study”. Journal of Knowledge Management. 7(2): 34-45. 11. Lodhi,S A .2007. Dynamics of Voluntary knowledge sharing in organisations. PhD thesis published as Lodhi Suleman (et al).Voluntary knowledge sharing model. VDM: Verlag. 12. Nagalingam,U, Palanivel, K. and Nageswara Rao, P. 2012 .Knowledge Model for PUDULIBNET using National Knowledge Network and NME/ICT Networks. National conference on Knowledge society: Innovations in Librarianship. Mangalore: ILA. 13. Nagalingam,U , Palanivel, K and Ramesha. 2013. C-CADLS: Cloud Computing Architecture for Digital Library System. Edited by Ramesha [et…al]. “Next Generation Libraries: New Insights and Universal access to Knowledge”.(ILANGL- 2013). Department of LIS, Karnatak University, Dharward 14. Palanivel, K. and Nagalingam, U. 2011. Service-Oriented Reference Model to Security for Digital Library (SORMSDL), edited by B. Ramesh Babu and P. Nageswara Rao, “Information Security in the Digital Era”, SETS, 230-243. 15. Osterloh, M., and Frey, B. S. 2000. “Motivation, knowledge transfer, and organizational forms”. Organization Science. 11(5): 538-550. 16. Senge, P. 1990. The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. London: Random House. International Journal of Digital Library Services IJODLS | Geetanjali Research Publication 137 V VVo ool ll . .. 4 44, ,, A AAp ppr rri ii l ll – –– J JJu uun nne ee 2 220 001 114 44, ,, I II s sss ssu uue ee - -- 2 22 w www www ww. .. i ii j jj o ood ddl ll s ss. .. i ii n nn ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print) 17. Supar, Norizah, 2006. Factors Affecting Knowledge Sharing Among Academic Staff in Selected Malaysian Higher Educational Institutions and the Effect on Performance(thesis).Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of Management University Putra Malaysia. 18. Suresh Chandra Padhy and Mahapatra, R.K. 2012. “Cloud Computing: Academic Library in Orissa”. VSRD-Technical Non-Technical Journal, 3 (3):124-130, 2012. 19. 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