Complete Computer Acronyms



  • Rating

  • Date

    December 1969
  • Size

  • Views

  • Categories

Preview only show first 6 pages with water mark for full document please download


The Ultimate Computer Acronyms Archive Last updated: May 29, 2000 «I'm sitting in a coffee shop in Milford, NH. In the booth next to me are two men, a father and a son. Over coffee, the father is asking his son about modems, and the son is holding forth pretty well on the subject of fax compatibility, UART requirements, and so on. But he's little out of date: The father asks, "So should I get one with a DSP?" "A what?" says the son. You just can't get far if you're not up on the lingo. You might squeak by in your company of technological nonexperts, but even some of them will surprise you. These days, technical acronyms quickly insinuate themselves into the vernacular.» Raphael Needleman THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. The information contained in this document represents the current view of the authors on this subject as of the date of publication. Because this kind of information changes very quickly, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of the authors and the authors cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented herein. INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND FREEDOM FROM INFRINGEMENT. The user assumes the entire risk as to the accuracy and the use of this document. This document may be copied and distributed subject to the following conditions: 1. This document must not be altered. 2. This document may not be distributed for profit. 0-9 µ (mu): Micro Prefix for 10 power -6 0-9 1GL: First Generation Language Machine language (Software) 2D: 2Dimensional 2D: Double Density (Hardware) 2GL: Second Generation Language Assembler and other low-level languages (Software) 2S: 2 Sides (Hardware) 3D: 3Dimensional 3GL: 3rd Generation Language High level programming languages (Software) 4GL: 4th Generation Language Database access languages (Software) 4GT: 4 Gigabyte memory Tuning 5GL: Fifth Generation Language Artificial intelligence languages (Software) 6DOF: Six Degrees Of Freedom Page 3 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 4 of 161 A A: Ampere Current measurement unit ABRS: Automated Book Request System ABS: Address Book Synchronization (IBM) A A/D: Analog/Digital (Hardware) A/P: Accounts Payable A/PC: Auto Personal Computer (Hardware) ABS: ABSolute ABS: Automatic Backup System ABT: ABorT ABTS: Ascii Block Terminal Services AC: Audio Codec (Hardware) A/R: Accounts Receivable A/UX: Apple UniX (Operating systems) (Apple) AA: Auto Answer AAB: All-to-All Broadcast AAC: Advanced Audio Coding AAF: Advancced Authoring Format AAL: Atm Adaption Layer AAP: Applications Access Point (DEC) AC: Alternate Current AC: AutoCheck AC: Automatic Computer ACAP: Application Configuration Access Protocol ACC: ACCumulator ACD: Automatic Call Distribution ACDI: Asynchronous Communications Device Interface ACE: Access Control Encryption ACE: Access Control Entry (Operating systems) AARP: Appletalk Address Resolution Protocol (Network) (Apple) AAS: Auto Area Segmentation Scanner technology which detects and optimizes text and graphics on the same page (Hardware) (Epson) AAS: All-to-All Scatter AASP: Ascii Asynchronous Support Package AAT: Average Access Time AATP: Authorized Academic Training Program (Microsoft) ACE: Advanced Computing Environment ACE: Automatic Computing Engine ACE: Adverse Channel Enhancements ACE: Adobe Certified Expert (Adobe) ACF: Access Control Field ACF: Advanced Communications Function ACH: Automated Clearing House ACIA: Asynchronous Communication Interface Adapter ACIAS: Automated Calibration Interval Analysis System ACID: Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability ACIS: American Committee for Interoperable Systems ACK: ACKnowledge A transmission control character transmitted by a station as an affirmative response to the station with which the connection has been set up. (Communication) ABA: Address Book Archive Filename extension ABC: Atanasoff-Berry Computer First digital calculating machine that used vacuum tubes ABEL: Advanced Boolean Expression Language ABEND: ABnormal END (Software) ABI: Application Binary Interface Defines the binary system interface between compiled applications and the operating system on which they run. ABIOS: Advanced Basic Input Output System ABIST: Automatic Built-In Self-Test (IBM) ABLE: Adaptive Battery Life Extender ABR: Available Bit Rate ACL: Advanced Cmos Logic ACL: Access Control List For granting or denying access to computer resources (security) (Operating systems) Page 5 of 161 ACM: Association for Computing Machinery (Organizations) ADC: Application Delete Certificate ADC: Advanced Data Connector (Databases) (Microsoft) ACM: Audio Compression Manager (Microsoft) A ACMS: Application Control Management System ACP: Auxiliary Control Process ACP: Ancillary Control Program ACPI: Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (Hardware) ADC: Analog to Digital Converter A device that translates analog signals to digital signals. Contrast with digital-to-analog converter (DAC). (Hardware) ADC: ADd with Carry ADCCP: Advanced Data Communication Control Procedures (Communication) ADD: Adapter Device Driver ADD: Automatic Document Detection ADF: Automatically Defined Function ADF: Automatic Document Feeder Scanner device (Hardware) ACR: Allowed Cell Rate ACROSS: Automated Cargo Release and Operations Service System ACS: Automatic Contrast Selection ACS: Advanced Computer System (IBM) ADF: Adapter Description File File name extension ACS: Asynchronous Communication Server ACS: Anti Curl System ACS: Access Control System ACS: Access Control Set ACS: Automatic Class Selection ACSE: Association Control Service Element The method used in International Organization for Standardization's open systems interconnection (OSI) for establishing a call between two applications. ADI: AutoCad Device Interface Driver ADK: Appliance Development Kit (Software) ADL: Address Data Latch ADLAT: ADaptive LATtice filter ADLC: Asynchronous Data Link Control ADMACS: Apple Document Management And Control System ADMD: ADministrative Management Domain ADML: Application Description Markup Language (Software) ACSS: Audio Cascading Style Sheet ACTS: Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (Communication) (NASA) ACTS: Automated Computer Time Server ACTT: Advanced Communication and Timekeeping Technology ACU: Automatic Calling Unit ACVC: Ada Compiler Validation Capacity AD: Active Directory (Operating systems) ADMS: Adstar Distributed Management System ADO: Activex Data Object (Databases) (Microsoft) ADODB: Activex Data Object DataBase (Databases) (Microsoft) ADP: Automatic Data Processing ADP: Access Database Project Filename extension (Software) (Microsoft) ADA: ADA Programming language named after Augusta Ada Lovelace ADA: Automatic Data Acquisitions ADA: Adobe Developers Association (Organizations) ADPCM: Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation Communication protocol (Communication) ADR: Advanced Digital Recording (Hardware) ADAPT: Architecture, Design, Analysis and Planning Tool ADB: Apple Desktop Bus Bus architecture (Hardware) (Apple) ADR: ADdRess ADS: Advanced Digital System ADS: Application Development Solutions (AT&T) ADBS: Advanced Data Broadcast System (Communication) ADC: Adaptive Data Compression (Hayes) ADS: Automatic Distribution System ADS: Application Development System Page 6 of 161 ADS/O: Application Development System / Online ADSC: Adobe Document Structuring Conventions ADSI: Active Directory Service Interface (Network) AFDW: Active Framework for Data Warehousing (Microsoft) AFFS: Amiga Fast File System (Operating systems) AFI: Authority and Format Identifier AFII: Association for Font Information Interchange AFIRM: Automated Fingerprint Image Reporting and Match AFIS: Automated Fingerprint Identification System AFLCD: AntiFerroelectric Liquid Cristal Display (Hardware) A ADSI: Analog Display Services Interface ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Communication infrastructure (Communication) ADSM: Advanced Data Storage Management (IBM) ADSM: Adstar Distributed Storage Manager (Databases) (IBM) ADSP: Appletalk DataStream Protocol (Apple) ADSR: Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release ADT: Application Data Type ADT: Abstract Data Type (Microsoft) AFM: Adobe Font Metrics File name extension (Adobe) AFM: Atomic Force Microscope (Hardware) AFM: Atomic Force Microscope (Hardware) ADT: Access Developer Toolkit (Software) (Microsoft) AFP: Advanced Function Presentation (IBM) ADT: Atlantic Daylight Time Timezone: GMT -4:00 AFP: Appletalk Filing Protocol (Communication) (Apple) ADU: Automatic Dialing Unit AE: Above or Equal AEB: Analog Expansion Bus (Dialogic) AFP: Advanced Function Printing AFR: Annualized Failure Rate (Hardware) AEC: Architecture, Engineering, Construction A computer graphics market requiring specialized applications that facilitate efficient planning, design, drafting, and analysis. AFR: Alternate Frame Rendering (Hardware) AFS: Andrew File System AFT: Adapter Fault Tolerance (Intel) AEGIS: Advanced Electronic Guidance and Instrumentation System AEI: Application Enabling Interface AES: Advanced Encryption Standard AESA: Atm End System Address (Communication) AFTP: Anonymous File Transfer Protocol AGA: Advanced Graphics Adapter AGARAS: AntiGlare AntiReflective AntiStatic AGC: Automatic Gain Control AGE: Amorphium Graphics Engine AGP: Accelerated Graphic Port (Hardware) AF: Assured Forwarding Using AF, a provider may offer different levels of service for IP packets received from a customer domain. Each AF class is allocated a specified amount of buffer space and bandwidth (Network) AFA: Accelerated File Access AFAIK: As Far As I Know (Messages) AGU: Address Generation Unit AH: Authentication Header (Network) AFC: Automatic Font Change AFC: Application Foundation Classes (Software) (Microsoft) AHA: Adaptec Host Adapter (Hardware) (Adaptec) AHDL: Analog Hardware Description Language AHDT: Alaska-Hawaii Daylight Time Timezone: GMT -10:00 AFC: Automatic Frequency Control AFD: Automatic File Distribution AHS: Automated Highway Systems Page 7 of 161 AHST: Alaska-Hawaii Standard Time Timezone: GMT -10:00 ALIWEB: Archie Like Indexing in the WEB ALM: Asynchronous Line Multiplexer A device that connects multiple terminals or other serial interface devices to Sun network file servers or workstations. Also known as "multiple terminal interface." AI: Artificial Intelligence AI: Analog Input A AIA: Applications Integration Architecture (DEC) ALN: Asynchronous Learning Network ALR: Advanced Logic Research ALT: ALTernate ALU: Arithmetic Logic Unit Device in a CPU performing arithmetic operations (Hardware) AIC: Aixwindows Interface Composer (IBM) AIF: Audio Interchange Format AIFF: Audio Interchange File Format (Apple) AM: Amplitude Modulation AMA: Automatic Message Accounting AMASS: Archival Management And Storage System Manufacturer AIIM: Association for Information and Image Management AIM: Aol Instant Messenger AIM: Application Integration Module AIN: Advanced Intelligent Network AIR: Architecture Implementation Review AIS: Automated Information System AISB: Association of Imaging Service Bureaus AISP: Association of Information Systems Professionals AIT: Advanced Intelligent Tape (Hardware) AMD: Advanced Micro Devices CPU Manufacturer (AMD) AMD: Active Matrix Display AME: Advanced Metal Evaporation Recording media technology (Hardware) AMHA: Advanced Macro Heuristic Analysis (Dr. Solomon) AMI: American Megatrends, Inc. AMI: Alternate Mark Inversion AMLCD: Active-Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (Hardware) AIX: Advanced Interactive eXecutive IBM's Unix (Operating systems) (IBM) aka: Also Known As (Messages) AMMA: Advanced Memory Management Architecture AMP: Attached Media Processor (Hardware) ALB: Advanced Load Balancing ALC: Application Load Certificate ALC: Airline Link Control Service protocol (Network) AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System (Communication) AMS: Advanced Microcomputer System (Hardware) (Siemens-Nixdorf) ALC: Automatic Level Control ALC: Arithmetic and Logic Circuits ALDC: Adaptive Lossless Data Compression (IBM) ANDF: Architecture-Neutral Distribution Format ANI: ANImated cursor File name extension (Microsoft) ALE: Application Linking Enabling ALE: Application Launch and Embedding (Software) ANI: Automatic Number Identification ANN: ANNotations File name extension (IBM) ALE: Address Latch Enable ALEC: Alternative Long Exchange Carrier (Communication) ANN: Artificial Neural Network ANS: American National Standard ANSI: American National Standard Institute An organization that reviews and approves product standards in the United States. (Organizations) ALEP: Advanced Language Engineering Platform ALGOL: ALGOrithmic Language Programming language (Software) ANX: Automotive Network eXchange AO: Analog Output AO/DI: Always On/Dynamic Isdn ALIBI: Adaptive Location of Internetworked Bases of Information ALINK: Active LINK Page 8 of 161 AOCE: Apple Open Collaborative Environment (Apple) APPC: Advanced Program to Program Communication APPCM: Access Protection and Priority Control Mechanism APPI: Advanced Peer-to-Peer Internetworking (Network) AOE: Application Operating Environment (AT&T) AOL: America OnLine (Network) A AOS: Add Or Subtract AOW: Asia and Oceania Workshop One of the three regional OSI implementors workshops. APPN: Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (Network) (IBM) AP: Application Processor AP: Access Point (Hardware) APRP: Adaptive Pattern Recognition Processing APS: Analog Protection System APS: Advanced Printing Service (IBM) APA: Adaptive Packet Assembly APA: All Points Addressable APA: Arithmetic Processing Accelerator APAR: Authorized Program Analysis Report (IBM) APS: Advanced Photo System APS: Asynchronous Protocol Specification APSE: Ada Programming Support Environment (Software) APC: American Power Conversion APCUG: Association of PC User Groups APCVG: Association of Personal Computer Users Group (Organizations) APSO: Audio Precision System One (Hardware) APT: Automatically Programmed Tools APT: Address Pass Through APT: Advanced Parallel Technology APTC: Authorized Prometric Testing Center Sylvan Prometric is a division of Sylvan Learning Systems. It is the global leader in computer-based testing for academic assessment, professional licensure, and certification. APDU: Application Protocol Data Units APF: Apple Filing Protocol (Apple) API: Application Programming Interface A set of calling conventions defining how a service is invoked through a software package. (Software) APTM: Application Program to Transaction Manager AR: Application Requester (IBM) APIC: Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller (Intel) ARA: Appletalk Remote Access (Communication) (Apple) APIPA: Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing (Network) ARAG: AntiReflective, AntiGlare ARAS: AntiReflective, AntiStatic ARB: Architecture Review Board ARC: ARChive File name extension APIS: Advanced Passenger Information System APL: A Programming Language (Software) APL: Applied Physics Laboratory, Skaggsville, MD. Advanced research facility. APL: Average Picture Level Monitor quality parameter (Hardware) ARCA: Advanced Risc Computing Architecture ARCnet: Attached Resource Computer NETwork ARIN: American Registry for Internet Numbers (Organizations) APLSF: A Programming Language with Shared Files APM: Advanced Power Management APNIC: Asia-Pacific Network Information Center APOP: Authenticated Post Office Protocol APP: APPlication File name extension ARL: Access Rights List ARL: Adjusted Ring Length ARLL: Advanced Run Length Limited ARM: Advanced Risc Machine ARM: Asynchronous Response Mode Page 9 of 161 ARM: Annotated Reference Manual ARMA: Association of Records Managers and Administrators ASAP: Automatic Switching And Processing ASB: Advanced System Buffering (Hardware) (Intel) A ARMS: Architecture for Reliable Managed Storage ARO: Adaptec Raidport Option (Hardware) (Adaptec) ASC: Accredited Standards Committee ASC: ASCii text File name extension AROM: Alterable Read Only Memory ARP: Address Resolution Protocol The Internet protocol used to dynamically map Internet addresses to physical (hardware) addresses on local area networks. Limited to networks that support hardware broadcast. (Network) ASC: Authorized Support Centers ASCC: Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (IBM) ASCI: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange The standard binary encoding of alphabetical characters, numbers, and other keyboard symbols (7 bit character code.) ARPA: Advanced Research Projects Agency Now called Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the U.S. government agency that funded the ARPANET. (Organizations) ARPANET: Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork A packet switched network developed in the early 1970s. The "grandfather" of today's Internet. ARPANET was decommissioned in June 1990. ASD: Automatic Skip Driver (Operating systems) (Microsoft) ASDSP: Application-Specific Digital Signal Processor ASE: Active Storage Element ASE: Alladin Smartcard Environment ASE: Adaptive Server Enterprise (Databases) (Sybase) ARPL: Adjust Requested Privilege Level ARQ: Automatic Repeat reQuest (Communication) ARTA: Apple Real Time Architecture ARTIC: A Real-Time Interface Coprocessor (IBM) ASET: Automated Security Enhancement Tool A tool that allows a user to specify an overall system security level (low, medium, or high) and automatically maintain systems at those levels. ARTS: Asynchronous Remote Takeover Server ARTT: Asynchronous Remote Takeover Terminal ARU: Audio Response Unit ARX: Autocad Runtime eXtensions (Software) (Autodesk) ASF: Applied Science Fiction Manufacturer (ASF) ASF: Active Streaming Format ASF: Advanced Streaming Format ASF: Apache Software Foundation (Organizations) AS: Advanced Server AS: Authentication Service AS: Autonomous System A self-connected set of networks that are generally operated within the same administrative domain (Network) ASI: Asynchronous SCSI Interface ASI: Automatic System Installation ASIC: Application-Specific Integrated Circuit A gate array or other non-standard chip design for proprietary use. (Hardware) AS: Application Server (IBM) AS/400: Application System/400 (IBM) ASID: Address Space IDentifier ASIT: Advanced Security and Identification Technology ASK: Amplitude Shift Keying ASL: Adaptive Speed Leveling ASLB: Accelerated Server Load Balancing ASLM: Apple Shared Library Manager (Apple) AS/U: Advanced Server for Unix AS3AP: Ansi Sql Standard Scalable And Portable ASA: American Standards Association ASA: Active Server Application (Network) (Microsoft) ASAI: Adjunct Switch Application Interface (AT&T) ASAP: As Soon As Possible (Messages) Page 10 of 161 ASLT: Advanced Solid Logic Technology ASM: Advanced Server Manager (Operating systems) (Acer) AT&T: American Telephone and Telegraph ATA: Advanced Technology Attachment Peripheral bus architecture (Hardware) ASM: Advanced System Management (IBM) ASM: ASseMbler File name extension ATAPI: Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface (Hardware) A ASMP: ASymmetric MultiProcessing System architecture (Hardware) ATC: Advanced Transfer Cache (Hardware) ASN: Abstract Syntax Notation The International Organization for Standardization's open systems interconnection (OSI) language for describing abstract syntax. ATC: Address Translation Controller ATDM: Asynchronous Time Division Multiplexer ATDNet: Advanced Technology Demonstration NETwork (Network) ASN: Autonomous System Number ASO: Automated Systems Operations ASP: Appletalk Session Protocol ASP: Association of Shareware Professionals (Organizations) ATE: Asynchronous Terminal Emulation ATE: Atm Terminating Equipment ATE: Automatic Test Equipment ATEC: Authorized Technical Education Center (Microsoft) ASP: Active Server Pages Dynamic Web pages engine (Network) (Microsoft) ASP: Advanced Signal Processing ASP: Authorized Service Provider ASP: Application Service Provider (Software) ATF: Automated Test Facility ATG: Advanced Technology Group ATI: Allied Telesyn International Networking hardware manufacturer (Hardware) ASPEN: Automatic System for Performance Evaluation of the Network ASPI: Advanced Scsi Programming Interface ASPS: Advanced Signal Processing System ASR: Automatic Server Recovery (Operating systems) ATIP: Absolute Time In Pregroove ATL: Adaptive Threshold Learning ATL: Active Template Library (Microsoft) ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode A standard for switching and routing all types of digital information, including video, voice, and data. With ATM, digital information is broken up into standard-sized packets, each with the "address" of its final destination. (Communication) ASR: Automatic Send-Receive ASR: Automatic Speech Recognition ASR: Automatic Send Receive (Communication) ATM: Automatic Teller Machine ATM: Adobe Type Manager (Software) (Adobe) ASR: Address Space Register AST: AST research, inc. Company named from first initials of the founders: Albert Wong, Safi Qureshey, Thomas Yuen ATM: Air Traffic Management ATMS: Assumption based Truth Maintenance System ATOB: Ascii TO Binary ATOMM: Advanced super Thinlayer and high-Output Metal Media ATP: Application Transaction Program ATP: Appletalk Transaction Protocol (Communication) (Apple) AST: Atlantic Standard Time Timezone: GMT -4:00 ASTRAL: Alliance for Strategic Token Ring Advancement and Leadership ASVD: Analog Simultaneous Voice & Data (Communication) ASYNC: ASYNchronous Communication Communication protocol (Communication) AT: Advanced Technology (IBM) ATP2: AppleTalk Phase 2 ATPS: AppleTalk Printing Services (Apple) AT: ATtention Modem command prefix (Communication) ATR: Answer To Reset AT: Azores Time Timezone: GMT -2:00 Page 11 of 161 ATR: Advanced Telecommunication Research (Organizations) AVTK: Anti Virus ToolKit (Software) ATR: Automatic Terminal Recognition AWAC: Audio Waveform Amplifier and Converter AWC: Advanced Web Creations AWDE: Artus Wireless Data Enhancer (Communication) (Nokia) A ATS: Administrative Terminal System ATS: Apple Terminal Services ATTN: ATTeNtion ATVEF: Advanced TeleVision Enhancement Forum (Organizations) AWE: Advanced Wave Effects (Creative Labs) AWG: American Wire Gauge AWK: Aho, Weinberger and Kernighan Unix language named after its authors: Al Aho, Peter Weinberger and Brian Kernighan ATX: Advanced Technology eXtended (Intel) AU: AUdio File name extension AWS: Advanced Workstations and Systems (IBM) AUC: AUthentication Center AUDIT: AUtomated Data Input Terminal AUI: Audible User Interface AUI: Attachment Unit Interface AUP: Acceptable User Policy AUT: Application Under Test AUTODIN: AUTOmatic DIgital Network AUTOVON: AUTOmatic VOice Network AUX: Apple UniX AUX: AUXiliary AV: Access Violation (Software) AWT: Abstract Windows Toolkit (Software) AX: Architecture eXtended AXI: American eXpress Interactive AV: Anti Virus AV: Audio Video AV: Authenticity Verification AVA: Audio Visual Authoring (IBM) AVATAR: Advanced Video Attribute Terminal Assembler and Recreator AVC: Audio Visual Connection (IBM) AVC: Advanced Visual Computing (SGI) AVD: Alternating Voice and Data AVE: Autocad Visualization Extension AVG: AVeraGe AVI: Audio Video Interleaved File Format AVR: Automatic Voice Recognition AVR: Automatic Voltage Regulation (Hardware) AVT: Applied Voice Technology Page 12 of 161 B b: Bit B: Byte B&W: Black & White B/F: Background/Foreground B2B: Business to Business B2C: Business To Customer B2X: Binary To heXadecimal (IBM) BBR: Back Bone Ring BBS: Bulletin Board System (Communication) B BC: Business Component (Software) BCC: Block Check Character In longitudinal redundancy checking and cyclic redundancy checking, a character transmitted by the sender after each message block and compared with a block-check character computed by the receiver to determine if the transmission was successful. BACP: Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (Communication) BCC: Blind Carbon Copy BCD: Binary-Coded Decimal Character encoding scheme BAD: Broken As Designed BAK: Binary Adaptation Kit (Microsoft) BCDBS: Broadband Connectionless Data Bearer Service BCDIC: Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code BCF: Base station Control Function BCL: Batch Command Language BCN: Backbone Concentrator Node BCNF: Boyce/Codd Normal Form BCP: Basic Call Process BCP: Binary Communications Protocol BCP: Bridging Control Protocol BCP: Byte Control Protocol (Communication) BAK: BAcKup File name extension BAL: Basic Assembly Language BALUN: BALanced UNbalanced BAM: Bidirectional Associative Memory BAM: Boyan Action Module BAPI: Business Application Programming Interface (Software) BARB: Board ARBiter Part of the bus arbitration system (Hardware) (Sun) BARRNET: Bay Area Regional Research NETwork BART: Basic Application RunTime BARTS: Bell Atlantic Regional TimeSharing BAS: BASic File name extension BCP: Best Current Practice BCP: Bulk Copy Program BCPL: Basic Computer Programming Language BCR: Best Cost Routing (Communication) BASH: Bourne Again SHell BASIC: Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code Programming language (Software) BCR: Byte Count Register BCRC: Business Component Request Center (Software) BASM: Built-in ASseMbler BAT: BATch File name extension BCS: Banking Communication Standard BCS: Binary Compatibility Standard BCS: British Computer Society BCS: Bar Code Sorter BCSM: Basic Call Sate Model BCU: Bus Controller Unit BCU: Bios Configuration Utility BDA: Bios Data Area Page 13 of 161 BAT: Block Address Translation BB: BridgeBoard BBB: Bit By Bit BBL: Be Back Later BBLT: Bus BLock Transfer BDC: Backup Domain Controller (Network) (Microsoft) BGP: Border Gateway Protocol An Internet routing protocol used to pass routing information between different administrative routing domains or Autonomous Systems. BGP does not pass explicit topology information and is often used between Internet service providers (Network) BDE: Borland Database Engine (Databases) (Inprise) BDF: Bitmap Description Format B BDK: Bean Development Kit (Software) (Sun) BGT: Branch if Greater Than BHI: Branch if HIgher BHIS: Branch if HIgher or Same BHLI: Broadband High Layer Information BHO: Browser Helper Object (Software) (Microsoft) BDLC: Burroughs Data Link Control BDLS: BiDirectional Loop Switching BDOS: Basic Disk Operating System (Operating systems) BDR: Bus Device Request BDSL: Broadband Digital Subscriber Line BE: Below or Equal BECN: Backward Explicit Congestion Notification BEDO: Burst Data Extended Output (Hardware) BI: Business Intelligence BI: Binary Input BIAB: Band-In-A-Box BIB: BIBliography File name extension BICI: Broadband InterCarrier Interface BiDi: BIDIrectional BIDS: Borland International Data Structures BIF: Benchmark Interchange Format In computer graphics, a standardized file structure for specifying the geometry of a particular data set from a particular application as well as the user interactions to be performed. BEL: BELl Control character BELLCORE: BELL COmmunications REsearch BER: Bit Error Rate (Communication) BER: Basic Encoding Rules Standard rules for encoding data units described in ASN.1. Sometimes incorrectly lumped under the term ASN.1, which properly refers only to the abstract syntax description language, not the encoding technique. BIFET: BIpolar Field Effect Transistor BIFF: Binary Interchange File Format BIM: Broadband Interface Module BIM: Beginning of Information Marker BIN: BINary File name extension BERT: Bit Error Rate Test (Communication) BEST: Borland Enhanced Support and Training BET: Bit Enhancement Technology (Hardware) BINAC: BINary Automatic Computer BIND: Berkeley Internet Name Daemon (Network) BF: Bad Flag BFC: BrieFCase Filename extension (Software) (Microsoft) BINHEX: BINary HEXadecimal BIOS: Basic Input/Output System BIP: Bit Interleaved Parity BIPM: Bureau International des Poids et des Mesures (Organizations) BFF: Binary File Format (IBM) BFS: Business Forecasting Software BFT: Binary File Transfer BFTP: Batch File Transfer Protocol BGA: Ball-Grid Array (Hardware) BIPV: Bit Interleaved Parity Violation BIS: Business Information System BISDN: Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (Communication) BGE: Branch if Greater or Equal BGI: Borland Graphics Interface File name extension BISP: Business Information System Program BISSI: Broadband Inter-Switching System Interface BIST: Built-In Self Test Page 14 of 161 BISYNC: BInary SYNchronous Communications BIT: Binary digIT BitBLT: BIT BLock Transfer A raster operation that moves a block of bits representing some portion of an image or scene from one location in the frame buffer to another. BMS: Basic Mapping Support BMUG: Berkeley Macintosh User Group BNC: Bayonet Neill-Concelman Connector (Hardware) BNE: Branch if Not Equal BNF: Backus Naur Form Syntax description for programming languages BITNET: Because It's Time NETwork Academic computer network based originally on IBM mainframe systems interconnected via leased 9600 bps lines. B BNP: Broadband Network Premises BNS: Backbone Network Service (Network) BITNIC: BITnet Network Information Center BIU: Bus Interface Unit (Hardware) BNU: Basic Networking Utilities BO: Business Object (Software) BIW: Business Intelligence Warehouse BIX: Byte Information eXchange Byte's bulletin board system BO: Binary Output BOA: Basic Object Adapter BoB: Break-Out Box BOC: Bell Operating Company More commonly referred to as RBOC for "regional Bell operating company." The local telephone company in each of the seven U.S. regions. BJ: Bubble Jet (Hardware) (Canon) BJC: Bubble Jet Color (Hardware) (Canon) BKSP: BacKSPace BL: BackLit BL: Bit Line BLAST: BLocked ASynchronous Transmission Protocol BOC: Basic Operator Console BOCA: Borland Object Component Architecture BOCS: Business Object Component Set (Software) BLD: Basic Bload Graphics File name extension BOD: Bandwidth On Demand (Network) BLE: Branch if Less or Equal BLER: BLock ERror BLK: BLocK BLL: Business Logic Layer BLLI: Broadband Low Layer Information BLMC: Buried Logic MacroCell BLOB: Binary Large OBject BLOS: Branch if LOwer Or Same BLT: Baghdad Local Time Timezone: GMT +3:00 BOF: Beginning Of File BOF: Bird Of a Feather Small conference BOI: Business Object Interface (Software) BOM: Basic Online Memory (IBM) BOM: Beginning Of Message BOND: Bandwidth ON Demand BOOTP: BOOTstrap Protocol (Network) BLT: BLock Transfer BMI: Branch if MInus BMIC: BusMaster Interface Controller (Intel) BOP: Bit-Oriented Protocol (Communication) BOPS: Billions of Processes Per Second Processing speed (Hardware) BOPS: Billion Operations Per Second BOS: Basic Operating System BOT: Build, Operate and Transfer BOT: roBOT BOT: Beginning Of Table BOT: Beginning Of Tape (Hardware) Page 15 of 161 BML: Business Management Layer BMOS: Bipolar Metal Oxyde Semiconductor BMP: BitMaP File Format for bitmapped images BMP: Batch Message Processing BMS: Broadcast Message Server BP: Base Pointer Processor register (Hardware) (Intel) BSD: Berkeley Software Distribution UNIX versions developed at the University of California at Berkeley. BPB: Bios Parameter Block BPDU: Bridge Protocol Data Unit bpi: Bits Per Inch Recording Density BSF: Bit Scan Forward BSI: Bentley Systems, Incorporated BSI: BiSynchronous Interface (Network) B Bpl: Bytes Per Line BPL: Branch if Plus bpp: Bits Per Pixel BPR: Business-Process Reengineering Bps: Bytes Per Second Transfer speed (Communication) BSI: British Standards Institute BSM: Basic Storage Module (IBM) BSOD: Blue Screen Of Death (Operating systems) (Microsoft) BSP: Binary Space Partitioning BSP: Bulk Synchronous Parallelism BSR: Bit Scan Reverse BSRAM: Burst Static Random Access Memory (Hardware) bps: Bits Per Second Transfer speed (Communication) BPSK: Binary Phase-Shift Keying BPU: Branch Processing Unit BR: Bad Register BRB: Be Right Back (Messages) BSS: Broadband Switching System BSS: Block Started by Symbol BSSMAP: Base Station System Management Application Part BST: British Summer Time Timezone: GMT +0:00 BRF: Benchmark Report Format In computer graphics, a standard format for reporting benchmark results. This format provides the purchaser with a consistent data-tracking system for comparing hardware platforms. BRGC: Binary Reflected Gray Code BRI: Basic Rate Interface One of the standard ISDN interfaces defined by the CCITT protocols. BRI consists of two B channels (64 kbps) and one D channel (16 kbps). (Communication) BSV: Boot Sector Virus BSY: BuSY BSYNC: Binary SYNchronous Communications BT: Bus Terminator BT: Bit Test BTA: But Then Again (Messages) BRI: Brain Response Interface BRIEF: Basic Reconfigurable Interactive Editing Facility BRS: Big Red Switch BS: Banded Signaling BS: Base Station BS: BackSpace BSA: Business Software Alliance BSAM: Basic Sequential Access Method BSC: Base Station Controller BSC: Bus State Controller (Hardware) BTAM: Basic Tape Access Method BTAM: Basic Telecommunication Access Method (IBM) BTB: Branch Target Buffer (Hardware) BTC: Bit Test and Complement BTL: Bell Telephone Laboratories BTLB: Block Translation Look-aside Buffer BTM: Benchmark Timing Methodology In computer graphics, a method of measuring how long it takes to run the purchaser's benchmark interchange format program. BSC: Binary Synchronous Communication Communication protocol (Communication) BSC: Boyan SCript File name extension BTO: Built To Order BTOA: Binary TO Ascii BTP: Batch Transfer Program BTR: "Bet The Ranch" BSCM: Binary Synchronous Communications Module BSCS: Bachelor of Science in Computer Science Page 16 of 161 BTR: Bit Test and Reset BTS: Base Tranceiver Station BTS: Bit Test and Set BTU: Basic Transmission Unit BTU: British Thermal Unit A unit of thermal energy B BTW: By The Way (Messages) BTX: BildschirmTeXt BU: Branch Unit BUBL: BUlletin Board for Libraries BUF: BUFfer BUI: BUs Interface BUS: Broadcast and Unknown Server (Network) BVCP: Banyan Vines Control Protocol BVH: Base Video Handler BVT: Build Verification Test BVT: Behavioral Verification Technology (IBM) BW: Bus Watcher Mechanism that converts XDBus signals to XBus signals and passes them to the Module XBus Cache Controller (Sun) BWBM: BandWidth Balancing Mechanism BWM: Block-Write Mode BWoD: BandWidth On Demand (Network) BZR: Bit Zone Recording Page 17 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 18 of 161 C C: C Programming language CAIRN: Collaborative Advanced Interagency Research Network CAIS: Common Apse Interface Specification CAL: Computer Aided Logistics CAL: CALendar CAL: Client Access License CAL: Computer-Assisted Learning CALL: Computer-Aided Language Learning CALS: Computer-aided Acquisition in Logistic Support CAM: Computer-Aided Manufacturing CAM: Common Access Method (Communication) C&T: Chips And Technologies C-LCD: Cholesteric Liquid Cristal Display (Hardware) C C-SET: Chip-secured Secure Electronic Transaction C/D: Control Data C/S: Client/Server C2D: Character To Decimal (IBM) C2X: Character To heXadecimal (IBM) CA: Certification Authority CA: Collision Avoidance CAAD: Computer Aided Architectural Design CAB: CABinet File name extension (Microsoft) CAM: Contents Addressable Memory CAMAC: Computer Automated Measurement And Control CAMM: Computer Assisted Material Management CAMMU: CAche/Memory Management Unit (Hardware) CABS: Carrier Access Billing System CAC: Connection Admission Control CACP: Central Arbitration Control Point CAD: Custom Application Developer CAD: Computer-Aided Design Use of computer graphics technology to design electronic and mechanical parts and machinery. CAN: Controller Area Network CAN: CANcel CANBUS: Conroller Area Network BUS (Network) CAO: Computer Aided Office CAP: Computer-Aided Planning CAP: Carrierless Amplitude and Phase modulation (Communication) CADD: Computer-Aided Design and Drafting CADE: Computer-Aided Document Engineering CADE: Client/server Application Development Environment CAE: Computer Aided Education CAE: Computer-Aided Engineering CAE: Common Application Environment CAE: Client Application Enabler CAEN: Chemically-Assembled Electronic Nanocomputer (Hardware) CAP: Computer-Aided Publishing CAP: Competitive Access Provider CAP: Communication Application Platform CAP: Central Arbitration Point CAP: CAPture File name extension CAEX: Computer Aided EXploration CAG: Column Address Generator CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate CAI: Computer Associates International (CAI) CAPD: Computing to Assist Persons with Disabilities CAPE: Concurrent Art-to-Product Environment CAPI: Common Application Programming Interface (Communication) CAPP: Computer Aided Process Planning CAI: Computer-Aided Instruction Page 19 of 161 CAPS: CAPitalS Uppercase letters CAU: Cable Access Unit (Hardware) CAPS: CAssette Programming System CAQ: Computer Aided Quality CAR: Courtesy Amount Recognition CARB: Central ARBiter On Sun servers, a system of central arbiters (one CARB on the control board) and a board arbiter (BARB) (one on every system board) determine which processor on which system board controls the system bus at any given time. (Hardware) (Sun) CAU: Controlled Access Unit CAV: Constant Angular Velocity (Hardware) CAVE: Computer-Assisted Virtual Environment CAVERN: Computer-Assisted Virtual Environment Research Network CAWE: Computer-Aided Web Engineering CBC: Cipher Block Chaining CBCR: Channel Byte Count Register CBCS: Computer Based Conversation System CBDO: Chief Business Development Officer CBDS: Connectionless Broadband Data Service CBEMA: Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association CBGA: Ceramic Ball Grid Array CBI: Computer Based Instruction CBIOS: Compatibility Basic Input Output System CBL: Computer Based Learning CBL: CoBoL File name extension C CARCAS: Computer Aided aRchiving and Change Accounting System CARL: Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries CARP: Cache Array Routing Protocol (Microsoft) CAS: Column Address Select CAS: Computerized Autodial System CAS: Computer Algebra System CAS: Communication Applications Specification CAS: Column-Address Strobe CAS: Computer-Aided Styling CASE: Computer-Aided Software Engineering CASL: Crosstalk Application Scripting Language CASS: Computer Assisted Search Service CASSIS: Classified and Search Support Information System CAT: Computer-Aided Telephony CAT: Common Authentication Technology CAT: Computer Aided Tomography CAT: Computer-Aided Testing CAT: Computer Aided Transcription CAT: Computer-Assisted Training CAT: Computer Adaptive Test CAT: CATalog File name extension CBLT: Character BLock Transfer CBM: Commodore Business Machines Company; among the first home computer manufacturers (PET, VIC20, C64, C128, Amiga) CBMS: Computer-Based Mail System CBQ: Class-Based Queuing A public domain QoS methodology for classifying packets and queuing them according to criteria defined by an administrator to provide differential forwarding behavior for each traffic class (Network) CBR: Constant Bit Rate A class of service defined by ATM. Multimedia streams—audio and video—are examples of CBR applications, since they send at a relatively steady data rate with constant bandwidth allocations (Network) CBR: Case Based Reasoning CBT: Canon Buffer Transmission CBT: Computer Based Training CBW: Convert Byte to Word CBX: Computer-controlled Branch Exchange CC: Credit Card CC: Cross Connector CC: Cluster Controller CC:: Carbon Copy CAT: Central Alaska Time Timezone: GMT -10:00 CAT: Central Alaska Time Timezone: GMT -10:00 CATS: Computer Assisted Training System CATV: Community Antenna TeleVision (Hardware) CATV: CAble TeleVision (Hardware) Page 20 of 161 CCA: Cardholder Certification Authority CCAF: Call Control Agent Function CCC: Computer Control Center CCC: Chaos Computer Club CCC: Cordless Computer Connection (Hardware) (IBM) CCS: Common Command Set SCSI command set CCS: Common Communications Support (IBM) CCS: Continuous Composite Servo CCS: Color Calibration System CCS7: Common Channel signaling System 7 CCSD: Cellular Circuit-Switched Data CCSID: Coded Character Set IDentification CCT: Compuserve Communication Toolbox (CompuServe) CCD: Charge Coupled Device (Hardware) C CCF: Connection Control Function CCF: Cold-Cathode Fluorescent (Hardware) CCFT: Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube CCI: Common Client Interface CCIC: Committee on Computing, Information and Communications (Organizations) CCT: China Coast Time Timezone: GMT +8:00 ccTLD: Country Code Top Level Domain (Network) CCU: Cache Control Unit CD: Carrier Detect Serial port signal (Communication) CCIE: Cisco Certified Internet Expert (Cisco) CCIN: Coordinating Committee of International Networks CCIR: Comité Consultatif International de la Radio A treaty organization, part of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), responsible for obtaining international agreement on standards for radio and television transmission and the international exchange of programs. CD: Collision Detect (Communication) CD: Compact Disk (Hardware) CD: Change Directory CD: Color Display CD+G: Compact Disk Plus Graphics CD+MIDI: Compact Disk Plus Musical Instruments Digital Interface CD-DA: Compact Disk Digital Audio CD-E: Compact Disc Erasable (Hardware) CCIS: Common Channel Interoffice Signaling CCITT: Comité Consultatif International de Télégraphique et Téléphonique Now it's called ITU (Organizations) CCL: Console Command Language CCL: Common Command Language CCL: Connection Control Language CCM: Change Configuration Management CCM: Comprehensive Client Manager CCNC: Common Channel Network Controller CCNC: Computer/Communications Network Center CCP: Command Console Processor CCP: Console Command Processor CCP: Certified Computing Professional CCR: Commitment, Concurrency and Recovery An International Organization for Standardization's open systems interconnection (OSI) application service element used to create atomic operations across distributed systems. (Software) CD-I: Compact Disk Interactive (Hardware) CD-MO: Compact Disk Magneto Optical CD-PROM: Compact Disk Programmable Read Only Memory (Hardware) (Kodak) CD-R: Compact Disk Recordable (Hardware) CD-RDx: Compact Disk - Rom Data eXchange CD-ROM: Compact Disk Read Only Memory A form of storage characterized by high capacity (roughly 600 megabytes) and the use of laser optics rather than magnetic means for reading data. (Hardware) CD-RTOS: Compact Disk - Real Time Operating System CD-RW: Compact Disk ReWriteable (Hardware) CCRMA: Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics CD-V: Compact Disk - Video CD-WO: Compact Disk - Write Once Page 21 of 161 CD-XA: Compact Disk - eXtended Architecture CDA: Communications Decency Act CDA: Compound Document Architecture (DEC) CDS: Correlated Double Sampling Technology to clean the image signal during scanning (Hardware) CDS: Cell Directory Service CDS: Current Directory Structure CDSA: Common Data Security Architecture CDSL: Consumer Digital Subscriber Line (Communication) CDA: Compact Disk Audio Filename extension for CD audio tracks C CDBS: Connectionless Data Bearer Service CDBT: Compact Disk-Based Training CDC: Control Data Corporation CDDI: Copper Distributed Data Interface CDE: Cooperative Development Environment CDE: Common Desktop Environment A graphical user interface running on UNIX. (Operating systems) CDT: Cambridge Display Technology CDT: Center for Democracy and Technology (Organizations) CDT: Corel Draw Template File name extension CDT: Central Daylight Time Timezone: GMT -6:00 CDV: Cell Delay Variation In an ATM network, the variation in cell delay through the network (Network) CDE: Complex Data Entry CDF: Channel Definition Format CDF: Comma Delimited Format File name extension CDW: Computer Discount Warehouse Computer store CDX: CompounD indeX File name extension (Microsoft) CDFS: Compact Disk File System (Operating systems) CE: Compact Edition CE: Collision Elimination CE: Chip Enable CE: Cache Enable CE: Convert Enable CEA: Cisco Enterprise Accounting (Cisco) CDIA: Certified Document Imaging Architect CDID: Compact Disk Image Designer CDIF: Case Data Interchange Format CDK: Control Development Kit (Software) (Microsoft) CDL: Computer Design Language CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access CDMF: Commercial Data Masking Facility (IBM) CEBIT: CEntrum Büro Information Telekommunikation CEBUS: Consumer Electronics BUS (Hardware) CDML: Claris Dynamic Markup Language (Claris) CEG: Continuous Edge Graphics CEI: Connection Endpoint Identifier CEI: Conducted Electromagnetic Interference CELP: Code Excited Linear Prediction CELP: Card Edge Low Profile (Intel) CDO: Collaboration Data Objects CDOS: Concurrent Disk Operating System CDP: Certificate in Data Processing One of the first certifications for computer professionals CDPD: Cellular Digital Packed Data (Communication) CDR: Common Data Representation CDR: Call Detail Record CDRA: Character Data Representation Architecture (IBM) CEMA: Consumer Electroinics Manufacturers Association (Organizations) CEMM: Compaq Expanded Memory Manager (Operating systems) (Compaq) CEMS: Constituent Electronic Mail System CENELEC: Comité Européen de Normalisation ELECtrotechnique CENTR: Council of European National Top level domain Registries (Organizations) CDRAM: Cache Dynamic Random Access Memory (Hardware) CDRL: Contract Data Requirements List Page 22 of 161 CEO: Chief Executive Officer CEOP: Conditional End Of Page CEPT: Conference of European Postal and Telecommunications (Organizations) CGE: Common Graphics Environment CGI: Common Gateway Interface A common method for transferring information between a web server and a back-end application (Network) CGI: Computer Generated Images CGI: Computer Graphics Interface CGM: Computer Graphics Metafile File name extension CER: Canonical Encoding Rules CER: Cell Error Ratio In an ATM network, ratio of errored cells to transmitted cells. Measures the accuracy of cell transmission (Network) CERFNET: California Educational and Research Federation NETwork CERN: Centre Européen pour la Recherche Nucleaire CERT: Computer Emergency Response Team (Organizations) CGMS: Copy Generation Management System CGS: Continuous-Grain Silicon (Hardware) C CHAP: Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol A security tool offered in point-to-point protocol (PPP) based on encrypted password exchange. (Network) CES: Circuit Emulation Service CES: Consumer Electronic Show CET: Central European Time Timezone: GMT +1:00 CHAR: Character CHAT: Conversational Hypertext Access Technology CHCK: CHannel ChecK CHCP: CHange Code Page CHDIR: CHange DIRectory CHFN: CHange FiNger CHGRP: CHange GRouP CHILL: Ccitt HIgh Level Language CHIPS: Clearinghouse Interbank Payments System CHKDSK: CHecK DiSK CHMOD: CHange MODe CHOWN: CHange OWNer CHP: CHaPter CHR: CHaRacter CHRP: Common Hardware Reference Platform CHS: Cylinder, Head, Sector CHTML: Compressed HyperText Markup Language CI: Coded Information CI: Congestion Indication CI: Component Interface CI/O: Comprehensive Input/ Output Refers to Adaptec's RAID management software. (Hardware) (Adaptec) CF: Compact Flash Add-in expansion cards (Hardware) CFB: Cipher FeedBack CFB: Configurable Function Block CFB: Call Forward Busy CFD: Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD: Call For Discussion CFG: ConFiGuration File name extension CFM: ConFiguration Management CFM: Code Fragment Manager (Apple) CFM: Cubic Feet Per Minute CFML: ColdFusion Markup Language (Allaire) CFO: Chief Financial Officer CFQ: Class-based Fair Queuing (Network) CFR: Computerized Facial Recognition CFS: Common File System CFS: Caching File System CFV: Call For Votes CG: Computer Generated CG: Control Gate CG: Computer Graphics CGA: Color Graphics Adapter Video specification for a resolution of 320x200 pixels in 16 colors (Hardware) CIA: Current Instruction Address CIAC: Computer Incident Advisory Capability CIB: Computer Integrated Business Page 23 of 161 CIC: Carrier Identification Code CIC: Coordination and Information Center CICA: Center of Innovative Computer Applications CICS: Customer Information Control System (IBM) CIS: Card Information Structure CIS: Compressed Image Sequence The XIL library's compressors store (generally related) compressed video frames in structures called CIS buffers. The images may represent frames in a movie, pages in a document, and so on. CIS: Customer Information System CIS: Client Information System CIS: Computer Information Systems CISC: Complex Instruction Set Computer CPU architecture (Hardware) C CICS/VS: Customer Information Control System / Virtual Storage CID: Charge-Injection Device CID: Configuration, Installation, Distribution CIDR: Classless Inter-Domain Routing (Network) CIT: Court of International Trade (Organizations) CIE: Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage A standard means for specifying the color of an object or light source in terms of (x,y) coordinates. CIT: Computer-Integrated Telephony CIVIC: Cyclone Integrated Video Interfaces Controller CIVR: Computer and Interactive Voice Response CIX: Commercial Internet eXchange CIX: Compulink Information eXchange CJK: Chinese, Japanese and Korean (Software) CIF: Common Interchange Format CIF: Crystallographic Information File File name extension CIF: Customer Information Feed CIF: Common source Intermediate Format A video format in which frames are 360 pixels wide and 288 pixels high (one half of the CCIR 601 frame size). Each pixel has its own luminance value. CJLI: Command Job Language Interpreter CKD: Count Key Data CKE: Commercial Key Escrow (Software) CIFF: Camera Image FIle Format CIFS: Common Internet File System (Operating systems) (Microsoft) CIL: Computer Integration Laboratories CIM: Cox Interactive Media CIM: Common Information Model CIM: Computer Integrated Manufacturing CIM: Compuserve Information Manager CIO: Chief Information Officer CIOCS: Communication Input/Output Control System CIP: Computer Integrated Processing CIP: Commerce Interchange Pipeline (Microsoft) CKO: Chief Knowledge Officer CL: ConnectionLess (Communication) CLAR: Channel Local Address Register CLASS: Centralized Local Area Selective Signaling CLASS: CLient Access to Systems and Services CLASS: Cooperative Library Agency for Systems and Services CLASS: Custom Local Area Signaling Services CLC: CLear Carry flag CLC: Color Laser Copier (Hardware) (Canon) CIP: Common Indexing Protocol CIP: Command Interface Port CIR: Committed Information Rate A minimum access rate the service provider commits to providing the customer (Network) CLD: Clear Direction Flag CLEC: Competitive Long Exchange Carrier A telephone company that competes with other local phone companies within an exchange, or calling area, to provide local telephone service (Communication) CIRC: Cross-Interleaved Reed-solomon Code CIS: Contact Image Sensor Scanner device (Hardware) CLEI: Common Language Equipment Identification CLF: Common Log File (Network) CIS: Compuserve Information Service (CompuServe) Page 24 of 161 CLGA: Ceramic Land Grid Array (Hardware) CLTP: ConnectionLess Transport Protocol Provides for end-to-end Transport data addressing (via Transport selector) and error control (via checksum), but cannot guarantee delivery or provide flow control. CLI: Command Line Interface CLI: Call Level Interface CLI: Command Line Interpreter CLI: Clear Interrupt Flag CLI: Client Library Interface CLIB: C LIBrary CLID: Calling Line IDentification CLIM: Common Lisp Interface Manager CLIPS: C Language Integrated Production System CLIST: Command LIST CLK: CLocK (Hardware) CLTS: Clear Task Switch Flag CLTV: Constant Linear Time Velocity CLUI: Command Line User Interface CLUT: Color LookUp Table The color options in a graphics system, arranged by index number. Typically, the system has a default color map. The index of colors in the color map can be reallocated, however, depending on the application. C CLV: Constant Linear Velocity (Hardware) CM: Communication Manager (Communication) CM: Control Mark CM: Corrective Maintenance CM2: Communication Manager/2 CMA: Concert Multi-thread Architecture CMAK: Connection Manager Administration Kit (Microsoft) CLL: ConnectionLess Layer CLLI: Common Language Location Identification (Communication) CLNAP: ConnectionLess Network Access Protocol CLNP: ConnectionLess Network Protocol The International Organization for Standardization's open systems interconnection (OSI) protocol for providing the OSI Connectionless Network Service (datagram service). CLNP is the OSI equivalent to Internet IP, and is sometimes called ISO IP. CMC: Common Messaging Call CMC: Common Mail Calls CMC: Calypso Message Center CMC: Complement Carry Flag CMC: Communication Management Configuration CMC: Computer-Mediated Communication CMD: CoMmanD File name extension CLNS: ConnectionLess Network Service CLO: Chief Learning Officer CLOB: Character Large OBject (Databases) CLOS: Common Lisp Object System CLP: Constraint Logic Programming CLP: Cell Loss Priority In ATM cells, a bit that specifies whether a cell can be discarded, if necessary; for example, if network congestion or policing occurs (Network) CMD: Circuit Mode Data CMF: Creative Music Format CMI: Connection Manager Interface CMIP: Common Management Information Protocol The International Organization for Standardization's open systems interconnection (OSI) network management protocol. (Communication) CLP: CLiPboard File name extension CLR: Cell Loss Ratio In an ATM network, the ratio of lost ATM Cells to transmitted cells; measures the percentage of cells lost between two points in the network. Cell loss is typically caused by severe network congestion; it can also result from bit errors in the cell header (Network) CMIS: Common Management Information System CMISE: Common Management Information Service Element CML: Current Mode Logic CML: Chemical Markup Language CML: Computer Managed Learning CML: Conceptual Modelling Language CMM: Capability Maturity Model CLS: CLear Screen CLSID: CLaSs IDentifier CLT: Cairo Local Time Timezone: GMT +2:00 Page 25 of 161 CMMS: Computerized Maintenance Management Software CMMU: Cache/Memory Management Unit CMOL: CMip Over Llc CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Semiconductor manufacturing technology (Hardware) CNE: Certified Netware Engineer CNF: CoNFiguration File name extension CNG: CalliNG CNI: Common Network Interface CNI: Certified Novell Instructor (Novell) C CMOT: CMip Over Tcp An effort to use the International Organization for Standardization's open systems interconnection (OSI) network management protocol to manage TCP/IP networks. (Network) CNIDIR: Coalition for Networked Information DIRectories CNIDR: Clearinghouse for Network Information and Discovery and Retrieval CNM: Customer Network Management CNM: Communications Network Management CNMA: Communications Network for Manufacturing Applications CNMS: Cylink Network Management System CNMS: Compaq Netelligent Management Software (Compaq) CMOV: Conditional MOVe CMP: Cooperative Marketing Partner CMP: Chip MultiProcessor (Hardware) CMP: CoMPare CMPS: CoMPare word String CMR: Common Mode Rejection CMR: Cell Mis-insertion Rate In an ATM network, the total number of misinserted cells observed during a specified time interval divided by the time interval duration (Network) CNN: Composite Network Node CNR: Carrier to Noise Ratio CNS: Complimentary Network Service CNSS: Core Nodal Switching Subsystem CNT: CoNTents File name extension CMRR: Common Mode Rejection Ratio CMS: Color Matching System CMS: Code Management System CMS: Compiler Monitor System CMS: Conversational Monitor System CMT: Connection ManagemenT CMU: Carnegie Mellon University (Organizations) CNV: CoNVentional CNVT: CoNVerT CNX: Certified Network eXpert CO: Connection Oriented (Communication) CMVC: Configuration Management Version Control (IBM) CO: Central Office CO: Command Output CO: Convert Out COAST: Card On A STick COB: Connected Online Backup (Software) CMW: Compartmented Mode Workstation CMY: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow The CMY color model subtracts percentages of cyan, magenta, and yellow to yield the desired colors. Subtracting 0 percent of all three colors results in white; subtracting 100 percent of all three colors results in black. (Hardware) CMYK: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, blacK Color encoding scheme. The black provides deeper colors, expecially full black, compared with the CMY color model. COB: Chip-On-Board COBOL: COmmon Business-Oriented Language Programming language (Software) CNA: Communications Network Application CNA: Certified Netware Administrator (Novell) CNAPS: Co-processing Node Architecture for Parallel Systems CNB: Connected Network Backup On-line storage service COCOT: Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone COD: Cash On Delivery CODASYL: Conference On DAta SYstem Languages (Organizations) CNC: Computerized Numerical Control CND: Caller Number Delivery Page 26 of 161 CODCF: Central Office Data Connecting Facility CODE: Client/server Open Development Environment CODEC: COder/DECoder COE: Central Office Equipment COE: Common Operating Environment COEES: Central Office Equipment Engineering System COEM: Commercial Original Equipment Manufacturer COFDM: Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (Communication) COP: Character-Oriented Protocol COPA: Children Online Protection Act COPICS: Communications Oriented Production Information and Control System (IBM) COPS: Common Open Policy Service An IETF proposed standard defining a simple protocol for provisioning QoS by outsourcing policy-based admission control over requests for network resources (Network) COR: Common Object Runtime (Operating systems) C CORBA: Common Object Request Broker Architecture CoREN: COrporation for Research and Enterprise Network COS: Card Operating System (Operating systems) COFF: Common Object File Format COG: Chip On Glass (Hardware) CoS: Class Of Service A category based on type of user, type of application, or some other criteria that QoS systems can use to provide differentiated classes of service (Network) COGO: COordinate GeOmetry Programming Language COL: Computer Oriented Language COL: COLlision COLD: Computer Output to Laser Disk COLT: Connection Optimized Link Technology (Communication) COS: Camera Operating System (Operating systems) COS: Compatible Operating System COS: Corporation for Open Systems A vendor and user group for conformance testing, certification, and promotion of International Organization for Standardization's open systems interconnection (OSI) products. COM: COMmunication port Serial port (Communication) COSE: Common Open Software Environment COSE: Combined Office Standard Environment COSINE: Cooperation for Open Systems Interconnection Networking in Europe A program sponsored by the European Commission, aimed at using open systems interconnection (OSI) to tie together European research networks. COM: Component Object Model COM: Computer Output Microfilm COM: COMmand File name extension COMDEX: COMputer Dealers EXposition COMP: Compare COMSAT: COMmunications SATellite corporation COMTI: Component Object Model Transaction Integrator (Microsoft) COSMIC: COmputer Software Management and Information Center (NASA) COSMOS: COmputer System for Mainframe OperationS COSS: Common Object Services Specification COT: Central Office Terminal COTS: Connection-Oriented Transport Service COTS: Commercial Off-The-Shelf COW: Computer On Wheels CP: Control Point CP: Connection Processor (Hardware) CON: Console Usually include keyboard and screen CONCERT: COmmunications for North Carolina Education, Research and Technology CONS: Connection-Oriented Network Service CONTAC: Central Office NeTwork ACcess COO: Chief Operating Officer COO: Cost Of Ownership COOL: Cobol Object Orientated Language CP: Copy Protected CP/M: Control Program for Microprocessors (Operating systems) Page 27 of 161 CPA: Crown Print Auditor (Hardware) (QMS) CPP: C Plus Plus (C++) Object-oriented programming language based on C. Also, filename extension. (Software) CPA: Certified Public Accountant CPAN: Comprehensive Perl Archive Network CPC: Constant Point Calculation CPCS: Common Part Convergence Sublayer CPP: Corporate Preview Program (Microsoft) cps: Characters Per Second Printing engine speed CPS: Cycles Per Second CPS: Certification Practice Statement (Verisign) C CPCS: Check Processing Control System (IBM) CPD: Conseal Provate Desktop Personal firewall (Network) CPSI: Configurable PostScript Interpreter CPSR: Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility CPT: Command Pass Through CPTWG: Copyright Protection Technical Working Group (Organizations) CPE: Customer Premises Equipment (Hardware) CPE: Customer Provided Equipment CPE: Cover Page Editor File name extension CPE: Central Processing Element CPEX: Customer Profile EXchange CPG: Clock Pulse Generator CPH: Cost Per Hour CPI: Computer Private branch exchange Interface CPI: Common Part Indicator CPI: Code Page Information File name extension (Microsoft) CPU: Central Processing Unit The part of the computer in which calculations and manipulations take place. (Hardware) CPW: Commercial Processing Workload (IBM) CR: Carriage Return Usually used as a control code or a terminator CR: Card Reader (Hardware) CR: Command Register (Hardware) cpi: Characters Per Inch CPI: Common Programming Interface (IBM) CR/LF: Carriage Return/Line Feed CRAM: Computerized Reliability Analysis Method (Software) CPI: Clock Per Instruction CPI-C: Common Programming Interface for Communications (IBM) CRAM: Challenge-Response Authentication Mechanism (Operating systems) CPIC: Common Programming Interface for Communications (IBM) CRAM: Card Random Access Memory (Hardware) CPIO: CoPy In/Out CPL: Conversational Programming Language CPL: Combined Programming Language CPL: Control PaneL Control panel extension (Microsoft) CRAM: Cyberspatial Reality Advancement Movement CRAS: Cable Repair Administrative System CRAYON: CReAte Your Own Newspaper CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Check An error check in which the check key is generated by a cyclic algorithm. (Communication) CPL: Current Privilege Level CPLD: Complex Programmable Logic Device CPM: Cost Per Minute CPM: Critical Path Method CPML: Call Policy Markup Language (Network) CRCG: Center for Research in Computer Graphics CRD: CaRDfile File name extension CREN: Computer Research Education Network CREN: Corporation for Research and Education Networking CRF: Cross Reference File CPN: Compuserve Packet Network Page 28 of 161 CRF: Cable Retransmission Facility CRFVC: Connection Related Function Virtual Channel CRFVP: Connection Related Function Virtual Path CRI: Cray Research, Inc. CRI: Color Reproduction Indices CRIN: Centre de Recherche en Informatique de Nancy CRISC: Complex-Reduced Instruction Set Computer CRISP: Complex-Reduced Instruction Set Processor CRL: Certificate Revocation List CRM: Customer Relationship Management CROM: Control Read-Only Memory (Hardware) CSDC: Circuit Switched Digital Capability CSDL: Consumer Digital Subscriber Line (Communication) CSDS: Circuit Switched Data Service CSE: Certified System Engineer CSFI: Communication Subsystem For Interconnection CSG: Consulting Services Group (Lotus) C CSG: Constructive Solid Geometry CSH: Complementary Software House CSH: C SHell Unix shell CSI: Command Sequence Introducer CSI: CompuServe Incorporated CSID: Calling Subscriber IDentification CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization CSL: Computer Sensitive Language CSLIP: Compressed Serial Line Interface Protocol CSM: Communications Services Manager CSM: Code Set Map CSMA: Carrier Sense Multiple Access (Communication) CRP: Common Reference Platform CRS: Cell Relay Service CRS: Content Replication Service (Microsoft) CRT: Cathode Ray Tube The CRT operates by firing an electron beam that strikes the inside of the monitor's display surface, which is coated with phosphor. The phosphor glows briefly when excited by the beam. (Hardware) CRTC: Cathode Ray Tube Controller (Hardware) CRUD: Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete CS: Chip Select (Hardware) CSMA/CA: Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (Communication) CS: Code Segment CPU register (Hardware) (Intel) CSMA/CD: Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect The access method used by local area networking technologies such as Ethernet. (Network) CS/SS: Card Service/Socket Service CS1: Capability Set 1 CSA: Calendaring and Scheduling Api (IBM) CSMS: Customer Support Management System CSN: Card-Select Number CSNET: Computer Science NETwork Computer+Science Network. A large computer network, mostly in the U.S. but with international connections. CSNET sites include universities, research labs, and some commercial companies. Now merged with BITNET to form CREN. CSAPI: Common Speller Application Program Interface CSAR: Channel System Address Register CSC: Computer Sciences Corporation Company Name CSNW: Client Services for NetWare (Operating systems) (Microsoft) CSCC: Concurrent SuperComputing Consortium CSCW: Computer Supported Cooperative Work CSD: Corrective Service Diskette (IBM) CSO: Central Services Organization CSP: Cross System Product (IBM) CSP: Chip-Scale Packaging CSP: Cryptographic Service Provider CSP: Commercial Service Provider CSP: Certified Systems Professional CSD: Circuit-Switched Data CSD: Computer Services Department Page 29 of 161 CSP: Compucom Speed Protocol CSP: Communicating Sequential Processes CSP: Commercial Subroutine Package CSPDK: Cryptographic Service Provider Developer's Kit (Software) (Microsoft) CTBS: Computer Telephony Business Solution (Hardware) (IBM) CTC: Channel To Channel CTC: Certified Testing Center CTCA: Channel To Channel Adapter CTCP: Client-To-Client Protocol CTD: Cell Transfer Delay In an ATM network, measures the peak and mean delay that cells experience while traveling from one point in the network to another (Network) C CSPDN: Circuit Switched Public Data Network CSPDU: Convergence Sublayer Protocol Data Unit CSR: Certificate Signing Request CSRAM: Custom Static Random Access Memory (Hardware) CTERM: Command TERMinal CTFT: Color Thin Film Transistor LCD manufacturing technology (Hardware) CSS: Continuous System Simulator CSS: Computer Sub System CSS: Customizable Starter Site (Microsoft) CTI: Computer Telephony Integration (Microsoft) CTL: Certificate Trust List CTO: Chief Technical Officer CTOS: Computerized Tomography Operating System CTOS: Convergent Technologies Operating System CTPA: Coax-to-Twisted-Pair Adapter CTR: Common Technical Regulations CTRCO: Calculating, Tabulating, Recording COmpany The name of this company was changed to "International Business Machines" by Thomas J. Watson, Sr. CSS: Cybermedia Support Server CSS: Content Scrambling System Copy protection scheme used for example with DVDs (Digital Video Discs) CSS: Cascading Style Sheet CSS: Contact Start-Stop CSS: Central Structure Store The CSS is an editable hierarchy of structures composed of elements, attributes, and transformations. CSS elements are drawing primitives such as lines and polygons and CSS attributes are qualities such as color and style. CSS2: Cascading Style Sheet 2 CSSM: Client-Server Systems Management (IBM) CTRL: ConTRoL CTS: Clear To Send RS-232 signal (Communication) CST: Central Standard Time Timezone: GMT -6:00 CTS: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome CTS: Computer Telephony Solution CTS: Component Transaction Server CTS: Customer Telephone System CTSS: Cray Time Sharing System CTSS: Compatible Time Sharing System CTT: Cartridge Tape Transport CTTC: Cartridge Tape Transport Controller CTW: Catch The Werb Web organizer (Software) CSTA: Computer-Supported Telephony Applications CSTN: Color SuperTwist Nematic LCD display technology (Hardware) CSTS: Computer Supported Telecommunications Standard CSU: Channel Service Unit CSUNET: California State University NETwork CSV: Comma-Separated Value CSV: Common Services Verbs (Microsoft) CTY: Console teleTYpe CU: Control Unit (Hardware) CSV: Circuit-Switched Voice CT: Computer Telephony (Hardware) CUA: Common User Application CUA: Common Used Acronym CUA: Common User Access CTB: Communication ToolBox CTB: Cipher Type Byte Page 30 of 161 CUB: CUrsor Backward CUD: CUrsor Down CUE: Custom Updates and Extras CUF: CUrsor Forward CUG: Closed User Group (Network) CUI: Common User Interface (IBM) C CUI: Character-oriented User Interface CUP: CUrsor Position CUPID: Completely Universal Processor I/o Design (AST) CUR: CURsor File name extension CUSI: Configurable Unified Search Interface CUSIP: Committee for Uniform Security Identification Procedures CUSP: Commonly Used System Program CUT: Control Unit Terminal CUTE: Clarkston University Terminal Emulator CUTS: Cassette User Tape System (Hardware) CUU: CUrsor Up CVF: Compressed Volume File CVGA: Color Video Graphics Array CVIA: Computer Virus Industry Association CVP: Content Vectoring Protocol CVS: Computer Vision Syndrome CVS: Concurrent Version System Tool for keeping programs sources under control (Software) CVT: ConVerT CVW: CodeView for Windows CW: Control Word CWD: Convert Word to Double word CWD: Change Working Directory CWIS: Campus Wide Information System CWIS: Community Wide Information System CXI: Common X-windows Interface cXML: Commerce eXtensible Markup Language CYL: CYLinder CYMK: Cyan-Yellow-Magenta-Black Color model Page 31 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 32 of 161 D D&D: Drag & Drop D&M: Design & Modeling D-VHS: Digital Video Home System D/A: Digital/Analog (Hardware) DAI: Distributed Artificial Intelligence DAL: Data Access Language DAL: Data Abstraction Layer DAL: Data Access Layer DAL: Disk Access Lockout DAM: Distributed Abstract Machine DAM: Direct Access Mode DAM: Deferred Action Message (Software) (Microsoft) D/L: DownLoad D/R: Direct/Reverse D/S: Dhrystone per Second D2C: Decimal To Character (IBM) D D2T2: Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer Printing technology DAM: Distributed Associative Memory (Hardware) D2X: Decimal To heXadecimal (IBM) DAM: Data Acquisition and Monitoring DAMPS: Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System DAMQAM: Dynamically Adaptive Multicarrier Quadrature Amplitude Modulation DAO: Disk-At-Once CD recording technology (Hardware) D3D: Direct 3D (Microsoft) DA: Destination Address DA: Desk Accessory (Software) (Apple) DA: Data Administrator DA: Differential Analyzer A computer that uses interconnected integrators to solve differential equations. DAO: Data Access Object (Software) (Microsoft) DAP: Directory Access Protocol (Network) DAA: Digest Access Authentication DAA: Data Access Arrangement DAA: Decimal Adjust for Addition DAB: Digital Audio Broadcasting (Communication) DAP: Developer Assistance Program DAPIE: Developers Application Programming Interface Extensions DAQ: Data AcQuisition (Hardware) DAC: Discretionary Access Control DAC: Digital to Analog Converter An electronic device used to convert discrete digital numbers to continuous analog signals. In contrast with Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC). (Hardware) DARI: Database Application Remote Interface (IBM) DARMS: Digital Alternate Realization of Musical Symbols DARPA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency The U.S. government agency that funded the ARPANET. (Organizations) DAC: Dual Attachment Concentrator DAC: Data Acquisition and Control DACL: Discretionary Access Control List (Operating systems) DART: Digital Audio Reconstruction Technology DAS: Directory Assistance Service DAS: Dynamic Allocation Scheme DAS: Data Acquisition System (Hardware) DACS: Digital Access Control System DAD: Desktop Application Director (Inprise) DAE: Digital Audio Extraction daemon: Disk And Execution MONitor (Operating systems) DAS: Decimal Adjust for Subtraction DAS: Dual-Attached Station DASD: Direct Access Storage Device Page 33 of 161 DAF: Dynamic Authentication Filter DASP: Drive Active, Slave Present DASS: Distributed Authentication Security Service DAT: Digital Audio Tape (Hardware) DBLIB: DataBase LIBrary (Databases) (Microsoft) DBM: DataBase Manager (Databases) DBME: DataBase Managment Environment DBMS: DataBase Management System A software system facilitating the creation and maintenance of a data base and the execution of programs using the data base. DAT: Disk Array Technology DAT: DATa File name extension DATEX: DATa EXchange DBNL: Dial Backup Network Link (Network) D DAV: Distributed Authoring and Versioning (Software) (Microsoft) DBO: DataBase Owner (Databases) DAV: Data AVailable (Hardware) DBP: DataBase Publishing dBr: DeciBel Relative Audio intensity measurement unit DAV: Digital Audio-Video DAVIC: Digital Audio/VIdeo Council (Organizations) DBR: Dos Boot Record DBRAD: Data Base Relational Application Directory DBRM: Data Base Request Module DBS: Duplex Bus Selector DBS: Direct Broadcast Satellite (Communication) DAVID: Digital Audio Video Interactive Decoder DAX: Developper Api eXtension dB: DeciBel Measurement unit DB: DataBase (Databases) DBS: DataBase System (Databases) DB: Device Bay DB: Data Buffer DB2: DataBase 2 (Databases) (IBM) DBTG: DataBase Task Group Subcommittee of CODASYL (Organizations) DBV: Digital Broadcast Video DC: Data Collection DC: Device Control DC: Data Communication (Communication) DBA: DataBase Administrator (Databases) dBA: DeciBel Adjusted DBAC: DataBase Administration Center DBAS: DataBase Administration System DBB: Dynamic Bass Boost DBC: Device Bay Controller DBCC: DataBase Consistency Checks (Databases) DC: Direct Current DC: Data Compression DC: Data Control DC: Device Context (Operating systems) DBCLOB: Double-Byte Character Large OBject (Databases) DC: Data Cartridge (Hardware) DC: Domain Controller (Network) DBCS: Double-Byte Character Set DBCS: Delivery Bar Code Sorter DBD: DataBase Driver (Databases) DCA: Dynamic Cache Architecture DCA: Distributed Communication Architecture DCA: Document Content Architecture Describes how a document is organized (tabulator, headers, footers, ...) so it appears the same on different systems DBF: DataBase File File name extension DBI: DataBase Interface (Databases) DCA: Defense Communications Agency The government agency responsible for the defense data network (DDN). (Organizations) DBIS: Dun & Bradstreet Information Services DCA: Digital Communications Associates Page 34 of 161 DCAF: Distributed Console Access Facility (IBM) DCNA: Data Communication Network Architecture DCO: Digitally Controlled Oscillator (Hardware) DCAM: Digital CAMera (Hardware) DCAM: Direct Chip Attach Module DCB: Disk Coprocessor Board (Novell) DCOM: Distributed Component Object Model (Microsoft) DCS: Digital Cellular System DCS: Desktop Color Separation (Software) DCB: Device Control Block DCC: Direct Client Connection DCC: Direct Cable Connection (Hardware) DCS: Distributed Control System DCS: Data Control System DCT: Display Compression Technology DCT: DiCTionary File name extension D DCC: Digital Compact Cassette (Hardware) (Phillips) DCC: Data Country Code DCC: Digital Command Control DCC: Display Combination Code DCCS: DisContiguous Shared Segments DCD: Database Connector Descriptor (Databases) (Oracle) DCT: Discrete Cosine Transform Mathematical function used by video encoders to achieve a high compression ratio. (Software) DCU: Data Cache Unit DD: Data Dictionary DD: Double Density DD: Digital Display DDA: Distributed Data Access DDA: Domain-Defined Attribute DDA: Digital Differential Analyzer A differential analyzer (DA) that uses digital representations for analog quantities. DCD: Data Carrier Detect DCE: Distributed Computing Environment DCE: Data Circuit-terminating Equipment DCE: Data Communication Equipment A type of hardware, such as a modem, that is responsible for encoding a digital signal for delivery to a compatible DCE connected by a data link. In contrast with Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) (Communication) DCED: Distributed Computing Environment Daemon DCF: Data Communication Facility (IBM) DDB: Device Dependent Bitmap DDB: Device Descriptor Block DDBMS: Distributed DataBase Management System (Databases) DCF: Data Count Field (IBM) DDC: Digital Data Channel DDC: Display Data Channel DDCMP: Digital Data Communications Message Protocol (DEC) DCF: Driver Configuration File (Lotus) DCF: Data Compression Facility DCI: Data Capture Interface DCI: Display Control Interface DCL: DeCLaration DCL: Digital Control Logic DCL: Digital Command Language (DEC) DDCS: Distributed Data Connection Services (IBM) DDD: Direct Distance Dialing DDE: Dynamic Data Exchange Interprocess communication mechanism (Software) (Microsoft) DDE: Direct Data Entry DDEML: Dynamic Data Exchange Manager Library (Microsoft) DCL: Data Control Language DCL: Device CLear DCLU: Digital Carrier Line Unit DCLZ: Data Compression Lempel-Ziv DCM: Digital Carrier Module DDF: Dynamic Data Formatting (IBM) Page 35 of 161 DDI: Device Driver Interface An interface that facilitates driver portability across different UNIX system versions on SPARC hardware. (Operating systems) (Sun) DEC: DECrement DECNET: Digital Equipment Corporation NETworking Network protocol DDI: Digital Document Interchange DDI: Direct Dial In DDK: Driver Development Kit (Software) DECT: Digital European Cordless Telecommunication (Communication) DDL: Document Description Language DECUS: Digital Equipment Corporation Users Society DEF: Desktop Functional Equivalent DEK: Data Encryption Key DEL: DELete DELNI: Digital Ethernet Local Network Interconnect DELQA: Digital Ethernet Lowpower Q-bus network Adapter DELSTR: DELete STRing (IBM) D DDL: Data Definition Language DDM: Distributed Data Management (IBM) DDMA: Distributed Direct Access Memory DDN: Defense Data Network Comprises the MILNET and several other Department of Defense networks. (Network) DDNS: Dynamic Domain Name System (Network) DDoS: Distributed Denial Of Service (Network) DELTA: Developing European Learning through Technology Advance DELUA: Digital Ethernet Lowpower Unibus network Adapter DELUG: DEutsche Linux User Group DEMARC: Distributed Enterprise Managemant ARChitecture DEMPR: Digital Ethernet Multi-Port Repeater DEN: Document Enabled Networking (Novell) DDP: Distributed Data Processing DDP: Datagram Delivery Protocol DDR: Dynamic Desktop Router DDR: Dynamic Document Review (Software) (Symantec) DDR: Double Data Rate (Hardware) DDS: Distributed Directory Service DDS: Digital Dataphone Service (AT&T) DEN: Directory Enabled Networking The DEN Initiative (see is an effort to build intelligent networks and networked applications that can associate users and applications to services available from the network according to a consistent and rational set of policies (Network) DDS: Digital Data Storage DDS: Distributed Database Services DDS: Design Data Sheet DDS: Data Description Specification DDSA: Digital Data Service Adapter DDT: Dynamic Debugging Tool DDWG: Digital Display Working Group (Organizations) DENIM: Directory Enabled Net Infrastructure Model (Network) (Novell) DEPCA: Digital Ethernet Personal Computerbus Adapter DEQNA: Digital Ethernet Q-bus Network Adapter DER: Distinguished Encoding Rules DEREP: Digital Ethernet REPeater DES: Data Encryption Standard A commonly used algorithm developed by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards for encrypting and decrypting data. DDX: Digital Data eXchange DE: Device End DEA: Data Encryption Algorithm DEB: Digital European Backbone (Network) DES: Data Entry Sheet DES: DEScription Ffile name extension DEBI: Dma Extended Bus Interface (Hardware) DES: Domino Extended Search (IBM) DEC: DEvice Clear DEC: Digital Equipment Corporation DESC: Defense Electronics Supply Center Page 36 of 161 DESPR: Digital Ethernet Single Port Repeater DESTA: Digital Ethernet thin-wire STation Adapter DET: Device Execute Trigger DEUNA: Digital Ethernet Unibus Network Adapter DEV: DEVice DF: Double Flag DF: Device Flag DF: Destination Field DF: Data Field DFC: Data Flow Control DFD: Data Flow Diagram DFDR: Digital Flight Data Recorder (Hardware) DGA: Direct Graphics Access A method of arbitrating access to the display between XGL and X11/NeWS server. This allows XGL to talk directly to the frame buffer, which results in maximum performance. DGC: Distributed Garbage Collection (Software) DGIS: Direct Graphics Interface Standard DGP: Dissimilar Gateway Protocol DGR: Dynamic Growth and Reconfiguration (Artecon) DGUX: Data General UniX DH: Diffie-Hellman SSL key exchange method D DHCF: Distributed Host Command Facility DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol A system that assigns different IP addresses to devices each time they connect to the network. DHCP can support a mix of static and dynamic IP addresses (Network) DFDSM: Data Facility Distributed Storage Management DFE: Desktop Functional Equivalent (Compaq) DHL: Dynamic Head Loading DHP: Dr. Halo Picture File name extension DfE: Designed For Environment DFI: Digital Facility Interface DFM: Design For Manufacturability (IBM) DHTML: Dynamic HyperText Markup Language DI: Destination Index Processor register (Hardware) (Intel) DI: Data In DIA: Document Interchange Architecture DIANE: DIrect Access Network for Europe DIB: Dual Independent Bus (Hardware) DFN: Deutsches ForschungsNetz DFP: Data Facility Product DFP: Distributed Functional Plane DFP: Digital Flat Panel (Hardware) DIB: Device Independent Bitmap File format for raster bitmaps (Microsoft) DFPI: Digital Flat Panel Initiative DFR: Double Frequency Recording (Hardware) DIB: Directory Information Base DIBOL: DIgital Business Oriented Language DIC: Digital Interface Controller DIC: DICtionary File name extension DFS: Direct File System DFS: Distributed File System (Operating systems) DFS: Domino Fax Server (Software) (Lotus) DICE: Dynamic Internet Configuration Environment DID: Direct Inward Dialing DIDS: Distributed Intrusion Detection System DIF: Data Interchange Format DIFMOS: Double Injection Floating gate Metal Oxyde Semiconductor DIG: Disney's Internet Guide (Network) DFSMS: Data Facility Storage Management System (IBM) DFT: Design For Testability DFT: Distributed Function Terminal DFT: Discrete Fourier Transform DFT: Diagnostic Function Test DFU: Data File Utility DII: Dynamic Invocation Interface DIIP: Direct Interrupt Identification Port Page 37 of 161 DIL: Dual In Line Pin organization in ICs (Hardware) DL: DownLoad DL/1: Data Language/1 DL/1: Data Language 1 (IBM) DIME: Desktop Integrated Media Environment DIME: Dual Independent Map Encoding DIME: DIrect Memory Execute (Hardware) DLC: Data Link Control DLC: Digital Loop Carrier (Hardware) DIMM: Dual In line Memory Module (Hardware) DLCI: Data Link Connection Identifier DLD: Display List Driver DLE: Data Link Escape DLL: Dynamic Link Loader DLL: Dynamic Link Library (Software) (Microsoft) D DIN: Deutsche Industrie Norm German standards organization (Organizations) DIO: Data Input-Output DIP: Dual In line Pin Refers to the physical geometry of an integrated circuit or other electronic package; rectangular, with pins on the two longer sides. (Hardware) DIP: Dialup Internet Protocol DIP: Digital Imaging Processing DIR: DIRectory DIS: Draft International Standard DIS: Dynamic Impedance Stabilization DISA: Data Interchange Standards Association DISA: Direct Inward System Access DISM: Digital Interface Standards for Monitors (Hardware) DLM: Distributed Lock Manager DLM: Dynamic Link Module DLP: Discrete Logarithmic Problem DLP: Digital Light Processing DLPI: Data Link Provider Interface (Network) DLPI: Data Link Provider Interface The SVR4 STREAMS-based kernel-level interface that supports the services of the Data Link Layer for both connection-mode and connectionless-mode services. (Network) DLR: Dynamic Link Routine (Software) DISOSS: DIStributed Office Support System (IBM) DLR: Dos Lan Requester DLS: DownLoadable Sample DLS: Data Link Switching (IBM) DISP: Dutch Independent Shareware Programmer DISP: DISPlacement DISP: Domino Internet Starter Pack (IBM) DLSW: Data Link SWitching DLT: Digital Linear Tape (Hardware) DIT: Directory Information Tree DIU: Digital Interface Unit DIV: DIVide DIVE: Direct Interface Video Extension (IBM) DLZ: Digital Lempel-Ziv Compression algorithm DM: Delta Modulation DM: Disconnect Mode DM: Desktop Management DM: Document Management DM: Distributed Memory DMA: Direct Memory Access The transfer of data directly into memory without supervision of the processor. The data is passed on the bus directly between the memory and another device. In contrast with Direct Virtual Memory Access (DVMA). (Hardware) Divx: DIgital Video eXpress (Hardware) DIW: D-Inside Wire (AT&T) DIX: Dec, Intel, Xerox DIZ: Description In Zip File name extension DKI: Driver Kernel Interface An interface between the UNIX system kernel and different types of drivers. DKI consists of a set of driver-defined functions that are called by the kernel. These functions are entry points into a driver. (Operating systems) DMA: Document Management Alliance DMA: Dimensional Media Associates DMAC: Direct Memory Access Controller (Hardware) Page 38 of 161 DMACS: Distributed Manufacturing Automation & Control Software DMAPI: Dictation Macro Application Programming Interface (Software) DMSCMS: Display Management System DMSD: Digital MultiStandard Decoding DMSS: Distributed Mass Storage System DMT: Discrete MultiTone DMTF: Desktop Management Task Force (Organizations) DMC: Desktop Multimedia Conferencing DMD: Device Manager Driver DMD: Directory Management Domain DMD: Digital Micromirror Device (Hardware) (TI) DMU: Data Manipulation Unit DMVT: Dynamic Video Memory Technology (Hardware) (Intel) D DMDF: Distributed Management Data Facility DME: Direct Memory Execution DME: Distributed Management Environment DME: Dictionary Module Editor (CAI) DMY: Day Month Year DMZ: De-Militarized Zone LAN segment between two firewalls (Network) DN: DowN DN: Distinguished Name (Operating systems) DMF: Digest Message Format DMF: Distribution Media Format (Microsoft) DNA: Digital Network Architecture (DEC) DNA: Distributed interNet Application (Microsoft) DMI: Definition of Management Information DMI: Digital Multiplexed Interface DMI: Desktop Management Interface DMK: Dynamic Management Kit (Sun) DNAfs: Distributed interNet Application for Financial Services (Microsoft) DNC: Dynamic Network Controller DNC: Direct Numerical Control DNCP: DecNet Control Protocol DNCRI: Division of Networking and Communication Research and Infrastructure DNHR: Dynamic Non Hierarchical Routing DNI: Decnet Network Interface DNIC: Data Network Identification Code DNIS: Dialed Number Identification Service DNJ: Developer Network Journal (Microsoft) DML: Data Manipulation Language (Databases) DMM: Digital MultiMeter (Hardware) DMMS: Dynamic Memory Management System DMO: Distributed Management Object This OLE server exposes representations of SQL Server database objects (tables, stored procedures, server properties, and so on), many of which are usually modified through Transact-SQL (Databases) (Microsoft) DMOS: Double-diffused Metal Oxide Semiconductor (Hardware) DNS: Domain Name System The process that translates Internet domain names (such as into IP addresses (Network) DMP: Dot Matrix Printer DMPC: Distributed Memory Parallel Computer DMPP: Distributed Memory Parallel Processor DMQS: Display Mode Query and Set (IBM) DNS: Digital Nervous System (Microsoft) DO: Distributed Objects (Operating systems) DO: Data Out DO-IT: Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and Technology DOC: Declaration Of Conformity DOC: DOCument File name extensions DMS: Digital Multiplexed System DMS: Distributed Media Services DMS: Document Management System DMS: Desktop Management Suite (Seagate) DMS: Data Management Software DOCSIS: Data Over Cable Service Internet Specification Page 39 of 161 DOCSV: Data Over Circuit-Switched Voice DOD: Direct Outward Dialing (Communication) DPKT: Dynamic Public Key Technology DPL: Distributed Program Link (IBM) DOD: Department Of Defense (Organizations) DPL: Descriptor Privilege Level DPM: Defects Per Million DPM: Demand Planning Module (Software) DOE: Department Of Energy (Organizations) DOE: Distributed Objects Everywhere (Operating systems) (Sun) DPM: Digital Panel Meter (Hardware) D DOIP: Dial Other Internet Providers (IBM) DOIT: Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and Technology DOJ: Department Of Justice (Organizations) DPMA: Data Processing Management Association (Organizations) DPMI: Dos Protected Mode Interface (Operating systems) DOLAP: Desktop OnLine Analytical Processing DOM: Document Object Model DOMAIN: Distributed Operating Multi Access Interactive Network DOMF: Distributed Object Management Facility (HP) DPMS: Dos Protected Mode Services DPMS: Display Power Management Signaling (Hardware) DPNPH: Data Packet Network-Packet Handler DPO: Data Phase Optimization DPOF: Digital Print Order Format DPP: Distributed Parallel Processing DPROP: Data PROPagator (IBM) DOOM: Decentralised Object Orientated Machine DOS: Disk Operating System DoS: Denial Of Service (Network) DPS: Display PostScript DPS: Document Processing System DPSK: Differential Phase Shift Keying (Communication) DOSEM: Disk Operating System EMulation DOV: Data Over Voice (Communication) DOW: Direct OverWrite DOW: Day Of Week DP: Detection Point DP: Data Processing DPA: Demand Protocol Architecture (3Com) DPST: Double Pole Single Throw DPT: Distributed Processing Technology (DPT) DPtoTP: Display Coordinates TO Tablet Coordinates Coordinates conversion DQDB: Distributed Queue Dual Bus DQL: Data Query Language DR: Data Received DR-DOS: Digital Research Disk Operating System DR.BOND: Dial-up Router Bandwidth ON Demand (NEC) DPA: Document Printing Architecture DPAM: Demand Priority Access Method DPAREN: Data PARity ENable DPB: Drive Parameter Block DPC: Direct Program Control DPDT: Double Pole Double Throw DPE: Distributed Processing Environment DPI: Digital Phone Interface dpi: Dots Per Inch Resolution Measurement DRAC: Dell Remote Assistant Card (Hardware) (Dell) DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory A type of semiconductor random-access memory that stores information in integrated circuits that contain capacitors. Because capacitors lose their charge over time, the dynamic RAM must be periodically "refreshed" or recharged. (Hardware) DPI: Distributed Protocol Interface DRAW: Direct Read After Write Page 40 of 161 DRB: Dram Row Boundary DRC: Design Rule Checks DRD: Data Reading Device DRD: Digital Ruggedized Display (Hardware) DS: Data Strobe (Hardware) DS: Data Server DS: Directory Service (Network) DRDA: Distributed Relational Database Architecture (Databases) (IBM) DS: Digital Science (Hardware) (Kodak) DS: Double-Sided (Hardware) DRDAAS: Distributed Relational Database Architecture Application Server DRDRAM: Direct Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (Hardware) DS: Differentiated Service A IETF standard for a small, well-defined set of per-packet building blocks from which a variety of services may be built, thereby providing a framework for delivering quality of service (QoS) in networks (Network) D DRDW: Direct Read During Write DREN: Defense Research and Engineering Network (Network) DS: Direct-Sequence IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN access method (Communication) DS/PPM: Direct Sequence/Pulse Position Modulation (Hardware) DRI: Defense Research Internet DRI: Declarative Referential Integrity (Databases) DS3D: DirectSound 3D (Operating systems) (Microsoft) DSA: Digital Storage Architecture DSA: Dynamic Scalable Architecture DSA: Distributed Systems Architecture DSA: Directory System Agent The software that provides the X.500 directory service for a portion of the directory information base. Generally, each DSA is responsible for the directory information for a single organization or organizational unit. DRI: Digital Research Incorporated DRM: Destination Release Mechanism DRM: Digital Rights Management Copy-protection scheme DRM: Distributed Resource Management DRMU: Digital Remote Measurement Unit DRO: Data Request Output DRO: Destructive Read-Out DRP: Decnet Routing Protocol DRS: Driver ReSource File name extension DSA: Digital Signature Algorithm DSAP: Destination Service Access Point DSAV: Dr. Solomon's Anti Virus (Software) DSBAM: Double-SideBand Amplitude Module DSBM: Designated Subnet Bandwidth Manager A device on a managed subnetwork that acts as the Subnet Bandwidth Manager for the subnetwork to which it is attached (Network) DRS: Document Registration System DRV: device DRiVer File name extension DRV: DRiVe DRW: Drawing File name extensions DSC: Document Structuring Convention DSC: Digital Still Camera (Hardware) DS: Digital Services DS: Distribution Services DS: Digital Signal DS: Data Send DS: Digital Studio (Sony) DSC: Document Structuring Conventions DSD: Data Structure Diagram DSD: Data Stream Direct DSDD: Double Sided, Double Density DSDM: Drop Site Database Manager A process (not the sending client) responsible for maintaining a registry or database of potential drop sites for drag and drop operations. DS: Database Server (Databases) DS: Data Segment CPU register (Hardware) (Intel) DSE: Data Storage Equipment DSEA: Display Station Emulation Adapter Page 41 of 161 DSHD: Double Sided, High Density DSI: Defense Simulation Internet DSIMM: Dual Single Inline Memory Module DSIS: Distributed Support Information Standard DSL: Distributed Service Logic DSL: Dialogue Scripting Language DSL: Digital Subscriber Line DSS: Distributed Security Service DSS: Digital Signature Standard DSS: Decision Support System DSS: Direct Station Selector (Hardware) DSSI: Digital Standard Systems Interconnect (DEC) D (Communication) DSSLL: Differentiated Services over Specific Link Layers A system for mapping between Differentiated Services and other bandwidth-management protocols such as 802.1p and ATM (Network) DSL: Dynamic Simulation Language DSL2: Downloadable Sounds Level 2 (Hardware) DSSS: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (Communication) DSLAM: Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (Hardware) DSSSL: Document Style Semantic and Specification Language DST: Daylight Saving Time DSTN: Double-layer SuperTwist Nematic LCD display technology (Hardware) DSM: Directory Service Migration DSM: Distributed Shared Memory DSM: Discrete Sequence Modulation DSM-CC: Digital Storage Media - Command and Control DSMA: Digital Sense Multiple Access DSN: Developer Support News DSN: Distributed Systems Network DSN: Delivery Service Notification DSN: Data Source Name (Databases) DSU: Digital Service Unit DSU: Data Service Unit DSVD: Digital Simultaneous Voice and Data (Communication) DSW: Device Status Word DSW: Data Status Word DSX: Digital Signals Cross-connect DTA: Direct Tape Access (Seagate) DSO: Data Source Object (Databases) DTA: Disk Transfer Area DTAP: Direct Transfer Application Part DTB: Data Transfer Bus Part of the VMEbus specification that contains data and address pathways and associated control signals. Functional modules called DTB masters and DTB slaves use the DTB to transfer data between each other. (Hardware) DSO: Dynamic Shared Object (Software) DSOM: Distributed System Object Model (Operating systems) (IBM) DSP: Document Services for Printing DSP: Digital Signal Processor A computer oriented toward math-intensive applications, often a single chip or small chip set. (Hardware) DTC: Distributed Transactions Coordinator (Databases) (Microsoft) DSP: Domain-Specific Part (Network) DTC: Design-Time Control (or Component) (Software) DSP: Directory Synchronization Protocol (Lotus) DTC: DeskTop Conferencing DTCP: Digital Transmission Content Protection DTD: Document Type Definition DTE: Data Terminal Equipment That part of a data station that serves as a data source, data sink, or both, and provides for the data communication control function according to protocols. In contrast with Data Communication Equipment (DCE). (Communication) DSPT: Display Station Pass-Thru (IBM) DSQD: Double Sided, Quad Density DSR: Data Set Ready Serial port signal (Communication) DSR: Device Status Register DSR: Device Status Report DSRI: Digital Standard Relational Interface DTE: Dumb Terminal Emulator DTF: Distributed Test Facility Page 42 of 161 DTL: Diode Transistor Logic Semiconductor manufacturing technology (Hardware) DVC: Desktop Video Conferencing DVD: Deutsche Vereinigung für Datenschutz DVD: Digital Video (or Versatile) Disk (Hardware) DTL: Dialogue Tag Language (IBM) DTLB: Dual Translation Lookaside Buffer DTM: Distributed Transaction Monitor DTM: Digital Terrain Mapping DTMF: Dual Tone MultiFrequency DTMS: Data Transformation Management System DTO: Day-Time Organizer (Software) DVD+RW: Digital VIdeo (or Versatile) Disk Read Write A DVD unofficial specification competing with DVD RAM (Hardware) DVD-MMVFF: Digital Versatile Disc MultiMedia Video File Format DVD-R: Digital Video Disk-Recordable DVD-RAM: Digital Versatile Disk - Random Access Memory A read-write DVD (Hardware) D DTP: Distributed Transaction Processing DTP: DeskTop Publishing DTR: Dedicated Token Ring (Network) DVD-ROM: Digital Versatile Disk - Read Only Memory A read only DVD (Hardware) DVE: Digital Video Effect DVI: Diagonal Viewable Image (Hardware) DTR: DeskTop Reproduction DTR: Data Transfer Rate DTR: Data Terminal Ready Serial port signal (Communication) DVI: Digital Video Interface Specification to interface digital flat panels with host PCs DTS: Digital Theater Surround DTS: Distributed Time Service DTS: Data Transformation Service (Databases) DVI: Digital Video Interactive DVI: DeVice Independent File name extension DVI-I: Digital Video Interface-Integrated (Hardware) DTSS: Dartmouth Time Sharing System DTU: Demand Transmission Unit DTV: Digital TeleVision (Hardware) DVI-V: Digital Video Interface-Vga (Hardware) DVL: Digital Video Link DVM: Digital Volt Meter (Hardware) DTV: DeskTop Video DTVC: DeskTop Video Conferencing DU: Disk Usage DUA: Directory User Agent The software that accesses the X.500 directory service on behalf of the directory user. The directory user may be a person or another software element. DVMA: Direct Virtual Memory Access A mechanism to enable a device on the SBus to initiate data transfers between it and other SBus devices, such as system memory. Contrast with Direct Memory Access (DMA). (Hardware) DVMRP: Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (Communication) DUAT: Direct User Access Terminal DUN: Dial-Up Networking (Network) DVR: Digital Video Recorder (Hardware) DVR: device DriVeR File name extension DUNCE: Dial Up Network Connection Enhancement (Network) DVX: Digital Voice eXchange DW: Data Warehouse (Databases) DUT: Device Under Test DUW: Distributed Unit of Work (IBM) DW: Display Write Word Processor (Software) (IBM) DV: Digital Video DVB: Digital Video Broadcasting (Communication) DWDM: Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer DWG: DraWinG File name extension DVC: Digital Video Camera (Hardware) DWM: Diskless Workstation Management Page 43 of 161 DWMT: Discrete Wavelet MultiTone DX: DirectX (Operating systems) (Microsoft) DXB: Drawing eXchange Binary File name extension (Autodesk) DXC: Data eXchange Control DXF: Drawing Exchange Format File name extension DXI: Data Exchange Interface D Dxr: Dynamic eXtended Resolution (Hardware) (Creative Labs) DXTC: DirectX Texture COmpression (Microsoft) Page 44 of 161 E E-ADT: Extended Abstract Data Type (Software) EASI: Enhanced Asynchronous Scsi Interface EAST: East Australian Standard Time Timezone: GMT +10:00 E-FORM: Electronic FORM E-MAIL: Electronic MAIL E-ZINE: Electronic magaZINE E2E: End-To-End The ability of a network to deliver service needed by a specific network application from end-to-end, with the ability to provide both class of service and reserved bandwidth for different types of network traffic (Network) EATA: Enhanced Advanced Technology bus Attachment EAX: Environmental Audio eXtensions (Hardware) (Creative Labs) EB: ExaByte 2 power 18 bytes E EA: Escrowed Authenticator EA: Extended Attribute (IBM) EBC: Eisa Bus Controller EBCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code Charachter encoding scheme (IBM) EA: Effective Address EAB: Enterprise Application Builder (Software) EBCT: Electron Beam Computed Tomography EBI: External Bus Interface (Hardware) EADAS: Engineering and Administrative Data Acquisition System EADASNM: Engineering and Administrative Data Acquisition System Network Management EADT: East Australian Daylight Time Timezone: GMT +10:00 EBI: Extended Background Investigation EBI: Equivalent Background Input EBNF: Extended Backus-Naur Form EBROM: Electronic Book Read Only Memory EBT: Electronic Benefits Transfer EC: European Community EC: Electronic Commerce EC: Error Control ECAF: European Certification Authority Forum ECAL: Enjoy Computing And Learn ECAT: Electronic Card Assembly and Test (IBM) EAGLES: Expert Advisory Group on Language Engineering Standards EAI: Enterprise Application Integration EAM: Evanescent Access Method EAN: European Article Number Bar code standards family EAP: Early Adopter Program EAPI: Extended Application Programming Interface (Software) EAR: External Access Register EARN: European Academic Research Network A network using BITNET technology connecting universities and research labs in Europe. (Network) ECB: Event Control Block A data structure used to control sending and receiving of packets in a Novell Network (Operating systems) (Novell) ECB: Electronic CodeBook ECC: Electrical Connectivity Checks ECC: Error Correction Code ECC: Error Checking and Correction The detection, in the processing unit, and correction of all singlebit errors, plus the detection of double-bit and some multiple-bit errors. EAROM: Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory (Hardware) EARS: Electronic Authoring and Routing System (DEC) EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Services EARS: Explicit Archive and Retrieval System EAS: Enterprise Access Server ECC: Elliptic Curve Cryptography ECD: Enhanced Color Display ECD: Enhanced Compact Disk ECF: Enhanced Connectivity Facilities Page 45 of 161 ECHO: European Commission Host Organization ECHT: European Conference on Hypermedia Technology ECI: External Call Interface (IBM) EDA: Electronic Design Automation EDAC: Electromechanical Digital Adapter Circuit EDB: Embedded DataBase EDC: Error Detection Code EDC: Easy Data Communication (Communication) ECL: EClectic Language ECL: Emitter Coupled Logic Semiconductor manufacturing technology (Hardware) EDC: Error Detection and Correction EDC: Electronic Digital Computer EDC: Enhanced Data Correction EDDC: Extended Distance Data Cable EDE: Encrypt-Decrypt-Encrypt EDGAR: Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval EDI: Electronic Data Interchange EDI: Electronic Document Interchange (DEC) ECM: Entity Coordination Management ECM: Error-Correction Mode E ECM: Electronic Control Module ECM: Electronic Counter Measures (Hardware) ECMA: European Computer Manufacturing Association (Organizations) ECML: Electronic Commerce Modeling Language ECMP: Equal Cost Multipath Protocol (Network) EDID: Extended Display Identification Data (Hardware) ECN: European Counter Network ECN: Explicit Congestion Notification (Network) EDIF: Electronic Design Interchange Format A standard file format for exchanging CAD data. ECNE: Enterprise Certified Netware Engineer (Novell) EDIFACT: Electronic Data Interchange For Administration Commerce and Transport EDIT: Emulsion Direct Imaging Technology (Hardware) ECOM: Electronic Computer Originated Mail ECOOP: European Conference on Object Orientated Programming ECP: Enhanced Communication Protocol ECP: Extended Capabilities Port (Hardware) EDL: Edit Decision List EDLC: Ethernet Data Link Control EDM: Electronic Document Management EDM: Engineering Data Management EDMS: Electronic Document Management System EDO: Extended Data Output Mmeory Manufacturing technology (Hardware) ECPA: Electronic Communication Privacy Act ECR: Enterprise Customer Resource ECS: Enterprise Control Station ECS: Event Communication Service ECS: Enhanced Chip Set ECSA: Exchange Carriers Standards Association ECTL: Electronic Communal Temporal Lobe ECU: Eisa Configuration Utility ED: End Delimiter ED: Enhanced Density ED: Extra-high Density 2.88 MB floppy disk (Hardware) EDOS: Enhanced Disk Operating System EDP: Electronic Data Processing EDP: Extended Dos Partition (Operating systems) (Microsoft) EDPM: Electronic Data Processing Machine EDPS: Electronic Data Processing System EDR: External Developer Release EDRAM: Extended Dynamic Random Access Memory EDS: Electronic Data Systems EDSAC: Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer EDSI: Enhanced Small Device Interface ED: Erase Display EDA: Embedded Document Architecture Page 46 of 161 EDSRA: Earth Data System Reference Application EDT: Eastern Daylight Time Timezone: GMT -5:00 EFT: Euro FileTransfer EFT: Electronic Funds Transfer EFTPoS: Point Of SaleElectronic Funds Transfer at Point Of Sale EFTS: Electronic Funds Transfer System EGA: Enhanced Graphics Adapter Video specification for a resolution of 640x350 pixels in 16 colors (Hardware) EDVAC: Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer First stored-program digital computer EDW: Enterprise Data Warehouse EE: Extended Edition (IBM) EGP: Exterior Gateway Protocol A reachability routing protocol used by gateways in a two-level internet. EGP is used in the Internet core system. (Network) EEC: Extended Error Correction EEG: ElectroEncephaloGram EEI: Equipment to Equipment Interface EEL: Epsilon Extension Language EEM: External Expansion Module EEMA: European Electronic Messaging Association (Organizations) EGREP: Extended Global Regular Expression Print EGS: Enhanced Graphics System EGSM: Extended Global System for Mobile communications (Communication) E EHF: Encoding Header Field EHF: Extreme High Frequency EHLLAPI: Emulator High-Level Language Application Programming Interface EIA: Electronics Industries Association (Organizations) EEMAC: Electrical & Electronic MAnufacturers of Canada EEMS: Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification (Operating systems) EEP: Entry Exit Procedure EEPRO: Ethernet Express PRO Network interface card (Hardware) (Intel) EICAVR: European Institute for Computer Anti-Virus Research EIDE: Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics Bus architecture (Hardware) EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory A non-volatile PROM that may be written to as well as read from. (Hardware) EIGRP: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (Network) (Cisco) EES: Escrow Encryption Standard EET: Eastern European Time Timezone: GMT +1:00 EIO: Enhanced Input/Output EIP: Enterprise Information Portal (IBM) EF: Expedited Forwarding A Per-Hop Behavior in the Differentiated Service standard, used to create a virtual leased line service (Network) EIS: European Information System EIS: Executive Information System EISA: Extended Industry Standard Architecture PC bus architecture (Hardware) EFA: Extended File Attribute EFCI: Explicit Forward Congestion Indication EFF: Electronic Frontier Foundation EFI: Electromechanical Frequency Interference EFI: Electronics For Imaging EFIGS: English, French, Italian, German, Spanish EFL: Emitter Follower Logic (Hardware) EISS: Europaeisches Institut für SystemSicherheit EITAAC: Electronic and Information Technology Access Advisory Committee (Organizations) EJB: Enterprise Java Bean (Software) (Sun) EJC: Electronic Journal of Communication EKP: Enterprise Knowledge Portal (IBM) EFM: Eight to Fourteen Modulation EFS: Encrypting File System (Operating systems) EL: ElectroLuminescent (Hardware) EFSP: Enhanced Fax Service Provider EL: Erase Line Page 47 of 161 EL1: Extensible Language One ELAN: Emulated Local Area Network ELC: Embedded Linking and Control ELF: Extremely Low Frequency (Hardware) EMEA: Europe, Middle East and Africa EMF: Enhanced MetaFile File format for graphics (Microsoft) EMF: ElectroMagnetic Field EMI: ElectroMagnetic Interference EML: Element Management Layer EML: EMaiL Filename extension used by MS Outlook Express (Software) (Microsoft) ELF: Electronic Location Finder ELF: Executable and Linking Format (Software) ELH: Entity Life History ELI: Embedded Lisp Interpreter EMM: Expanded Memory Manager EMM: Extended Memory Management EMMA: European MultiMedia Award EMR: ElectroMagnetic Radiation EMR: Enhanced Metafile Record EMS: Expanded Memory Specification (Software) E ELIC: Electronic Library Information Center ELINT: ELectronic INTelligence ELK: Extension Language Kit ELLIS: EuLisp LInda System ELM: ELectronic Mail (Network) ELOD: Erasable Laser Optical Disk ELP: Equational Logic Programming ELS: Entry Level System ELSNET: European Language and Speech NETwork EM: End of Medium EM: Extensions Manager EM: Electronic Mail EM: EMphasized EM: ElectroMagnetic EM: Expanded Memory EMA: Enterprise Management Architecture EMA: Enterprise Memory Architecture (Operating systems) EMS: Electronic Mail System EMS: Electronic Messaging Service EMSAPI: Extended Messaging Services Application Programming Interface EMSC: Electronic Mail Standards Committee EMT: Eastern Mediterranean Time Timezone: GMT +2:00 EMV: Europay, Mastercard and Visa EMWAC: European Microsoft Windows nt Academic Centre EMX: Enterprise Messaging eXchange (Lotus) EN: Europa Norm ENA: Electronic Networking Association ENA: Extended Network Addressing ENC: ENCoded File name extension EMA: Electronic Mail Association EMACS: Editing MACroS EMB: Enhanced Master Burst EMB: Extended Memory Block EMBARC: Electronic Mail Broadcast to A Roaming Computer EMBM: Environment-Mapped Bump Mapping EMC: Emergency Management Card (Hardware) (Intel) ENDC: European Network Design Center ENDEC: ENcoder/DECoder ENDS: END of Segment ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer First fully electronic digital computer ENQ: ENQuiry ENS: Enterprise Network Services ENSS: Exterior Nodal Switching Subsystem EO: Europe Online EOA: End Of Address (Communication) EMC: E-Mail Connection EMC: Enhanced Memory Chip EMC: ElectroMagnetic Compatibility EMC: Extended Math Coprocessor Page 48 of 161 EOB: End Of Block (Communication) EPIC: Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing EPL: Electronic switching system Programming Language EPL: Effective Privilege Level EPLD: Electrically Programmable Logic Device (Hardware) EOC: End Of Character EOC: End Of Conversion EOD: Erasable Optical Disk EOD: End Of Data EOF: End Of File A particular character, usually a Control-D, that tells the system it has reached the end of the file. EPM: Enterprise Process Management (IBM) EOF: Enterprise Object Framework (Software) (Apple) EPM: Enhanced editor for Presentation Manager (IBM) EOI: End Of Input EOI: End Of Interrupt EOI: End Or Identify EOJ: End Of Job EOL: End Of Line EOL: End Of List EOM: End Of Message (Communication) E EPP: Enhanced Parallel Port (Hardware) EPROM: Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory A non-volatile memory chip that is programmed after they it is manufactured. EPROMs differ from PROMs in that they can be erased (generally by exposing the semiconductor material to the ultraviolet light) and can be reprogrammed after having been erased. (Hardware) EPRPI: Enhanced Primary Rate Peripheral Interface EPS: Encapsulated PostScript A file format for graphics and text supported by several graphics drawing applications. (Adobe) EON: Extranet Object Network (Network) EON: Edge Of Network (Network) (IBM) EPSF: Encapsulated PostScript Files EPSI: Encapsulated PostScript Interchange A version of the encapsulated PostScript format that describes an image using a standard text file. (Adobe) EOP: End Of Procedure EOR: Electro-Optical Reconnaissance EOR: Exclusive OR Also XOR EQD: English Query Domain Filename extension (Databases) (Microsoft) EOS: Extended Operating System EOS: Earth Observing System (NASA) EQP: EQuiPment ER: Entity Relationship ER: Explicit cell Rate ER/RC: Extended Result/Response Code ERA: Extended Registry Attributes ERAS: Electronic Routing and Approval System ERD: Entity-Relationship Diagram ERD: Emergency Repair Disk ERIC: Educational Resources Information Center ERIN: Environmental Resources Information Network ERLL: Enhanced Run Length Limited ERM: Entity-Relationship Model ERMA: Electronic Recording Method, Accounting EROM: Erasable Read Only Memory EROS: Earth Resources Observation System EOS: End Of String EOSDIS: Earth Observing System Data and Information System (NASA) EOT: End Of Text EOT: End Of Tape (Hardware) EOT: End Of Transmission (Communication) EOT: End Of Table EOUG: European Oracle User Group EP: Electrophotographic Engine EPA: Enhanced Performance Architecture EPA: Environmental Protection Agency (Organizations) EPAC: Enhanced Perceptual Audio Coder Page 49 of 161 ERP: Enterprise Resource Planning ERR: ERRor ERU: Emergency Recovery Utility (Microsoft) ESMA: Extended Server Memory Architecture (Operating systems) ESMD: Embedded Storage Module Disk ESMD: Enhanced Storage Module Device ESMR: Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio ESMTP: Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ESN: Electronic Switched Network ESN: Electronic Security Number ESNET: Energy Sciences NETwork ESP: Ethernet Serial Port ESP: Enhanced Service Provider ESP: Encapsulated Security Payload (Network) ES: Extended Services ES: Extra Segment CPU register (Hardware) (Intel) ES-IS: End System to Intermediate System The International Organization for Standardization's Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol by which end systems announce themselves to intermediate systems. E ESA: Enterprise Systems Architecture (IBM) ESA: European Space Agency (Organizations) ESC: ESCape ESC: Eisa System Component ESC/P: Epson Standard Code for Printers (Epson) ESP: Enhanced Serial Port (Hardware) ESCD: Extended System Configuration Data ESCM: Extended Services Communications Manager (IBM) ESP: Estimated Street Price ESP: Emulation Sensing Processor ESPRIT: European Strategic Program of Research and development in Information Technology ESR: Event Service Routine ESRB: Entertaining Software Rating Board (Organizations) ESCON: Enterprise System CONnection Architecture (IBM) ESCSI: Embedded Small Computers System Interface Bus architecture (Hardware) ESD: Electronic Software Distribution ESD: ElectroStatic Discharge ESD: Emergency Startup Disk (Operating systems) (Microsoft) ESS: Enterprise Storage Server ESS: Electronic Switching System EST: Eastern Standard Time Timezone: GMT -5:00 ESDI: Enhanced Small Device Interface ESDRAM: Enhanced Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (Hardware) ESTT: E-mail Server Test Tool Ziff-Davis labs test suite for email servers ESU: ElectroStatic Unit ET: Enhancement Technology ETACS: Extended Total Access Communication System (IBM) ESDS: Entry Sequenced Data Set ESE: Exchange Server Enterprise (Microsoft) ESF: Extended SuperFrame ESI: End System Identifier ESI: Enhanced Serial Interface Communication specification (Hayes) ETANN: Electrically Trainable Analog Neural Network Chip (Intel) ETB: End of Transmission Block ETC: Enhanced Throughput Cellular Cellular modem protocol (AT&T) ESIS: End System to Intermediate System ESM: European Satellite Multimedia ESM: Enterprise System Management ESM: External Storage Module A Sun external unit that contains disk or tape drives and that can be connected to a desktop SPARCstation system. (Hardware) (Sun) ETC: Electronic Toll Collection ETF: Enriched Text Format ETIS: European Telecommunications Information Service ETL: Extract, Transformation and Load (Databases) Page 50 of 161 ETLA: Extended Three Letter Acronym ETOM: Electron-Trapping Optical Memory ETPL: Endorsed Tempest Products List ETR: Early Token Release ETS: Ethernet Terminal Servers (Hardware) EXT: EXTernal EXTRA: EXecutionTRace Analyzer EXTRN: EXTernal RefereNce EXUG: European X Users Group ETS: Econometric Time Series ETSI: European Telecommunication Standards Institute (Organizations) ETX: End of TeXt (Communication) E EU: Execution Unit EUC: Extended Unix Code An encoding scheme that allows up to four codesets to coexist in one data stream. EUC supports one primary character set and three supplementary character sets. (Operating systems) EUC: End User Computing EUI: End-User Interface EULA: End User License Agreement EUNET: European Unix NETwork Euro CASE: EUROpean Council of Applied Sciences and Engineering (Organizations) EUUG: European Unix Users Group (Organizations) EUV: Extreme Ultra Violet EVE: Extensible Vax Editor EVGA: Extended Video Graphics Array EVGA: Extended Video Graphics Adapter EVLIW: Encapsulated Very Long Instruction Word (Hardware) EW: Electronic Warfare EWAN: Emulator Without A Name EWOS: European Workshop for Open Systems The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Implementors workshop for Europe. EWS: Employee Written Software (IBM) EWS: Early Warning Status System that alerts the host system if drive performance approaches unacceptable reliability levels (Hardware) ExCA: EXchangeable Card Architecture (Intel) EXE: Executable File name extension EXE2BIN: EXEcutable To BINary EXP: EXPonent Page 51 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 52 of 161 F F/T: Full Time F/V: Frequency to Voltage converter (Hardware) FBRAM: Frame Buffer Random Access Memory A special type of Dynamic RAM (DRAM) used in high-speed frame buffers. Similar to Video RAM (VRAM), FBRAM is specifically designed for use in high-speed frame buffers and graphics accelerators. (Hardware) FAB: FABrication plant Usually referred to chip fabrication plants FAC: File Access Code FACE: Framed Access Command Environment FACS: Facility fir Access Control and Security FAIL: Fast Artificial Intelligence Language FAMOS: Floating gate Avalanche Metal Oxide Semiconductor (Hardware) FC: Frame Control FC: Functional Component (Software) FC: Fiber Channel (Hardware) FC-AL: Fiber Channel - Arbitrated Loop (Hardware) F FC-EL: Fiber Channel - Enhanced Loop (Hardware) FANS: Future Air Navigation System FAP: Format And Protocol FAP: File Access Protocol FAPI: Family Application Programming Interface FAQ: Frequently Asked Question FAR: Fixed Alternative Routing FARNET: Federation of American Research NETworks (Organizations) FC/AL: Fiber Channel/Arbitrated Loop FC/EL: Fiber Channel/Enhanced Loop FCA: Flow Control Acknowledge FCB: File Control Block FCBS: File Control BlockS FCC: Federal Communications Commission (Organizations) FCC: File Carbon Copy FCCSET: Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology FCFS: First Come, First Served FCI: Fibre Channel Interface FCI: Flow Control Indicator FCI: Flux Changes per Inch FCIF: Full Common Intermediate Format Video Teleconferencing standard FASIC: Function and Algorithm-Specific Integrated Circuit FASMI: False Analysis of Shared Multidimensional Information FAST: First Application System Test FAT: File Allocation Table (Operating systems) (Microsoft) FAT12: File Allocation Table 12 bits Every entry in the table is 12 bits wide (Operating systems) (Microsoft) FCL: Fibre Channel Loop FCO: Flow Control Operator bits FCP: Fibre Channel Protocol FCPH: Fibre Channel PHysical and signaling interface FCR: FIFO Control Register FCS: Fiber Channel Standard FCS: First Customer Ship FCS: Frame Check Sequence FD: Floppy Disk FD: Flat Display (Hardware) (Sony) FAT16: File Allocation Table 16 bits Every entry in the table is 16 bits wide (Operating systems) (Microsoft) FAT32: File Allocation Table 32 bits Every entry in the table is 32 bits wide (Operating systems) (Microsoft) FAX: FACSimile Also a file name extension FAZAM: Full Armor Zero AdMinistration FB: Fiber optic Backbone FD: Full Duplex Page 53 of 161 FDBMS: Federated Database Management System (Databases) FeRAM: FErroelectric Random Access Memory (Hardware) FDC: Floppy Disk Controller (Hardware) FESDK: Far East Software Development Kit (Microsoft) FDCN: Financial Data Cast Network FDCT: Forward Discrete Cosine Transform (Software) FET: Field-Effect Transistor A type of transistor in which the flow of current between the source and the drain is modulated by application of a transverse electric field between two gate electrodes. (Hardware) FDD: Floppy Disk Drive (Hardware) FF: Flip-Flop (Hardware) FDDI: Fiber Digital Device Interface (Hardware) FF: Form Feed A printer command that tells a printer to move to the top of the next page. In the ASCII character set, the form-feed character has the decimal value 12. Also known as the page eject character. FDDI: Fiber Distributed Data Interface F An emerging high-speed networking standard. The underlying medium is fiber optics, and the topology is a dual-attached, counter-rotating token ring (Hardware) FDDITPPMD: Fiber Distributed Data Interface Twisted Pair-Physical layer, Medium Dependent FDE: Full Duplex Ethernet FDFS: File Descriptor File System A pseudo file system that provides explicit names for opening files using file descriptors. (Operating systems) FFDC: First Failure Data Capture (IBM) FFOL: Fddi Follow-On-LAN FFS: Fast Filing System FFS: Fast FileSystem FFST: First Failure Support Technology (IBM) FDL: File Definition Language FDM: Frequency-Division Multiplexing FDMA: Frequency-Division Multiple Access FDOCA: Formatted Data Object Content Architecture (IBM) FFT: Fast Fourier Transform FFT: Final Form Text (IBM) FG: Floating Gate FGREP: Fixed Global Regular Expression Print FH: Frequency Hopping (Communication) FDx: Full DupleX (Communication) FE: Functional Entity FEA: Functional Entity Action FEBE: Far End Block Error FEC: Fast EtherChannel (Hardware) (Cisco) FHS: File Hierarchy Standard (Operating systems) FHS: Fan Heat-Sink FHSS: Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (Communication) FEC: Forward Error Correction Sending redundant data so that if data loss occurs, data recovery is possible without retransmission (Communication) FIF: Fractal Image Format FIFO: First In First Out (Hardware) FECN: Forward Explicit Congestion Notification FED: Field Emitting Display (Hardware) FIFOFS: First In First Out File System Named pipe files that give processes common access to data. (Operating systems) FILO: First In Last Out FIN: Functional Identification Number FIOC: Frame Input/Output Controller FIP: Facility Interface Processor FIP: File Processor Buffering FIPS: Federal Information Processing Standard The FIPS PUB is the National Bureau of Standards’ guide to the standards it issues. FEFO: First-Ended, First-Out FEM: Finite Elemente Methode FEP: Front End Processor FEPI: Front End Programming Interface FEPROM: Flash EPROM FER: Forward Error Correction FIR: Finite Impulse Response Page 54 of 161 FIR: Fast Infrared FIRST: ForschungsInstitut fër Rechnerarchitektur und SoftwareTechnik FIRST: Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams FIST: First In Still There FIU: Fingerprint Identification Unit (Hardware) FON: Fiber Optics Network FON: FONt File name extension FOOBAR: Ftp Operation Over Big Address Records FOOT: Forum for Object Oriented Technology FOR: FORtran File name extension FIX: Federal Internet eXchange FK: Foreign Key (Databases) FORTRAN: FORmula TRANsactor Programming language FL: Fiberoptic Link FLA: Four Letter Acronym FLACC: Full Level Algol Checkout Compiler FLAG: Fiber-optic Link Around the Globe (Network) FOSE: Federal Office Systems Exposition FOSI: Format Option Specification Instance FOSSIL: Fido/Opus/Seadog Standard Interface Layer FOT: Fiber Optic Transceiver FOX: Field Operational X.500 FP: Frame Pointer Processor register (Hardware) F FLC: Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal FLD: FieLD FLEA: Four Letter Extended Acronym FLL: Foxpro Link Library (Microsoft) FP: Floating Point FPA: Floating Point Accelerator A device (board or integrated circuit - IC) that speeds up floating-point calculations. (Hardware) FLOPS: FLoating-point Operations Per Second A measure of the speed at which a computer can operate. (Hardware) FPC: Floating Point Coprocessor FPC: Floating Point Calculation FPCE: Floating-Point C Extension Specification FMA: Fused Multiply-Add CPU instruction type FMH: Function Management Header FMS: File Management System FMT: ForMaT FMV: Full Motion Video FNC: Federal Networking Council The body responsible for coordinating networking needs among U.S. federal agencies. (Organizations) FPD: Flat Panel Display (Hardware) FPD: Full Page Display (Hardware) FPDU: Ftam Protocol Data Unit FPE: Floating Point Engine FPGA: Field Programmable Gate Array An integrated circuit containing an array of logic circuits in which the connections between the individual circuits can be programmed after manufacture, typically at the time of installation (in the field). (Hardware) FNT: FoNT File name extension FO: Fiber Optic FOC: Fiber Optic Cable FOCUS: FOrum of Control data USers FOD: Flexible Optical Disk FOD: Fax On Demand FOG: First Osborne Group FOIP: Fax Over Internet Protocol FOIRL: Fiber Optic Inter Repeater Link FOLDOC: Free On-Line Dictionary Of Computing FOMAU: Fiber Optic Media Access Unit FPI: Floating-Point Interface FPLA: Field Programmable Logic Array An array of logic elements. Its interconnections are programmable after manufacture (Hardware) FPLMTS: Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System FPLS: Field Programmable Logic Sequencer (Hardware) FPM: Fast Page Mode (Hardware) FPP: Floating Point Processor FPP: Fixed Path Protocol FPR: Floating-Point Register Page 55 of 161 FPS: Fast Packet Switching fps: Frames Per Second Motion images reproduction speed FSF: Free Software Foundation (Organizations) FSK: Frequency-Shift Keying (Communication) FPS: Favorite Picture Selection FPT: Forced Perfect Termination FPU: Floating-Point Unit (Hardware) FSM: Finite-State Machine FSN: Full Service Network FSP: Fax Service Provider FSP: File Service Protocol FSR: Full Scale Range FSR: Free System Resources FSS: Fast System Switch FSS: Field Support Service A group of technical engineers providing short-term assistance and product knowledge to customers that are deploying, developing, and maintaining Lotus environments (Lotus) FQDN: Fully Qualified Domain Name (Network) FRAD: Frame Relay Assembler/Disassembler FRAD: Frame Relay Access Device F FRAG: FRAGment FRAM: Ferroelectric Random-Access Memory FRC: Functional Redundancy Checking FRED: FRame EDitor FRED: FRont-End to Dish FRF: Floating point Register File FRICC: Federal Research Internet Coordinating Committee Now replaced by the Federal Networking Council (FNC). (Organizations) FST: Flat Square Tube (Hardware) FST: Finite State Technology (Software) FST: French Summer Time Timezone: GMT +1:00 FSTN: Film SuperTwisted Nematic FT: Fault Tolerant FT: Field Test FTA: Floptical Technology Association FTAM: File Transfer and Access Method FTAM: File Transfer Access and Management The International Organization for Standardization's Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) remote file service and protocol. (Network) FRL: Frame Representation Language FRM: Forward Resource Management FRPI: Flux Reversals Per Inch FRR: Functional Recovery Routine FRS: Flexible Route Selection FRS: File Replication Service (Operating systems) (Microsoft) FTC: Federal Trade Commission (Organizations) FRS: Family Radio Service Wireless communication and networking service (Communication) FTL: Flash Transition Layer (Intel) FRU: Field-Replaceable Unit An assembly replaced in its entirety when any one of its components fails. (Hardware) FTM: Flat Tension Mask FTOS: File Transfer Osi Support FTP: Foiled Twisted Pair FTP: File Transfer Protocol The Internet protocol (and program) used to transfer files between hosts. (Network) FS: Frame Status FS: File System FS: File Separator FSA: Fluidic Self-Assembly LCD manufacturing technology (Hardware) FTPD: File Transfer Protocol Daemon FTR: Full Text Retrieval FTS: Fidonet Technical Standard FTS: Full Text Search FTS: Federal Telecommunication System FTSC: Fidonet Technical Standard Conference FTTC: Fiber To The Curb FSAG: Free Software Association of Germany FSB: Front Side Bus (Hardware) FSCK: File System Consistency checK FSD: File System Driver (IBM) FSE: Full Screen Editor Page 56 of 161 FTX: Fault Tolerant uniX FUD: Fear, Uncertainty, Doubt FUI: File Update Information FVT: Full Video Translation FW: FirmWare FWH: Firmware Hub (Hardware) (Intel) FWIW: For What It's Worth (Messages) FWT: French Winter Time Timezone: GMT +1:00 FXU: FiXed point Unit FY: Fiscal Year FY: Financial Year FYI: For Your Information (Messages) F Page 57 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 58 of 161 G G: Giga Prefix for 1000 (or 1024) power 3 GCS: Group Control System GDA: Global Directory Agent GDA: Global Data Area GDAP: Government Document Application Profile GDB: Gnu DeBugger GDBM: Gnu DataBase Manager GDD: Gesellschaft für Datenschutz und Datensicherung GDDM: Graphical Data Display Manager (Software) G/L: General Ledger G2G: Got To Go (Messages) GA: General Availability GAAP: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles GAIA: Gui Application Interoperability Architecture GAIN: German Advanced Integrated Network GAL: Generic Array Logic (Hardware) G GDG: Generation Data Group (IBM) GALPAT: GALlopping PATtern Memory test technique GDI: Graphics Device Interface (Operating systems) (Microsoft) GAN: Global Area Network GAP: Generic Access Profile GAPI: Gateway Application Programming Interface GART: Graphic Address Remapping Table (Hardware) GDLC: Generic Data Link Control (IBM) GDMO: Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects GDOS: Graphics Device Operating System GDP: Graphic Draw Primitive GDS: General Data Stream GDS: Global Directory Service GDT: Global Descriptor Table (Operating systems) (Microsoft) GATT: Graphics Address Translation Table Gb: GigaBit GB: GigaByte GBIC: GigaBit Interface Connector (Network) GDT: Graphics Development Toolkit GDT: Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing GE: Greater than or Equal (Software) Gbps: Giga Bits Per Second Transfer Speed (Communication) GBps: Giga Bytes Per Second Transfer Speed (Communication) GC: Global Catalog Active directory's caching system (Operating systems) GECOS: General Electric Comprehensive Operating System GEIS: General Electric Information Service GEM: Graphics Environment Manager (Software) (Digital Research) GC: Graphics Context The storage of various information for graphics output, such as foreground pixel, background pixel, line width, clipping region, and so on. (Operating systems) GCA: General Communications Architecture GCC: Gnu C Compiler (Software) GEM: Global Enterprise Manager GENIE: General Electric Network for Information Exchange GEO: Geosynchronous Earth Orbit GEOS: Graphic Environment Operating System GET: Get Execute Trigger GFC: Generic Flow Control GFI: General Format Identifier GCCD: Glass-passivated Ceramic Chip Diode GCL: Graphics Command Language GCOS: General Comprehensive Operating System GCR: Group Coded Recording (Hardware) GCRA: Generic Cell Rate Algorithm Page 59 of 161 GFI: Ground-Fault Interceptor GFLOPS: Giga FLoating point Operations per Second Processing speed GMCH: Graphics Memory Controller Hub (Hardware) (Intel) GMI: Generic Management Information GML: Generalized Markup Language GMP: Global Mobile Professional GMR: Giant Magneto-Resistive Hard disk head technology (Hardware) GFP: Global Functional Plane GFS: Grandfather, Father, Son Backup methodology GFSK: Gaussian Frequency-Shift Keying GGP: Gateway to Gateway Protocol GHTSTN: Guest Host Technique SuperTwisted Nematic GHz: GigaHertZ GI: Gesellschaft für Informatik GMRAE: Geometric Mean Relative Absolute Error GMS: Global Messaging Service (Novell) GMS: Global Management System GMT: Greenwich Mean Time Also callet UTC G GID: Group IDentifier The number used by the system to control access to accounts owned by other users. (Operating systems) GMTA: Great Minds Think Alike (Messages) GIF: Graphical Interchange Format File format for bitmapped images (CompuServe) GNA: Global Network Academy GND: GrouND (Hardware) GIGO: Garbage In, Garbage Out GII: Global Information Infrastructure GILS: Government Information Locator Service GIMP: Gnu Image Manipulation Program Freely distributed piece of software suitable for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition and image authoring. See (Software) GNN: Global Network Navigator (Network) GNOME: Gnu Network Object Model Environment GNU: Gnu's Not Unix GOCA: Graphic Object Content Architecture GOD: Global OutDial GOSIP: Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile GP: General Purpose GP: Gas Plasma GPC: General-Purpose Computation GPC: Graphics Performance Characterization GPCI: Graphics Processor Command Interface GPE: Graphics Picture Enhancement (Hardware) (Sony) GIMPS: Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search GINA: Graphical Identification aNd Authentication GIOP: General Inter-Orb Protocol Gips: Giga Instructions Per Second GIS: Global Information Solutions (AT&T) GIS: Geographic Information System A graphic application using a database of specialized information, such as geographical and demographic data. (Software) GIX: Global Internet eXchange GKS: Graphical Kernel System An international standard 2-D graphics library consisting of a set of defined graphic primitives and a tool set for application developers. GPF: General Protection Fault Common error in 16-bits Windows (Software) (Microsoft) GPI: Graphics Programming Interface (Software) GL: Graphics Language (Software) GPIB: General Purpose Interface Bus Bus architecture (Hardware) GLIS: Global Land Information System GLM: General Linear Models GLOBE: Global Learning by Observations to Benefit the Environment GLY: GLossarY File name extension (Microsoft) GPIO: General Purpose Input Output GPL: Graphics Programming Language GPL: General Public License GPM: Group Policy Manager (Operating systems) GM: General Midi Page 60 of 161 GPO: Group Policy Object (Operating systems) GPP: Generic Packetized Protocol GPR: General-Purpose Register (Hardware) GT: Greater Than (Software) GTDM: Group Time Division Multiplexing GTE: General Telephone Electronics GTF: Generalized Timing Format GTG: Got To Go (Messages) GPRC: Glass Passivated Rectifier Chip GPRS: General Packet Radio Service (Communication) GPS: Global Positioning System GPS: Global Product Specification GPSI: Graphics Processor Software Interface GPSS: General Purpose Simulation System GPU: Graphics Processing Unit (Hardware) GTL: Gunning Transceiver Logic gTLD: Generic Top Level Domain (Network) GTO: Guide To Operations (IBM) GTP: Geometry Theorem Prover GUI: Graphical User Interface The pictorial point of interaction between you and the computer and its special applications, usually with a mouse or other selection device. (Operating systems) GPV: General Public Virus GQL: Graphical Query Language GRADD: GRaphics Adapter Device Driver (IBM) G GUID: Globally Unique IDentifier GUIDE: Graphical User Interface Design Editor GUUG: German Unix User Group GVPN: Global Virtual Private Network (Network) GRE: Generic Routing Encapsulation (Network) GRE: GRaphics Engine GREP: Global Regular Expression Print GRIC: Global Reach Internet Connection (Communication) GVT: Global Virtual Time GW-BASIC: Gee Whiz Beginners Allpurpose Symbolic Instruction Code GWAPI: Go Webserver Application Programming Interface (Software) (Lotus) GRINS: GRaphical INterface to Smil GRP: Group File name extension GRUB: GRand Unified Bootloader (Operating systems) GS: General Synthesis (Hardware) (Roland) GWES: Graphics, Windowing and Events Subsystem (Operating systems) (Microsoft) GS: Group Separator GSDS: Genealogy Software Distribution System GSI: General Server Interface GSM: Global System for Mobile communications (Communication) GWIA: GroupWare Internet Agent (Novell) GSM: Global Shared Memory GSNW: Gateway Service for NetWare (Microsoft) GSP: Generic Server Passer GSP: Global Service Provider GSS: Generic Security Service GSSAPI: Generic Security Services Application Programming Interface (Software) GSTN: General Switched Telephone Network GSTS: Ground-based Surveillance and Tracking System Page 61 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 62 of 161 H H: Header File name extension HCU: Home Computer User HD: Hard Disk (Hardware) H&J: Hyphenation And Justification (Software) H-MUX: Hybrid MUltipleXer H/PC: Hand-held Personal Computer (Hardware) HD: High Density HD-CD: High Definition Compact Disk HD-DVD: High Definition Digital Video (or Versatile) Disk (Hardware) H/V: Horizontal/Vertical H/W: HardWare HA: Header Authentication HA: High Availability HACMP: High Availability Cluster MultiProcessing (IBM) HD-ROM: High Density Read Only Memory (Hardware) HDA: Head Disk Assembly HDC: Hard Disk Controller HDD: Hard Disk Drive (Hardware) H HAI: Hardware Accelerator Interface (Hardware) HDF: Hierarchical Data Format HDH: Hdlc Distant Host HDI: Hoops Device Interface HDI: Head to Disk Interference HDL: Hardware Description Language HDLC: High-level Data-Link Control (Communication) HAL: Home Automated Living HAL: Hardware Abstraction Layer HAL: Heuristically Programmed Algorithmic Computer HAL: Hard Array Logic HAL: House-programmed Array Logic HALO: High Altitude Long Operation Communication aircraft (Communication) HDLP: High-Level Data Link Protocol HDM: Hardware Device Module (Hardware) HAP: Host Access Protocol HAS: Home Automation System HASP: Houston Automatic Spooling Priority HAT: Hashed Address Table HBA: Host Bus Adapter A controller board connecting the I/O expansion bus to the SCSI subsystem. (Hardware) HDML: Handheld Device Markup Language HDMOS: High Density Metal Oxide Semiconductor HDR: High Dynamic Range HDR: HeaDeR HDSC: High Density Signal Carrier (DEC) HBCI: Home Banking Computer Interface HBI: Horizontal Blanking Interval (Hardware) HDSL: High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line (Communication) HCA: Hich-Contrast Addressing (Hardware) (Sharp) HDSS: Holographic Data Storage System HDT: Hawaii Daylight Time Timezone: GMT -10:00 HCG: Hardware Compatibility Guide HCL: Host Control Links HCL: Hardware Compatibility List HCSDS: High-Capacity Satellite Digital Service HCSS: High Capacity Storage System HCTDS: High-Capacity Terrestrial Digital Service HDT: Host Digital Terminal HDTV: High-Definition TeleVision (Hardware) HDVD: High Definition Volumetric Display HDW: HarDWare HDx: Half DupleX (Communication) Page 63 of 161 HEC: Header Error Control HEL: Hardware Emulation Layer HEPNET: High Energy Physics NETwork HES: Home Entertainment System (Hardware) HKDD: HKey_Dyn_Data Windows NT Registry key (Operating systems) (Microsoft) HKLM: HKey_Local_Machine Windows NT Registry key (Operating systems) (Microsoft) HKU: HKey_Users Windows NT Registry key (Operating systems) (Microsoft) HEX: HEXadecimal HF: High Frequency HFC: Hybrid Fiber-Coaxial (Hardware) HLCO: High Low Close Open HLD: Height, Length, Depth HLHSR: Hidden-Line, Hidden-Surface Removal HLL: High-Level Language (Software) HFS: Hierarchical File System (Operating systems) (Apple) HFT: High Function Terminal (IBM) HLLAPI: High-Level Language Application Programming Interface (Software) HFT: Host Function Table (Software) HLP: HeLP File name extension H HGA: Hercules Graphics Adapter HGC: Hercules Graphics Card (Hardware) HLQ: High Level Qualifier HLR: Home Location Register HLS: Hue, Luminance, Saturation Color model HGCP: Hercules Graphics Card Plus HGML: Hypertext General Markup Language HIC: Hybrid Integrated Circuit HID: Human Interface Device (Hardware) HLT: HaLT HMA: High Memory Area Method to access the first 64kB segment above the 1MB boundary in DOS/Windows 16-bits (Microsoft) HID: High-Intensity Discharge Light bulb technology used mainly in projectors (Hardware) HMA: Hub Management Architecture HMC: Highspeed Memory Controller HMD: Head Mounted Display HMI: Html Mail Interface (Microsoft) HIF: Hyper-g Interchange Format File name extension HiFD: HIgh-capacity Floppy Disk (Hardware) (Sony) HIFI: Hypertext Interface For Information HIL: Human Interface Link (HP) HMI: Host Micro Interface (CompuServe) HMM: Hidden Markov Model HMMP: HyperMedia Management Protocol HMMU: Hardware Memory Management Unit (Hardware) HIMEM: HIgh MEMory HIP: Hardware Instrumentation Package (Hardware) HIPERLAN: HIgh-PErformance Radio Local Area Network (Network) HMOS: High performance Metal Oxide Semiconductor HMP: Host Monitoring Protocol HNET: Holographic NEural Technology HO-DSP: Higher Order Domain-Specific Part (Network) HIPPI: HIgh Performance Parallel Interface (Hardware) HIRD: Hurd of Interfaces Representing Depth (Operating systems) (GNU) HJB: HotJava Browser (Sun) HOB: High-Order Byte HOL: High Order Language HOLAP: Hybrid On-Line OnLine Analytical Processing HOOPS: Hierachical Object Orientated Picture System HOPS: HOst Proximity Service HKCC: HKey_Current_Config Windows NT Registry key (Operating systems) (Microsoft) HKCR: HKey_Classes_Root Windows NT Registry key (Operating systems) (Microsoft) HKCU: HKey_Current_User Windows NT Registry key (Operating systems) (Microsoft) Page 64 of 161 HOTT: Hot Off The Tree Electronic newsletter HPW: High Performance Workstation (Sun) HOTW: Hot Off The Web Web organizer (Software) HQ: HeadQuarter HR: Human Resource HR: High-Rate IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN access method (Communication) HOV: High Occupancy Vehicle HP: Hewlett-Packard HP-IB: Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus (Hardware) (HP) HRC: Hybrid Ring Control HRG: High Resolution Graphics HRIS: Human Resource Information System HRMS: Human Resource Management System HRTF: Head-Related Transfer Function HS: High Speed HSB: Hue, Saturation, Brightness Color model HP-VUE: Hewlett-Packard Visual User Environment HP/UX: Hewlett-Packard UniX (Operating systems) (HP) HPA: High Performance Addressing HPAS: Hypermedia Presentation and Authoring System HPB: High Ping Bastard Network multiplayer games attribute (Software) HPC: High-Performance Computing HPCC: High-Performance Computing and Communications HPDJ: Hewlett-Packard Desk Jet HPF: High Performance Fortran HPFS: High Performance File System (Operating systems) (IBM) HSC: High Speed Channel HSC: Hierarchical Storage Controller HSCSD: High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data of the Global System for Mobile (GSM) (Communication) H HSFS: High Sierra File System (Operating systems) HSI: High Speed Interface HSI: Hue, Saturation, Intensity Color model HPG: Hewlett-Packard Graphics HPGL: Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language Language to describe vector graphics (usually for plotters) (Software) (HP) HSL: Hue, Saturation, Luminance Color model (Hardware) HPLJ: Hewlett-Packard Laser Jet HPLT: High Productivity Languages/Tools HPNA: Home Phoneline Networking Alliance (Organizations) HSLAN: High Speed Local Area Network HSLN: High Speed Local Network HSM: Hierarchical Storage Management HSM: Hitachi System Manager HSMOS: High Speed Metal Oxide Semiconductor HSP: High Speed Printer HSR: Horizontal Scan Rate (Hardware) HPOFS: High Performance Optical File System HPOM: Home Page Object Model (Microsoft) HPPA: Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture HPPCL: Hewlett-Packard Printer Control Language HPPE: High Performance Processing Element (Hardware) HSSDS: High Speed Switched Digital Service HSSI: High Speed Serial Interface HST: High Speed Technology (3Com) HPPI: High-Performance Peripheral Interface HPR: High Performance Routing (IBM) HST: HoST HST: Hawaii Standard Time Timezone: GMT -10:00 HPSA: High Parallel System Architecture (Hardware) HST: Hawaii Standard Time Timezone: GMT -10:00 HPSB: High-Performance Serial Bus Also known as FireWire (Hardware) HST: HiSTory HSV: Hue, Saturation, Value HPUX: Hewlett-Packard UniX Page 65 of 161 HSYNC: Horizontal SYNChronization (Hardware) HT: Horizontal Tab HTA: HyperText Application (Network) HTDM: Hybrid Time Division Multiplexing HTL: High Threshold Logic (Hardware) HTML: HyperText Markup Language A file format, based on SGML, for hypertext documents on the Internet. It is simple and enables the embedding of images, sounds, video streams, form fields, and basic text formatting. HTTP: HyperText Transport (or Transfer) Protocol The Internet protocol that fetches hypertext objects from remote hosts. It is based on TCP/IP. (Communication) HTTP-NG: HyperText Transfer Protocol Next Generation H HTTPD: HyperText Transfer Protocol Daemon HTTPNG: HyperText Transfer Protocol Next Generation HUD: Heads Up Display HURD: Hird of Unix-Replacing Daemons (Operating systems) (GNU) HUT: Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope HVC: Hue, Value, Chroma HVP: Horizontal and Vertical Position HVS: Human Visual System HW: HardWare HWCP: HardWare Code Page HWD: Height, Width, Depth HWIH: Here's What I Have (Messages) HYTEA: HYperText Environment for Authoring Hz: HertZ Frequency measurement unit Page 66 of 161 I i-FED: Intelligent Field Emitting Display (Hardware) IASS: Internet Alphaserver System Software (DEC) I-WAY: Information highWAY I/F: InterFace I/O: Input/Output The equipment used to communicate with a computer, the data involved in that communication, the media carrying the data, and the process of communicating that information IAT: Information Access Technology IAT: Internet Appliance Toolkit (Network) (QNX) IAT: Import Address Table (Operating systems) (Microsoft) I2-DSI: Internet2 Distributed Storage Infrastructure I2O: Intelligent Input Output I4DL: Interface, Inheritance, Implementation, Installation Definition Language IA: Intel Architecture (Hardware) (Intel) IAUG: International Aix User Group IAUP: Internet User Account Provider IAYF: Information At Your Fingertips IB: Interface Builder (Software) (Apple) IBC: Instrument Bus Computer iBCS: Intel Binary Compatibility Specification IBIP: Information Based Indicia Program Bar code postage system I IA: Information Appliance (Hardware) IA: Illustrated Audio Sound file format IAB: Internet Activities Board The group that administrates the development of the Internet suite of protocols (TCP/IP). The IAB has two investigative task forces, the IRTF and the IETF. (Organizations) IBM: International Business Machines IBM-GL: International Business Machines Graphics Language IBN: Integrated Business Network IBOC: In-Band, On-Channel IC: Integrated Circuit (Hardware) IAC: Internet Application Component (Software) IAC: InterApplication Communication (Apple) IAG: Instruction Address Generation IAHC: Internet Ad Hoc Committee (Organizations) IC: Interrupt Controller IC: Input Circuit IC: Internet Connector (Operating systems) (Microsoft) IAK: Internet Access Kit (IBM) IAL: Intel Architecture Lab (Intel) IC: Input Context An abstraction for representing the state of a particular input thread for use with an input method. Multiple ICs can be associated with an input method. IAL: International Algebraic Language ALGOL was first called IAL ICA: Intelligent Communication Adapter ICA: Independent Computing Architecture ICA: Intelligent Console Architecture ICA: Intra-application Communications Area ICALP: International Conference on Automata, Languages and Programming ICAN: Individual Customer Access Network ICANN: Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (Organizations) IAM: Internet Answering Machine (Software) IANA: Internet Assigned Numbers Authority IANW: International Academic NetWorkshops IAP: Internet Access Provider IAS: Interactive Application System IAS: Internet Authentication Service IAS: Information Access Service IAS: Internet Access Server (Network) ICAP: Internet Calendar Access Protocol (Lotus) Page 67 of 161 ICAPI: Internet Connection server Application Programming Interface (Software) (IBM) ICO: ICOn File name extension ICAS: Intel Communicating Applications Specifications ICB: Internet Citizen's Band ICC: Intelligent Communications Control ICC: International Color Consortium (Organizations) iCOMP: Intel COmparative Microprocessor Performance (Intel) ICP: Independent Content Provider (Network) ICP: Internet Control Pack (Network) (Microsoft) ICCC: InterClient Communication Convention ICCCM: Inter-Client Communication Conventions Manual The document that describes the conventions for the communication between X clients. This includes such conventions as client-to-client, client-to-window manager, clientto-session manager, and color characterization communication. (Operating systems) ICP: Internet Caching Protocol (Network) ICP: Image CoProcessor (Hardware) ICP: Integrated Channel Processor ICQ: I Seek You Communication program (Software) ICR: Intelligent Character Recognition iCRT: Intelligent Content Recognition Technology ICS: Ibm Cabling System ICS: Integrated Client Setup ICS: Iris Certificate Security ICS: Internet Conferencing System (Network) ICCP: Institute for the Certification of Computing Professionals I ICCS: Integrated Communications Cabling System ICD: International Code Designator ICD: Installable Client Driver ICDA: Integrated Cached Disk Array ICE: Information and Content Exchange ICE: In-Circuit Emulation (Hardware) ICS: Internet Caching System (Network) ICS: Intuitive Command Structure ICS: Internet Connection Sharing (Network) (Microsoft) ICE: Integrated Computing Environment ICES: Interference-Causing Equipment Standard ICF: Interactive Communication Facility (IBM) ICSA: Internet Cellular Smart Access ICSA: International Computer Security Association (Organizations) ICH: I/o Controller Hub (Hardware) (Intel) ICI: Image Component Information ICL: Industrial Code and Logic Manufacturer ICSAPI: Internet Connection Services Application Programming Interface ICSC: Intelligent Channel/Storage Control ICSW: Internet Connection Sharing Wizard (Network) (Microsoft) ICL: Interface Clear ICLID: Incoming Call Line IDentification ICM: Image Color Matching (Kodak) ICU: Interactive Chart Utility ICU: Internet Communication Utilities (Communication) ICM: Image Color Management (Software) ICU: Intel Configuration Utility (Microsoft) ICM: InComing Message ICM: Internet Call Manager ICMC: International Computer Music Conference ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol The protocol used that handles errors and control messages at the Internet Protocol layer. For example, the ping command is an implementation of the ICMP. ICMP occurs on the IP (network) level of the TCP/IP protocol suite. (Communication) Page 68 of 161 ICU: Isa Configuration Utility ICU: Instruction-Cache Unit ICW: Internet Connection Wizard (Software) (Microsoft) ID: IDentifier IDA: Intelligent Drive Array (Hardware) IDA: Inernational Database Association (Organizations) IDR: Intelligent Disaster Recovery (Seagate) IDA: Integrated Digital Access IDAPI: Independent Database Application Programming Interface (Software) (Inprise) IDRAM: Integrated Dynamic Random Access Memory (Hardware) IDRC: Improved Data Recording Capacity (Hardware) IDAS: Interchange DAta Structure IDBMS: Integrated DataBase Management System (Databases) IDS: Internal Directory System IDS: Information Delivery System IDSL: Isdn Digital Subscriber Line (Communication) IDC: Inter-Device Communication IDC: Internet Database Connector (Network) (Microsoft) IDT: Integrated Device Technologies (IDT) IDC: International Data Corporation IDC: Integrated Desktop Connector iDCT: Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform IDDD: International Distance Direct Dialing (Communication) IDT: Interface Design Tool IDT: Interrupt Descriptor Table IDU: Interface Data Unit IDUG: International Db2 Users Group (Databases) (IBM) IDDE: Integrated Development & Debugging Environment (Symantec) IDUP-GSS-API: Independent Data Unit Protection Generic Security Service Application Programming Interface IDVC: Integrated Data/Voice Channel IDX: InDeX File name extension I IDE: Integrated Drive Electronics Bus architecture (Hardware) IDE: Integrated Development Environment (Software) IE: Information Engineering IE: Information Element IE: Internet Explorer (Software) (Microsoft) IDE: Interface Design Enhancement IDE: Interactive Design and Engineering IDEA: Internet Design, Engineering, and Analysis notes IDEA: International Data Encryption Algorithm IDF: Intermediate Distribution Frame IDI: Initial Domain Identifier (Network) IEAK: Internet Explorer Administrator Kit (Software) (Microsoft) IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission (Organizations) IEC: InterExchange Carrier IEE: Institute of Electrical Engineers IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (Organizations) IDIV: Integer DIVide IDL: Interactive Data Language IDL: Interface Definition Language IDLE: International Date Line East Timezone: GMT +12:00 IEF: Information Engineering Facility IEMSI: Interactive Electronic Mail Standard Identification IEN: Internet Experiment Notebook IEN: Internet Engineering Notes IESG: Internet Engineering Steering Group The executive committee of the IETF (Organizations) IDLW: International Date Line West Timezone: GMT -12:00 IDM: Integrated Document Management IDMS: Integrated Database Management System IDNX: Integrated Digital Network eXchange (IBM) IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force An engineering and protocol standards body that develops and specifies protocols and Internet standards, generally in the network layer and above. See (Organizations) IDP: Internet Datagram Protocol IDP: Integrated Data Processing IDR: Intelligent Document Recognition IETFWG: Internet Engineering Task Force Working Group Page 69 of 161 IEW: Information Engineering Workbench IF: Information Flow IFC: Internet Foundation Classes (Software) IGS: Internet Go Server IHD: Integrated Help Desk (IBM) IHV: Independent Hardware Vendor A third-party hardware manufacturer (Hardware) IFCM: Independent Flow Control Messages IFD: Information Flow Diagram IFD: Image File Directory IFF: Interchange File Format IFG: Incoming Fax Gateway IFIP: International Federation of Information Processing societies IFMP: Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol IFNA: International FidoNet Association IFP: Instruction Fetch Pipeline IFPI: International Federation of Phonographic Industry (Organizations) IIF: Immediate InterFace III: Interstate Identification Index IIIR: Integration of Internet Information Resources IIL: Integrated Injection Logic IIN: Integrated Information Network IIOP: Internet Interoperable Orb Protocol (Communication) IIR: Immediate Impulse Response IIS: Internet Information Server (Network) (Microsoft) I IISP: Interim Inter-switch Signaling Protocol IITF: Information Infrastructure Task Force IJCAI: International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence IK: Inverse Kinematics IKBS: Intelligent Knowledge Based System IKE: Internet Key Exchange IKMP: Internet Key Management Protocol (Network) IFR: Interleaved Frame Recording IFS: Internal Field Seperator IFS: Intelligent Fax System IFS: Internet File System (Operating systems) IFS: Installable File System (Operating systems) IFSM: InFormation Systems Management IFSMgr: Installable File System ManaGeR (Operating systems) IKP: Internet Keyed Payment ILA: Image Light Amplifier ILE: Integrated Language Environment (Software) (IBM) IFT: Inverse fast Fourier Transform IGA: Integrated Graphics Array IGC: Institute for Global Communications IGC: Integrated Graphics Controller IGES: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification File format for graphics interchange ILEC: Incumbent Long Exchange Carrier Also known as primary long exchange carrier (Communication) ILLINET: ILlinois LIbrary NETwork ILMI: Interim Local Management Interface ILP: Instruction-Level Parallelism CPU architecture IGFET: Insulated-Gate Field Effect Transistor IGFOS: International Government Forum for Open Systems (Organizations) ILS: Instrument Landing System ILS: Internet Locator Service ILS: International Language Support IM: Interface Module IM: Instant Messaging IM: Input Method The algorithm by which users enter the text of a language. Input methods differ for each language, depending on that language’s structure and conventions IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol IGN: Ibm Global Network IGP: Interior Gateway Protocol The protocol that enables the exchange or routing information between collaborating routers on the Internet. Examples of IGPs include Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) IGRP: Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (Cisco) IMA: Interactive Multimedia Association IMA: International Midi Association Page 70 of 161 IMAC: Isochronous Media Access Control IMACS: Image Management and Communication System IMAP: Internet Message Access Protocol (Network) IN: Individual Network IN: INput INA: Intelligent Network Architecture INAP: Intelligent Network Application Protocol INC: INCrement INCM: Intelligent Network Conceptual Model IND: INDex File name extension IMC: Internet Mail Connector (Software) (Microsoft) IMC: Internet Message Center (Network) IMDS: IMage Data Stream (IBM) IME: Input Method Editor IMF: International Monetary Fund (Organizations) INET: International NETworking conference INF: INFormation File name extension IMG: IMaGe File name extension INFS: Internet Network File System INGRES: INteractive Graphic REtrieval System INI: INItialization File name extension IMHO: In My Humble Opinion (Messages) IML: Initial Microcode Load (IBM) IMM: Intel Mobile Module (Hardware) (Intel) INIT: INITialize INL: Inter Node Link INM: International Neural Machines INM: Integrated Network Management INN: Inter Node Network INN: InterNet News (Network) I IMM: Input Method Manager IMO: Intenet Mail Only Microsoft Outlook version (Software) (Microsoft) IMP: Interface Message Processor (Hardware) IMP: Input Method Profiler IMPA: Intelligent Multi-Port Adapter IMPP: Instant Messaging and Presence Protocol IMR: Internet Monthly Report IMS: Internet Mail Server (Sun) INND: InterNet News Daemon (Network) INOC: Internet Network Operations Center INP: Instant Network Presence (Network) IMS: Information Management System (IBM) INRIA: Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique INS: INput String INS: Integrated Network Server INT: INTeger INT: INTernal INT: INTerrupt (Software) (Intel) IMS: Intermediate Maintenance Standard IMS: Instructional Management System IMS: Image Management Services IMSO: Integrated Micro Systems Operation IMSP: Internet Message Support Protocol (Network) INT: INTernational organization Domain name IMSVS: Information Management System/Virtual Storage IMTC: International Multimedia Teleconferencing Consortium IMTV: Interactive Multimedia TeleVision IMUL: Integer MULtiply IMUX: Inverse MUltipleXer INTA: INTerrupt Acknowledge INTAP: Interoperability Technology Association for Information Processing The technical organization that officially develops Japanese OSI profiles and conformance tests (Organizations) INTEL: INTegrated ELectronics (Intel) InterNIC: INTERnet Network Information Center Page 71 of 161 INTO: INTerrupt if Overflow occurs IO: Input/Output IO: Internal Objects (Software) (Microsoft) IPCS: Interactive Problem Control System IPCS: Integrated Personal Computer Server (Hardware) IPD: Intelligent Printer Data IPDS: Ibm Personal Dictation System (IBM) IOC: Input/Output Controller IOC: Inter-Office Channel IOCC: Input/Output Controller Chip IOCC: Input/Output Channel Converter IOCCC: International Obfuscated C Code Contest IOCP: Inter-Orb Communication Protocol (Communication) IPDS: Intelligent Printer Data Stream (IBM) IPDU: Internet Protocol Data Unit IPDVMRP: Internet Protocol Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol IPE: Integrated Programming Environment IPF: Information Presentation Facility IPFC: Information Presentation Facility Compiler (IBM) IOCS: Input/Output Control System IOCtl: Input/Output ConTroL IONL: Internal Organization of the Network Layer IPI: Internet Policy Institute (Organizations) I The ISO/OSI standard for the architecture of the network layer. The IONL divides the network layer into subnetworks interconnected by convergence protocols (internetworking protocols), resulting in a catenet or internet (Organizations) IPI: Intelligent Peripheral Interface A device-generic interface used for large-capacity, highperformance disks. The IPI supports disk transfer rates at 3Mbyte/sec and above (Hardware) IOP: Input/Output Processor (Hardware) IPL: Initial Program Load Boot program (Software) IOPL: Input/Output Privilege Level IOR: Interoperable Object Reference IOS: InterOrganizational System IOS: Input/Output System IOS: Internet Operating System (Operating systems) IPL: Information Programming Language IPL: Ion Projection Lithography ipm: Interruptions Per Minute ipm: Instructions Per Minute IPM: InterPersonal Message IPM: Internet Protection Module (Network) IOSGA: Input/Output Support Gate Array IOUG: International Oracle Users Group IP: Intelligent Peripheral IP: Information Provider IP: Internet Protocol The major network layer protocol in the Internet Protocol suite. IP describes the routing of packets, among its many tasks (Network) IPM: Intelligent Power Module (Hardware) IPM: Images Per Minute IPMI: Intelligent Platform Management Interface (Hardware) IP: Instruction Pointer CPU register (Hardware) (Intel) IPMI: Internet Protocol Multicast Initiative (Network) IP: Intellectual Property IPBF: Installed Peripheral Base Flexibility IPC: InterProcess Communication The process of sharing data between processes and, when necessary, coordinating access to the shared data (Operating systems) IPNG: Internet Protocol Next Generation (Network) IPO: International Purchasing Office IPO: Initial Public Offering IPO: Input, Processing and Output IPP: Internet Printing Protocol (Network) IPC: Instructions Per Clock IPCE: InterProcess Communication Environment IPCP: Internet Protocol Control Protocol (Network) IPS: Information Processing Standards IPS: In-Plane Switching (Hardware) Page 72 of 161 ips: Inches Per Second (Hardware) IRS: Internal Revenue Service IRSG: Internet Research Steering Group IRTF: Internet Research Task Force The task force of the Internet Activities Board that addresses research and development of the Internet Protocol suite (Organizations) IPSE: Integrated Project Support Environment IPSec: Internet Protocol SECurity A set of protocols that give greater IP-level security to data packets transmitted over Virtual Private Networks IPTC: International Press Telecommunications Council IPv: Internet Protocol, Version (Communication) IRTOS: I2o Real Time Operating System (Operating systems) IRTP: Internet Reliable Transaction Protocol IRX: Information Retrieval eXperiment IS: Information System IS: Interrupt Status IS-IS: Intermediate-System to Intermediate-System The ISO/OSI protocol by which intermediate systems exchange routing information IPX: Internetwork Packet eXchange (Network) (Novell) IPX/SPX: Internet Packet eXchange/Sequenced Packet eXchange IPXODI: Internet Packet eXchange Open Datalink Interface IQL: Interactive Query Language IR: Interface Repository IR: Instruction Register (Hardware) ISA: Interactive Services Association ISA: Industry Standard Architecture PC bus architecture (Hardware) I IR: InfraRed IRAM: Intelligent Random Access Memory (Hardware) ISA: Internet Server Application (Software) ISA: Instruction-Set Architecture ISAKMP: Internet Security Association Key Management Protocol (Network) IRC: Interrupt Request Controller (Hardware) IRC: Internet Relay Chat (Network) ISAM: Indexed Sequential Access Method ISAPI: Internet Server Application Programming Interface (Software) (Microsoft) IRD: Integrated Receiver/Descrambler IrDA: InfraRed Data Association (Organizations) ISBN: International Standard Book Number ISC: Internet Service Center ISC: Inter-System Communication (IBM) IRDS: Information Resource Dictionary System IRET: Interrupt RETurn IRF: Interger Register File IRF: Inheritance Rights Filter (Novell) ISC: Instruction Set Computer ISCA: International Computing Security Association (Organizations) IRF: Intermediate Routing Function IRL: Inter-Repeater Link IRL: Interactive Reader Language IrLAN: InfraRed Local Area Network IrLAP: InfraRed Link Access Protocol (Communication) ISD: Instructional Systems Design ISD: Image Section Descriptor ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network A communications technology offered by telephone carriers worldwide. ISDN combines voice anddigital network services in a single medium, offering customers digital data services and voice connections through a single wire (Communication) IRLED: InfraRed Light Emitting Diode IrLMP: InfraRed Link Management Protocol (Communication) ISDN-UP: Integrated Services Digital Network User Part ISE: Integrated Software Engineering (ISE) IRM: Information Resource Management IRM: Inherent Rights Mask IRQ: Interrupt ReQuest A signal that a device requires CPU attention (Hardware) ISFUG: Integrated Software Federal User Group ISH: Information Super Highway Page 73 of 161 ISI: Information Sciences Institute ISI: Internally Specified Index ISIS: Image and Scanner Interface Standard ISIS: Integrated Systems and Information Services ISKM: Internet Starter Kit for the Macintosh ISL: Interactive System Language ISLM: Integrated Services Line Module ISLN: Integrated Services Local Network ISLU: Integrated Services Line Unit ISM: Industrial, Scientific, Medical Radio frequency band (Communication) ISQL: Interactive Structured Query Language ISR: Interrupt Status Register ISR: Interrupt Service Routine (Operating systems) ISR: Information Storage and Retrieval ISS: Internet Security System (Network) ISSCC: International Solid State Circuits Conference ISSN: Integrated Special Services Network ISSN: International Standard Serial Number IST: Immerse System Technology IST: Initial System Test IST: Intelligent Scanning Technology ISUP: Integrated Services User Part ISV: Independent Software Vendor A third-party software developer (Software) ISM: Integrated Switch Module (Hardware) ISM: Integrated Service Module (Hardware) I ISM: Internet Service Manager (Microsoft) ISMF: Interactive Storage Management Facility ISN: Internet Shopping Network ISN: Information Systems Network ISN: Internet Services Network ISN-LAN: Information System NetworkLocal Area Network ISO: Independent System Operator ISO: International Standards Organization An international standards body that reviews and approves independently designed products for use within specific industries. ISO also develops standards for information exchange, such as the ISO/OSI model for computer networks (Organizations) IT: Information Technology ITA: Interim Type Approval ITAA: Information Technology Association of America (Organizations) ITB: Information Technology Branch ITB: Intermediate Text Block ITC: International Typeface Corporation ITDI: Information Technology Pioneer International ITE: Information Technology Equipment ITF: Interactive Test Facility ITLB: Instruction Tanslation Look-aside Buffer ITM: Information Technology Management ITMS: Immediate check Truth Maintenance System ITN: Internet Travel Network ITN: Identification Tasking and Networking ITP: Information Technology Project ITR: Internet Talk Radio ITS: Incompatible Time-sharing System ITS: Intelligent Transportation System ITSEC: Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria ITSO: International Technical Support Organization (IBM) ISO/OSI: International Standardization Organization/Open Systems Interconnection ISOC: the Internet SOCiety ISOC: Internet SOCiety ISODE: International Standardization Organization Development Environment ISP: Integrated System Peripheral control ISP: Interactive String Processor ISP: Interrupt Status Port ISP: Interrupt Stack Pointer ISP: Internet Service Provider Communications service company that provides Internet access and services to its customers. ISPs range in size from small independents serving a local calling area to large, established telecommunications companies (Network) ISPF: Interactive System Programming Facility Page 74 of 161 ITU: International Telecommunications Union International organization under the auspices of the United Nations that develops radio (ITU-R) and telecommunications (ITU-T) standards. Prior to 1993, the ITU-T Standardization Sector was known as the CCITT (Organizations) IXC: IntereXchange Carrier (Communication) IXF: Integration eXchange Format (IBM) ITU-T: International Telecommunications Union Technical standards group ITU-TIES: International Telecommunications Union -Telecom Information Exchange Services ITU-TSS: International Telecommunications Union Telecommunication Standards Section ITUG: International Telecommunications User Group ITUSA: Information Technology Users Standards Association ITV: Interactive TeleVision ITX: Intermediate Text Block IU: Integer Unit IUAP: Internet User Account Provider IUAP: Internet User Account Provider IUMA: Internet Underground Music Archive IUS/ITB: Interchange Unit Separator/Intermediate Transmission Block IV: Initialisation Vector IV&V: Independent Verification & Validation IVC: Integrated Visual Computing (SGI) I IVDS: Integrated Voice and Data Systems IVDT: Integrated Voice/Data Terminal IVIS: Interactive Video Information System IVIT: Intelligent Voice Interactive Technology IVL: Independent Vendor League IVL: Intel Verification Lab IVR: Interactive Voice Response IVS: Interactive Videodisk System IVT: InfoViewer Titles (Microsoft) IVT: Interrupt Vector Table IVTS: International Video Teleconferencing Service IW: Information Warehouse IWC: Inside Wire Cable IWF: InterWorking Function IWS: Intelligent WorkStation Page 75 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 76 of 161 J J/K: Just Kidding (Messages) JE: Jump if Equal JEDEC: Joint Electronic Devices Engineering Council JEIDA: Japanese Electronics Industry Development Association JEPI: Joint Electronic Payment Initiative JES: Job Entry System JET: Joint Engine Technology (Databases) (Microsoft) J2EE: Java 2 platform, Enterprise Edition (Software) (Sun) J2ME: Java 2 platform, Micro Edition (Software) (Sun) J2SE: Java 2 platform, Standard Edition (Software) (Sun) JA: Jump Address JA: Jump if Above JAAS: Java Authentication and Authorization Service (Software) (Sun) JFC: Java Foundation Classes (Software) JFET: Junction Field Effect Transistor JFIF: Jpeg File Interchange Format JFS: Journalized File System (Operating systems) JAD: Joint Application Development JADE: Jasmine Application Development Environment (Databases) (CAI) JG: Jump if Greater JGE: Jump if Greater or Equal JGF: Java Graphics Format JIPS: Janet Internet Protocol Service JIS: Japan Industrial Standard JISC: Japanese Industrial Standards Committee JIT: Just In Time JITC: Just In Time Compiler JL: Jump if Less JLE: Japanese Language Environment JLE: Jump if Less than or Equal to JLIP: Joint Level Interface Protocol JMAPI: Java Management Application Programming Interface (Sun) JAE: Jump if Above or Equal JAF: Javabeans Activation Framework (Sun) J JANET: Joint Academic NETwork A U.K. university network (Network) JAR: Java Archive JAWS: Jamming And Warning System (Hardware) JBCL: Java Beans Component Library (Software) JBE: Jump if Below or Equal JBOD: Just a Bunch Of Disks (Hardware) JBPC: Java-Based Pipeline Configurator JC: Jump if Carry set JCE: Java Cryptography Extension (Software) (Sun) JCL: Job Control Language (Software) JMF: Java Media Framework (Software) (Sun) JCP: Java Community Process JCT: Joint Technical Committee (Organizations) JMP: JuMP JMS: Java Message Service JMSC: Japanese Midi Standard Committee JMX: Java Management eXtension Formerly known as LMAPI (Sun) JDBC: Java DataBase Connectivity (Databases) JDC: Java Developer Connection (Sun) JNA: Jump if Not Above JNAE: Jump if Not Above or Equal JNB: Jump if Not Below JNBE: Jump if Not Below or Equal Page 77 of 161 JDI: Java Driver Interface JDJ: Java Developer's Journal JDK: Java Development Kit (Software) (Sun) JNDI: Java Naming and Directory Interface (Sun) JSP: Java Service Pages (Software) JNG: Jump if Not Greater JNGE: Jump if Not Greater or Equal JNI: Java Native Interface (Sun) JSS: Javascript Style Sheet JSSE: Java Secure Socket Extension (Software) (Sun) JST: Japan Standard Time Timezone: GMT +9:00 JNLE: Jump if Not Less or Equal JNO: Jump if No Overflow JNP: Jump if No Parity JNS: Jump if No Sign JNZ: Jump if Not Zero JOE: Java Objects Everywhere JOHNNIAC: JOHn Neumann Integrator and Automatic Computer JOOP: Journal of Object Orientated Programming JOSS: Joint Object Services Submission JOSS: Johnniac Open Shop System JSWDK: JavaServer Web Development Kit (Software) (Sun) JTA: Java Transaction Api (Sun) JTAPI: Java Telephony Application Programming Interface (Sun) JTB: Jump Trace Buffer JTC: Joint Technical Committee JTM: Job Transfer and Manipulation JTMS: Justification based Truth Maintenance System JTS: Java Transaction Service JUGHEAD: Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy Excavation And Display JUNET: Japan Unix NETwork JVM: Java Virtual Machine JVMDI: Java Virtual Machine Debugger Interface JVMPI: Java Virtual Machine Profiler Interface JVS: Java Validation Suite (Software) J JOVE: Jonathan's Own Version of Emacs JOVIAL: Jules Own Version of the International Algorithmic Language JPE: Jump if Parity Even JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group A joint venture of the CCITT and ISO that developed a standard for compressing gray-scale or color still images JPL: Jet Propulsion Laboratory JPLDIS: Jet Propulsion Laboratory Display Information System JPO: Jump if Parity Odd JRB: Java Relational Binding (Software) JWS: Java Web Server (Sun) JZ: Jump if Zero JRE: Java Runtime Environment (Software) JRI: Java Runtime Interface Native interface proposed by Netscape (Software) (Netscape) JRMP: Java Remote Method Protocol (Software) JRP: Joint Requirement Planning JS: Jump if Sign JS: JavaScript (Software) (Netscape) JSA: Japanese Standards Association JSC: Java Swing Connection (Sun) JSCP: Java Software CoProcessor JSDK: Java Servlet Development Kit (Software) Page 78 of 161 K k: Kilo Prefix for 1000 or 1024 KJS: Kiva Java Server (Software) (Netscape) KAM: Keep Alive Memory KAS: Kiva Administrative Server (Software) (Netscape) KNI: Katmai New Instruction (Intel) kb: KiloBit KB: Knowledge Base kB: KiloByte KB: KeyBoard (Hardware) KPCMS: Kodak Precision Color Management System (Software) (Kodak) KPDL: Kyocera Page Description Language (Hardware) KPI: Kernel Programming Interface KQML: Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language KRS: Knowledge Retrieval System KSDS: Key Sequenced Data Set KSH: Korn SHell KSPH: KeyStrokes Per Hour KSR: Keyboard Send Receive (Hardware) KBD: KeyBoarD KBE: Knowledge Based Engineering kbps: KiloBits Per Second Transfer Speed (Communication) kBps: KiloBytes Per Second Transfer Speed (Communication) KBS: Knowledge-Based System KCS: Kiva C++ Server (Software) (Netscape) KVM: Keyboard, Video, Mouse (Hardware) K KCS: Kansas City Standard Recording standard (Hardware) KVM: K Virtual Machine KWIC: Key Word In Context A permuted index offering lists of titles, with each of the major words as the first word, and the remaining words using key words or phrases KDC: Key Distribution Center KDE: K Desktop Environment KDT: Key Definition Table KEFIR: KEy FIndings Reporter KERMIT: Kl-10 Error-free Reciprocal Micro Interconnect over Tty lines KES: Key Escrow System KFM: K FIle Manager KFX: KoFaX File Format for fax transmission KXS: Kiva eXecutive Server (Software) (Netscape) KHG: Kernel Hacking Guide KHz: KiloHertZ KIF: Knowledge Interchange Format KIPS: Kilo Instruction Per Second Processing speed KIR: Kyocera Image Refinement (Hardware) KIS: Knowbot Information Service KISS: Keep It Simple, Stupid KIT: Kernel software for Intelligent Terminals Page 79 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 80 of 161 L L&F: Look & Feel L&H: Lernout And Hauspie L1: Level 1 (Hardware) LATA: Local Access and Transport Area LATM: Local Asynchronous Transfer Mode LAVC: Local Area Vax Cluster LAWN: Local Area Wireless Network LB: Local bus Bus architecture (Hardware) L2: Level 2 (Hardware) L2F: Layer 2 Forwarding L2TP: Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (Network) LBA: Logical Block Addressing LBL: LaBeL LBM: Local Bus Master LBOT: Logical Beginning of Tape (Hardware) LA: Limited Availability LADDR: LAyered Device DRiver (Microsoft) LADT: Local Access Data Transport LALL: Longest Allowed Lobe Length LAM: Local Area Multicomputer LAN: Local Area Network Data communications network connecting computers and related equipment, usually over an area not greater than 10 km (Network) LBR: LiBraRian LBT: Local Bus Targets LBT: Listen Before Talk LBX: Low-Band with X LBX: Local Bus Accelerator LC: Liquid Crystal (Hardware) LAN: Local Access Network LANACS: Local Area Network Asynchronous Connection Server LANCE: Local Area Network Controller Ethernet LANDP: Local Area Network Distributed Platform LANE: Local Area Network Emulation A set of services and protocols that provide for the emulation of LANs, using ATM as a backbone to allow connectivity among LAN and ATM attached end stations (Network) L LCA: Logic Cell Array LCA: Life-Cycle Assessment LCA: Lotus Communications Architecture (Lotus) LCC: Leadless Chip Carrier (Hardware) LCCM: LanClient Control Manager (IBM) LAP: Link Access Procedure Communication protocol (CCITT X.25) (Communication) LCD: Loss of Cell Delineation LCD: Lowest Common Denominator LCD: Liquid Crystal Display (Hardware) LAP-B: Link Access Procedure-Balanced LAPD: Link Access Procedure-D channel Communication protocol (Communication) LCF: Lightweight Client Framework LCF: Low Cost Fiber Lch: Luminance Chrominance Hue Color model (Hardware) LAPM: Link Access Procedure for Modems LAPS: Lan Adapter and Protocol Support LAR: Load Access Rights LASER: Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation LASS: Local Area Signaling Service LASTport: Local Area Storage TransPORT Protocol (DEC) LCID: Language Code IDentifier LCID: LoCale IDentifier LCK: Library Construction Kit (Microsoft) LCM: Leaf Creation Method LCM: Landesk Configuration Manager (Operating systems) (Intel) LAT: Local Access Terminal LAT: Local Area Transport (Network) Page 81 of 161 LCN: Logical Cluster Number (Operating systems) LEC: Layered Error Correction LEC: Lan Emulation Client (Network) LCOS: Liquid Crystal On Silicon (Hardware) LCP: Link Control Protocol Part of the point-to-point protocol (PPP) to establish, configure, and test data link connections (Network) LEC: Local Exchange Carrier LED: Light Emitting Diode (Hardware) LCR: Least Cost Routing (Network) LEL: Link, Embed and Launch-to-edit (Lotus) LCR: Line Control Register LCS: Lotus Communication Server LCS: Laboratory for Computer Science MIT's department LEM: Language Extension Module LEN: Low Entry Networking LEO: Low Earth Orbit LEOT: Logical End Of Tape (Hardware) LCSD: Laminate Chip Signal Diode LCT: Last Compliance Time LCU: Last Cluster Used LD: Laser Disc (Hardware) LEP: Light Emitting Polymer (Hardware) LES: Language Engineering Services LES: Lan Emulation Server (Network) LDA: Logical Device Address LDAP: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol A standardized TCP/IP protocol for access to a central X.500based directory that is shared by many different services. Many vendors plan to use LDAP to access policy information stored on third-party directories (Network) LEX: LEXicon LF: Login Facility LF: Line Feed An instruction to a certain computer or printer to move down one line, without moving the cursor or print head. Also used as a terminator L LDC: Lotus Development Corporation LDCM: LanDesk Client Manager LDDS: Long Distance Discount Services LDGW: Lotus Domino Go Webserver (Software) (IBM) LFAP: Lightweight Flow Admission Protocol LFH: Low Force Helix Connector pin type (Hardware) LFI: Last File Indicator LFN: Long FileName LFR: Logical Forms Recognition (Software) LDI: Lvds Digital Interface (Hardware) LDIF: Ldap Data Interchange Format LDM: Long Distance Modem LDMS: LanDesk Management Suite LDP: Loader Debugger Protocol LDP: Linux Document Project LDP: Label Distribution Protocol A fundamental concept in Multi Protocol Label Switching is that two Label Switching Routers must agree on the meaning of the labels used to forward traffic between and through them (Network) LFS: Loopback File System LFT: Low Function Terminal (IBM) LFU: Least Frequently Used LGA: Leadless Grid Array LGDT: Load Global Descriptor Table LGPL: Library General Public License LGX: Linux/Gnu/X LIAS: Library Information Access System LIB: LIBrary File name extension LDT: Local Descriptor Table LE: Less than or Equal (Software) LE: Limited Edition (Software) LIC: Licensed Internal Code LIC: Line Interface Coupler (IBM) LEA: Load Effective Address LEAF: Law Enforcement Access Field LEAS: Lata Equal Access System Page 82 of 161 LICS: Lotus International Character Set LIDE: Light emitting diode In-Direct Exposure Scanner technology (Hardware) (Canon) LLN: Line Link Network LLNL: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (IBM) LIDT: Load Interrupt Descriptor Table LIEP: Large Internet Exchange Packet (Novell) LM: License Manager LM: Lan Manager (Network) (IBM) LIF: Low Insertion Force LIF: Low Insertion Force LIFE: Logistics Interface For manufacturing Environment LIFO: Last In First Out (Hardware) LM/X: Lan Manager for uniX LMB: Left Mouse Button LMBCS: Lotus Multi-Byte Character Set (Lotus) LILO: LInux LOader LILO: Last In Last Out (Hardware) LMD: Last Modification Date LMDS: Local Multipoint Distribution System (Communication) LIM: Lotus/Intel/Microsoft LIMA: Lotus/Intel/Microsoft/Ast LIMDO: Light Intensity Modulation Direct Overwrite LIMM: Light Intensity Modulation Method LIMOS: Laser Intensity MOdulation System LIMS: Library Information Management System LIP: Large Internet Packet LIPS: Logical Instruction Per Second Processing Speed LME: Layer Management Entity LMI: Local Management Interface LMI: Link Management Interface LMM: Logical Memory Manager (Databases) (Sybase) LMS: Library Maintenance System LMS: Lotus Messaging Switch (Lotus) LMS: Lick My S**k (Messages) L LMSW: Load Machine Status Word LMU: Lan Management Utilities (IBM) LIPS: Logical Inferences Per Second LIPS: Lightweight Internet Person Schema LIR: Local Internet Registry (Network) LMU: Lan Manager for Unix LN: Load Number LN: Logarithm Natural Base e LIS: Logical Ip Subnet LIS: Library Information System LISP: LISt Processor Programming language (Software) LN:DI: Lotus Notes:Document Imaging LNBF: Low-Noise Block receiving horns with integrated Feeds (Communication) LITHP: LInk Type description language for HyperText Processing LIU: Lan Interface Unit LIW: Long Instruction Word (Hardware) LNK: LiNK File name extension LOB: Low-Order Byte LOB: Line-Of-Business LOB: Large OBject (Databases) LKG: Last Known Good (Operating systems) (Microsoft) LLB: Local Location Broker LLC: Logical Link Control Token Ring link protocol (IEEE 802.2) (Network) LOC: Lines Of Code LOC: Loop Online Control LOCIS: Library Of Congress Information System LOD: Level Of Detail LODSB: LOaD String Byte LLDT: Load Local Descriptor Table LLF: Low Level Format LLL: Low-Level Language (Software) Page 83 of 161 LOF: Loss of Frame LOFS: LOopback File System A file system type that lets the user create a new virtual file system. The user can access files using an alternative path name (Operating systems) LPP: Licensed Program Product LPP: Land Pre-Pits Addressing aid in writing DVD-R (Hardware) LPR: Line Printer Remote LPS: Low Power Schottky (Hardware) LOG: LOGarithm Base 10 LOL: Laugh Out Loud (Messages) lps: Lines Per Second Printing speed (Hardware) LON: Local Operating Network LOOPE: LOOP while Equal LOOPNE: LOOP while Not Equal LOOPNZ: LOOP while Not Zero LOOPS: Lisp Object Oriented Programming System LOOPZ: LOOP while Zero LOP: Loss of Pointer LORE: Line Oriented Editor LOS: Loss of Signal LOTOS: Language Of Temporal Order Specification LOV: List Of Values LPT: Line PrinTer (Hardware) LPWA: Lucent Personalized Web Assistant Anonymous web browsing service LQ: Letter Quality LQM: Link Quality Monitoring LR: Logical Record LR: Link Register LRC: Longitudinal Redundancy Check LRC: Local Register Cache LRL: Least Recently Loaded LRM: Least Recently used Master LRM: Language Reference Manual LRPC: Lightweight Remote Procedure Call (Software) L LP: Logical Partition LP: Linear Programming LPAR: Logical Partition (Operating systems) (IBM) LRS: Line Repeater Station LRS: Language ReSource File name extension LPAR: Logic Programming and Automated Reasoning LPB: Local Peripheral Bus LPB: Low Ping Bastard Network multiplayer games attribute (Software) LRU: Least Recently Used LS: Laser Servo (Hardware) (Compaq) LSA: Lan and Scsi Adapter (IBM) LPC: Linear Predictive Coding LPC: Lightweight Procedure Call (Software) LSA: Local Security Authority (Microsoft) LPC: Local Procedure Call LPCM: Linear Pulse Code Modulation (Communication) LSA: Line Sharing Adapter LSAPI: License Services Application Programming Interface LSB: Least Significant Bit (or Byte) LSC: Least Significant Character LSD: Least Significant Digit LSE: Language Sensitive Editor LSI: Large Scale of Integration IC manufacturing integration level: it's the process of placing from 3,000 to 100,000 transistors on one chip (Hardware) LPD: Line Printer Daemon LPDP: Line Printer Daemon Protocol LPF: League for Programming Freedom LPI: Lines Per Inch LPL: Lotus Programming Language (Lotus) LPM: Logical Process Manager (Databases) (Sybase) LSL: Link Support Layer LSL: Load Segment Limit LSMS: Lucent Security Management Server (Lucent) lpm: Lines Per Minute Printing speed (Hardware) LPN: Logical Page Number Page 84 of 161 LSN: Logical Sector Number LSN: Log Sequence Number LST: Linux Support Team LST: LiST File name extension LYLAS: Love You Like A Sister (Messages) LZ: Lempel-Ziv LZ: Landing Zone (Hardware) LT: Less Than (Software) LZS: Lempel-Ziv-Stac Compression algorithm LTC: Longitudinal Time Code LTE: Line Terminating Equipment LTO: Linear Tape Open (Hardware) LZW: Lempel-Ziv-Welch Compression algorithm LTPS: Low-Temperature PolySilicon (Hardware) LTR: Load Task Register LTR: LeTteR LTR: Left-To-Right LTS: Leaning Toothpick Syndrome Expresses readability in PERL regular expressions (Software) LTSS: Long Term Station Statistics LU: Logical Unit LU6.2: Logical Unit 6.2 LUA: Logical Unit Application LUG: Local Users Group LUI: Local User Input LUIS: Library User Information Service LUN: Logical Unit Number SCSI subaddressing (Hardware) L LUNI: Lane User Network Interface LUT: LookUp Table LUW: Logical Unit of Work LV: Logical Volume (IBM) LVCS: Logility Value Chain Solution (Software) LVD: Low Voltage Differential (Hardware) LVDS: Low Voltage Differential Signalling (Hardware) LVM: Logical Volume Management (IBM) LW: Lazy Write LW: Length Width LWP: Lotus WordPro File format for documents LWP: LightWeight Process A class of processes that share resources with each other and therefore use fewer resources than ordinary processes (Operating systems) Page 85 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 86 of 161 M m: Milli Prefix for 10 power -3 MAOS: Multiple Application Operating System (Operating systems) M: Mega Prefix for 1000 (or 1024) power 2 MAP: Mobile Application Part MAP: Migration Assistance Program MAP: Manufacturing Automation Protocol MAP: Maintenance Analysis Procedures MAP: Memory Allocation Map MAP/TOP: Manufacturing Automation Protocol Technical Office Protocol MAPE: Mean Absolute Percentage Error MAPI: Messaging Application Programming Interface (Microsoft) mA: Milliampere MAB: Multi-Architecture Binary (Software) MABO: Multiplier-Arithmetic BOlton MAC: Multiplexed Analog Component A color standard that transmits three color components in timecompressed serial analog form (Hardware) MAC: Media Access Control (Network) MAC: Multiply ACcumulate CPU instruction type MAC: Multiple Access Computers MAC: Message Authentication Code MAC: MACro File name extension MAPICS: Manufacturing, Accounting and Production Information Control System (IBM) MACH: Multilayer ACtuator Head (Epson) MAPS: Mcis Administration and Provisioning Service (Microsoft) MACS: Modem Access Control System MADD: Multiply-ADD CPU instruction type MAPS: Mail Abuse Prevention System MAR: Memory Address Register (Hardware) M MADE: Manufacturing and Automated Design Engineering MADYMO: MAthematical DYnamic MOdeling MAE: Macintosh Application Environment MAE: Merit Access Exchange MAE: Metropolitan Area Ethernet MAGIC: Multi-dimensional Applications Gigabit Internetworking Consortium (Organizations) MARC: Multitechnology Automated Reader Card MARC: MAchine Readable Cataloging MARS: Multicast Address Resolution Server (Network) MARVEL: Machine-Assisted Realization of the Virtual Electronic Library MAS: Microsoft Authorized Support (Microsoft) MASM: Macro ASseMbler (Software) (Microsoft) MAGMA: Minimal Architecture for Generalized Markup Applications mAh: MilliAmpere per Hour MAI: Multiple Applications Interface MAJC: Microprocessor Architecture for Java Computing (Sun) MASS: Maximum Availability and Support Subsystem MAT: Maintenance Access Terminal MathML: MATHematical Markup Language MAU: Medium Attachment Unit MAU: Multistation Access Unit MAU: Media Access Unit MAVDM: Multiple Application Virtual Dos Machine MAW: Microsoft At Work MAX: MAXimum MAN: Metropolitan Area Network Between a LAN and WAN in size and scope (Network) MAN: MANual File name extension MANIAC: Mathematical Analyzer Numerical Integrator And Computer Page 87 of 161 MAX: MAssively parallel uniX MB: MotherBoard (Hardware) MCIS: Microsoft Commercial Internet System (Network) (Microsoft) Mb: MegaBit MB: MegaByte MBASIC: Microsoft Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (Microsoft) MCL: Microsoft Compatibility Labs (Microsoft) MCM: MultiChip Module MCN: Metropolitan Campus Network MCNE: Master Certified Novell Engineer (Novell) MBCS: Multi-Byte Character Set MBONE: Multicast backBONE (Network) MCP: Multiport Communication Processor MCP: Microsoft Certified Professional (Microsoft) Mbps: MegaBits Per Second Transfer speed (Communication) MCP: Master Control Program MCP: Myrinet Control Program (Network) MBps: MegaBytes Per Second Transfer Speed (Communication) MBQ: Message-Based Queueing MBR: Master Boot Record MBS: Maximum Burst Size MBX: MailBoX MC: Model Coordinates The coordinate system used for describing a single object (a graphics entity). When each object is described in its own model coordinate space, all are mapped to one world coordinate space MCP/AS: Master Control Program/Advanced System MCPC: Multi Channel Per Carrier MCPS: Microsoft Certified Product Specialist (Microsoft) MCR: Maximum Cell Rate MCR: Modem Control Register MCS: Multichannel Communications System MCS: Material Control System MCSD: Microsoft Certified Solution Developer (Microsoft) MC-PGA: Metallized Ceramic - Pin Grid Array M MC-QFP: Metallized Ceramic - Quad Flat Pack MCA: Merchant Certification Authority erchant Certification Authority MCA: Micro Channel Architecture Bus architecture (Hardware) (IBM) MCSE: Microsoft Certified System Engineer (Microsoft) MCSP: Microsoft Certified Solution Provider (Microsoft) MCAD: Mechanical Computer Aided Design A specialized computer graphics market for the design of mechanical structures, such as automobiles, airplanes, and their parts (Software) MCT: Microsoft Certified Trainer (Microsoft) MCAV: Modified Constant Angular Velocity MCB: Memory Control Block MCBF: Mean Cycle Between Failure MCC: Manchester Computing Centre MCC: Manchester Code Converter MCDBA: Microsoft Certified Database Administrator (Microsoft) MCU: Multi-Chip Unit (DEC) MCU: Multipoint Control Unit MCU: MicroController Unit MCVA: Modified Constant Angular Velocity MD: Message Digest (Network) MD: Mini Disk (Sony) MCF: Meta-Content Framework (Netscape) MD: Make Directory MD: Monochrome Display MDA: Medicated Digest Authentication MDA: Monochrome Display Adapter (Hardware) MCGA: MultiColor Graphic Adapter (Hardware) MCI: Media Control Interface MCI: Microwave Communications, Inc. Now MCI Communications corporation MDA: Market Development Agreement MDA: MultiDimensional Analysis Page 88 of 161 MDAC: Microsoft Data Access Component (Databases) (Microsoft) MDT: Mechanical DeskTop MDT: Mountain Daylight Time Timezone: GMT -7:00 MDB: Microsoft DataBase File format (Databases) (Microsoft) MDB: Multiple-Device Boot A diskette used to boot from a CD-ROM or from a network (Operating systems) MDX: MultiDimensional eXpression MDY: Month Day Year ME: Motion Estimation MEB: Memory Expansion Board MEDAPE: MEDium Absolute Percentage Error MEL: Michigan Electronic Library MEL: Multos Executable Language MEM: MEMory MEMO: Multimedia Environment for MObiles MEMS: Micro ElectroMechanical System (Hardware) (TI) MDBE: Microsoft DataBase Engine (Databases) (Microsoft) MDBMS: Multidimensional DataBase Management System (Databases) MDD: Multidimensional Discrete Data (Databases) MDDBMS: MultiDimensional DataBase Management System MDF: Menu Definition File File name extension MDFE: Multilevel Decision Feedback Equalization (Hardware) MEO: Medium Earth Orbit MERCI: Multimedia European Research Conferencing Integration MERS: Most Economic Route Selection MES: Manufacturing Execution System MESI: Modified, Exclusive, Shared and Invalid MEST: Middle European Summer Time Timezone: GMT +1:00 MDI: Multiplex Device Interface MDI: Multiple Document Interface (Microsoft) MDI: Medium Dependent Interface MDI: Memory Display Interface MDIC: Manchester Decoder and Interface Chip (AT&T) M MDIS: MetaData Interchange Specification MDK: Multimedia Developers Kit (Microsoft) MET: Middle European Time Timezone: GMT +1:00 MET: Memory Enhancement Technology (HP) MDL: Microstation Development Language MDL: Method Definition Language MDLP: Mobile Data Link Protocol MDLS: Member Digital Library Subscription MDM: Membership DIrectory Manager (Microsoft) MEWT: Middle European Winter Time Timezone: GMT +1:00 MF: Multi Frequency MFC: Microsoft Foundation Classes (Software) (Microsoft) MFC: MultiFunction Center (Hardware) MDR: Memory Data Register (Hardware) MFC&T: Microsoft Foundation Classes & Templates (Software) (Microsoft) MDR: MicroDesign Resources MDR: Minimum Design Requirement MDRAM: Multi-bank Dynamic Random Access Memory (Hardware) MFENET: Magnetic Fusion Energy NETwork MFFS: Microsoft Flash File System (Microsoft) MFI: MainFrame Interactive MFI: Multifunction Interpreter MFIOP: MultiFunction Input/Output Processor (Hardware) MDRC: Manufacturing Design Rule Checker MDS: Manufacturing Design System MDS: Macintosh Development System (Software) (Apple) MDS: Microprocessor Development System (Software) MFLOPS: Million Floating point Operation Per Second A unit of measure of execution speed that rates the oating-point performance of a computer Page 89 of 161 MFM: Modified Frequency Modulation Magnetic support read-write technology (Hardware) MIC: Media Interface Connector MIC: Macro Interpretative Command MIC: Message Integrity Check MIC: Market Intelligence Center MICE: Modular Integrated Communications Environment MICR: Magnetic Ink Character Recognition MICS: Macro Interpretive Commands MID: Message IDentifier MIDAS: Multi-tIer Distributed Application Service (Inprise) MFP: MultiFunctional Peripheral (Hardware) MFPI: MultiFunction Peripheral Interface MFS: Magnetic tape Field Search MFS: Macintosh File System (Operating systems) (Apple) MFS: Modified Filing System (Operating systems) MFS: Message Format Service MFS: Memory File System MFT: Master File Table Table containing NT's file system structure (Operating systems) (Microsoft) MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface A note-oriented control language for specifying music. MIDI data consists of codes specifying notes and timing. These codes can be generated by or output to MIDI-compatible devices, such as keyboards or synthesizers (Hardware) MFT: Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of Tasks MFTP: Multicast File Transfer Protocol MFU: Most Frequently Used MGA: Matrox Graphics Adapter MGA: Monochrome Graphics Adapter (Hardware) MIDL: Microsoft Interface Definition Language (Microsoft) MIF: Module Interconnection Facility MIF: Management Information File MIF: Minimum Internetworking Functionality MIF: Management Information Format MIFST: Microsoft Internet Finance Server Toolkit (Network) (Microsoft) MGCP: Media Gateway Control Protocol (Communication) M MGDI: Multiplatform Graphics Device Interface (Operating systems) (Microsoft) MGE: Modular Gis Environment MGET: Multiple GET MGML: Minimal Generalized Markup Language MGR: ManaGeR MH: Modified Huffman MHDL: Mimic Hardware Description Language MHEG: Multimedia and Hypermedia information coding Expert Group MHPCC: Maui High Performance Computing Center MHS: Message Handling System MHz: MegaHertZ MI: Multiple Inheritance (Software) MIG: Metal In Gap MII: Media-Independent Interface A 40-pin miniature-D connector that provides the electrical interface between some Sun systems and 10BASE-T or 100BASE-T Ethernet network transceivers (Hardware) (Sun) MII: Microsoft/IBM/Intel MIL: Machine Interface Layer MILNET: MILitary NETwork Originally part of the ARPANET, MILNET was partitioned in 1984 to provide military installations with reliable network service, while the ARPANET continued to be used for research (Network) MIM: Metal-Insulator-Metal (Hardware) MIM: Map Image Metafile MIMD: Multiple Instruction Multiple Data MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (Network) MI: Management Interface MI/MIC: Mode Indicate/Mode Indicate Common MIB: Management Information Base MIB: Multimedia Integration Box (Siemens-Nixdorf) MIN: MINimum MIN: Mobile Identification Number MIND: Microsoft INteractive Developer Microsoft magazine for Web developers (Microsoft) Page 90 of 161 MINT: Mint Is Not Tos MINUET: Minnesota INternet Users Essential Tools MINX: Multimedia Information Network eXchange MIO: Memory Input/Output MIP: Mixed Integer Programming MIPS: Microprocessor without Interlocked Piped Stages MIPS: Million Instructions Per Second A unit of measure of execution speed that rates the performance of a computer CPU MMA: Microcomputer Managers Association MMC: Midi Machine Control MMC: MultiMedia Comands MMC: Microcomputer Marketing Council MMC: Microsoft Management Console (Microsoft) MMC: Microsoft Media Console (Microsoft) MMC: Matched Memory Cycle MMCD: MultiMedia Compact Disk (Hardware) MIR: Micro-Instruction Register MIS: Management Information System MIS: Multimedia Information Sources MISC: MISCellaneous MISF: Microsoft Information Security Framework (Microsoft) MMCD-E: MultiMedia Compact Disk-Erasable MMCX: MultiMedia Communication Exchange MMDS: Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (Communication) MMI: Man-Machine Interface MMIS: Materials Manager Information System MML: Maker Macro Language MMM: Mobile Media Mode MMO: Mobile MOdule (Hardware) (Intel) MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIX: Member Information eXchange MJ: Modular Jack MJD: Modified Julian Date MKDIR: MaKe DIRectory MKS: Mortice Kern Systems ML: Machine Language ML: Meta Language MLAPI: MultiLingual Application Programming Interface MLC: MultiLayer Ceramic MLC: MultiLevel Cell MLE: Multi Language Environment MLE: MultiLine Entry field MLE: MultiLine Editor MLI: Multiple Link Interface MLID: MultiLink Interface Driver MLM: Mailing List Manager MLPPP: MultiLink Point-to-Point Protocol (Communication) MMPM: MultiMedia Presentation Manager MMPM/2: MultiMedia Presentation Manager 2 MMR: Modified Modified Read MMS: Maximum Message Size MMS: Merchant Management System MMU: Memory Management Unit (Hardware) M MMVF: MultiMedia Video FIle (NEC) MMX: Matrix Manipulation eXtensions (Intel) MMX: MultiMedia eXtensions (Intel) MNN: My Netscape Network MNOS: Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductor MNP: Microcom Networking Protocol (Network) MLS: MultiLevel Secure MM: Mobile Management MM: MultiMedia MM: Management Module MMA: Midi Manufacturer Association MO: Managment Object MO: Magneto-Optical MO-WORM: Magneto-Optical Write Once Read Many MO:DCA: Mixed Object Document Content Architecture MOB: Memory-Order Buffer Page 91 of 161 MOC: Microsoft Official Curriculum (Microsoft) MOVS: Microsoft Office/Vba Solution (Microsoft) MOD: Magneto-Optical Disk MOD: MODulus Reminder of the integer division MOVS: MOVe String MP: Master Plan MP: Massively Parallel MP: MultiProtocol MP: Multilink Ppp (Communication) MOD: Microsoft Office 2000 Developer (Software) (Microsoft) MODEM: MOdulator/DEModulator MOHLL: Machine Oriented High Level Language MOLAP: Multidimensional On-Line Analytical Processing MOM: Message-Oriented Middleware MOM: Microsoft Office Manager (Microsoft) MP: MicroProcessor MP: Multi Processor A computer using two or more nearly equal processing units under integrated control (Hardware) MP+: Multichannel Protocol Plus (Network) (Ascend) MOM: Manufacturing Operations Management MOMA: Message-Oriented Middleware Association (Organizations) MP3: MPeg layer 3 Sound encoding format (Software) MPA: Memo Pad Archive Filename extension MPC: Multimedia Personal Computer Multimedia specifications MONET: Multiwavelength Optical NETwork (Network) MPC: MultiPath Channel MPC+: MultiPath Channel Plus (IBM) MOO: Mud, Object Oriented A client used to connect to a MUD MOP: Maintenance Operations Protocol (Network) MPCC: MultiProtocol Communication Controller (Hardware) M MOPA: MultiProtocol Over Atm (Communication) MPCS: Mission Planning and Control Station MPDU: Message Protocol Data Unit MPE: Multi-Programming Executive (HP) MOPS: Million Operations Per Second MOS: Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Semiconductor manufacturing technology (Hardware) MOS: Mean Opinion Score MOS: Magneto-Optic Storage MOSES: Massive Open Systems Environment Standard MOSFET: Metal-Oxide Semiconductor FieldEffect Transistor (Hardware) MPEG: Motion Pictures Expert Group A group that has developed standards for compressing moving pictures and audio data and for synchronizing video and audio datastreams. Also, a file format MPI: Multiprocessor Interconnect Bus MPI: MultiPrecision Integer MPI: Message Passing Interface MPIF: Message Passing Interface Forum MPK: MultiProcessing Kernel (Operating systems) MOSPF: Multicast Open Shortest Path First (Communication) MOSS: Mime Objects Security Services MOT: Multimedia Object Transfer MOTD: Message Of The Day MOTIS: Message-Oriented Text Interchange Systems MOUS: Micorsoft Office User Specialist (Microsoft) MPL: Message Passing Library (IBM) MPLS: MultiProtocol Label Switching An architecture on the IETF standards track for integrating a mechanism for label-swapping with Layer 3 routing to accelerate packet forwarding (Network) MPMD: Multiple Processor/Multiple Data MPOA: Multi-Protocol Over Atm An ATM Forum standard for the routing of multiple protocols across an ATM substrate. It enables ATM services to be integrated with existing local-area networks that use Ethernet, token-ring or TCP/IP protocols (Network) MOV: MOVe MOV: MOVie Fileformat for movies (Apple) MOV: Metal Oxide Varistor Page 92 of 161 MPOW: Multiple Purpose Operator Workstation MPP: Massively Parallel Processing MPP: Message Processing Program MPP: Message Posting Protocol MPPC: Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression (Network) (Microsoft) MRCI: Microsoft Real-time Compression Interface (Microsoft) MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging A medical imaging technique used for image capture. Tissue area is simultaneously subjected to electromagnetic radiation and a magnetic field MRM: Most Recently used Master MRNET: Minnesota Regional NETwork MRO: Multi-Region Operation (IBM) MPPD: Multi Purpose Peripheral Device MPQP: Multi-Protocol Quad Port (IBM) MPR: Multi-Protocol Routing (Network) MROC: Miniature Ruggedized Optical Correlator (Hardware) MPR: MultiPart Repeater MPS: MultiPage Signal MPS: Multiple Priority System (Network) MRP: Manufacturing Resource Planning MRP: Material Requirement Planning MRPL: Main Ring Path Length MRS: Message Routing System (Communication) MPS: MultiProcessor Specification MPSX: Mathematical Programming System eXtended MPT: MultiPort Transceiver MPTA: Multi Protocol Transport Architecture MPTN: Multi-Protocol Transport Network MPTS: Multi-Protocol Transport Services MPTS/2: Multi Protocol Transport Services 2 MPU: MicroProcessor Unit (Hardware) MRS: Media Recognition System MRS: Monitoring and Recovery Subsystem MRS: Micro Reflective Structure (Hardware) (Sharp) MRT: Mean Repair Time MRU: Most Recently Used MRU: Maximum Receive Unit MS: Mobile Station MS: MicroSoft ms: MilliSecond Time measurement unit M MPW: Macintosh Programmer's Workshop (Software) (Apple) MQ: Message Queuing (Software) MS: Memory System MS: Message Store MS-ISDN: Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Network number MSA: Management Services Architecture (IBM) MQH: Memory Queue Handler On Sun server systems, the device on the system board that provides the interface between the system board SIMMs and the backplane XDBus (Hardware) (Sun) MQI: Message Queuing Interface (IBM) MR: Modified Read MR: Magneto-Resistive Hard disk head technology (Hardware) MSACM: MicroSoft Audio Compression Manager (Microsoft) MR: Memory Read (Hardware) MSAU: Multi-Station Access Unit MSAV: MicroSoft Anti Virus (Microsoft) MR: Modem Ready MR-X: Magneto Resistive - eXtended (Hardware) MSB: Most Significant Bit (or Byte) MSBF: Mean Swaps Between Failures MSC: MicroSoft C MSC: Mobile Switching Center MSCDEX: MicroSoft CD-rom EXtensions (Operating systems) (Microsoft) MRB: Method Request Broker MRC: Mesh Router Chip (Network) MRCF: Microsoft Realtime Compression Format Page 93 of 161 MSCE: MicroSoft Certified Engineer (Microsoft) MSK: Minimum-Shift Keying MSKB: MicroSoft Knowledge Base (Microsoft) MSCHAP: MicroSoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (Microsoft) MSL: Microsoft Software Library MSL: Map Specification Library MSL: Mirrored Server Link MSMQ: MicroSoft Message Queue (Network) (Microsoft) MSCM: Multiple Slots on Continuation Mechanism MSCP: Mass Storage Control Protocol MSCS: MicroSoft Cluster Server MSCT: MicroSoft Certified Trainer (Microsoft) MSN: Multiple Subscriber Number MSN: MicroSoft Network (Network) (Microsoft) MSCTEC: MicroSoft Certified Technical Education Center (Microsoft) MSNF: Multiple Systems Networking Facility MSO: Multiple-Systems Operator MSP: Managed Service Provider MSP: MicroSoft Paint File name extension (Microsoft) MSD: Microsoft System Diagnostics (Microsoft) MSD: Most Significant Digit MSD: Mass Storage Device MSDA: MicroSoft Direct Access (Microsoft) MSP: Message Security Protocol (Network) MSDE: MicroSoft Databse Engine (Software) (Microsoft) MSP: Messaging Service Provider MSR: MicroSoft Research (Microsoft) MSDK: Microsoft Solutions Development Kit (Microsoft) MSDN: Macintosh Software Distribution Network MSRN: Mobile Station Roaming Number MSRP: Manufacturer Suggested Retail Price MSS: Managed Security Service MSS: Multiprotocol Switched Server (Hardware) (IBM) M MSDN: MicroSoft Developer Network (Microsoft) MSDOS: MicroSoft Disk Operating System MSDR: Multiplexed Streaming Data Request MSDS: MicroSoft Developer Support (Microsoft) MSS: Mass Storage Subsystem An early version of the Sun pedestal disk storage system (Hardware) (Sun) MSEQ: MicroSoft English Query (Databases) (Microsoft) MST: Mountain Standard Time Timezone: GMT -7:00 MSF: Microsoft Solutions Framework (Microsoft) MSTS: MicroSoft Terminal Server (Operating systems) MSFC: Multilayer Switch Feature Card (Network) MSU: Millions of Service Units MSU: Modem Sharing Unit (Hardware) MSFP: Management Service Focal Point MSFR: Minimum Security Function Requirements (IBM) MSU: Media Server Unit MSU: Mass Storage Unit (Hardware) MSG: MeSsaGe File name extension MSVC: MicroSoft Visual C MSW: Machine Status Word MT: Machine Translation MTA: Message Transfer Architecture (Software) MSI: Medium-Scale Integration The process of placing from 100 to 3,000 transistors on a chip (Hardware) MSI: MicroSoft Installer (Operating systems) (Microsoft) MSIE: MicroSoft Internet Explorer (Software) (Microsoft) MTA: Message Transfer Agent An ISO/OSI application process that stores and forwards messages in the X.400 message handling system. Compare with Internet mail agent MSJ: Microsoft Systems Journal Microsoft magazine (Microsoft) Page 94 of 161 MTA: Multiple Terminal Access MTBB: Mean Time Between Breakdowns MTBCF: Mean Time Between Critical Failures MTBF: Mean Time Between Failures The average time a component can operate without a failure. The MTBF is the number of failures divided by the number of hours the component has operated (Hardware) MTTR: Mean Time To Repair The average time required to bring an array storage subsystem back to full fault tolerance. (Hardware) MTU: Maximum Transmission Unit MUA: Mail User Agent MUD: Multi-User Dialogue MUD: Multi-User Dungeon Multi-user interactive role-playing games on the Internet MTBJ: Mean Time Between Jams MTBRP: Mean Time Between Parts Replacement MTC: Midi Time Code MTD: Memory Technology Drivers MTD: Month To Date Time series function MUD: Multi-User Dimensions Formerly, Multi-User Dungeon MUI: Multimedia User Interface MUL: MULtiply MULDEM: MULtiplexer-DEMultiplexer MULTICS: MULTiplexed Information and Computing Service MULTOS: MULTiapplication-card Operating System (Operating systems) MTDA: Mean Time between Data Access The average time before non-redundant components fail, causing data inaccessibility without loss or corruption. (Hardware) MTDL: Mean time to Data Loss The average time before the failure of an array component causes data to be lost or corrupted. (Hardware) MTDT: Moscow Time Daylight Time Timezone: GMT +3:00 MUMBLE: Multi User Multicast Basic Language Exchange MUP: Multiple Unc Provider (Network) MTE: MuTating Engine MTF: Microsoft Tape Format (Hardware) (Microsoft) MUSE: Multi-User Simulated Environment MUT: Monitor Under Test MUX: MUltipleXer MUX: Multi-User eXperience mV: MilliVolt MVA: Multi-domain Vertical Alignment (Hardware) (Fujitsu) MTF: Modulation Transfer Function (Hardware) MTFTP: Multicast Trivial File Transfer Protocol (Network) M MTH: Memory Translator Hub (Hardware) MTI: Mips Technologies Inc. MTN: Mobile Telephone Network MTP: Message Transfer Part MTRP: Maximum Transfer Rate Performance MTS: Message Telephone Service MTS: Microsoft Transaction Server (Microsoft) MVB: Multimedia Viewer Book MVC: Model View Controller MVC: Multimedia Viewer Compiler MVDM: Multiple Virtual DOS Machines MVGA: Monochrome Video Graphics Array MVIF: Multi-Vendor Interacting Forum MVIP: MultiVendor Integration Protocol MVP: Multimedia Video Processor MVR: Multimedia Vehicle and Repository (Software) (IBM) MTS: Message Transfer System (Software) MTS: Multichannel Television Sound MTST: Moscow Time Standard Time Timezone: GMT +3:00 MVS: Multiple Virtual Storage IBM Mainframe operating system (IBM) MTST: Magnetic Tape Selectric Typewriter (Hardware) (IBM) MTT: Multi-Transaction Timer MTTD: Mean Time To Diagnose MTTF: Mean Time To Failure (Hardware) MVS/SP: Multiple Virtual Storage/System Product MVS/XA: Multiple Virtual Storage/eXtended Architecture MVT: Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks MTTFF: Mean Time To First Failure Page 95 of 161 MW: Memory Write (Hardware) MW: MiddleWare MWM: Motif Window Manager (Operating systems) MWS: Matsushita White Skipping MX: Mail eXchanger MXCC: Module Xbus Cache Controller On Sun server systems, a device located on the processor module that controls the ow of data between the XBus and the module cache RAM and processor chip (Hardware) (Sun) MXS: Microsoft eXchange Server (Microsoft) MZ: Mark Zbikowski DOS executable file header identifier MZR: Multiple Zone Recording M Page 96 of 161 N n: Nano Prefix for 10 power -9 NAS: Network Application Support (DEC) N-ISDN: National Integrated Services Digital Network N-ISDN: Narrowband Integrated Services Digital Network N/I: Non-Interlaced NAB: National Association of Broadcasters NAB: Netscape Application Builder (Software) (Netscape) NAS: Network Access Server (Network) NAS: Network Attached Storage (Hardware) NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Organizations) NASDAQ: National Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotation NASI: Netware Asynchronous Services Interface (Novell) NAC: Network Administration Center NAC: Network Adapter Card NACD: National Association of Computer Dealers NACS: Netware Asynchronous Communication Server NACS: Network Access Control System NACS: National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors NAD: Network Access Device NAD: Network Activity Display (Network) NASIRC: Nasa Automated Systems Internet Response Capability NASKER: Nasa AmeS KERnel NAT: Network Address Translation A technology that enables a network to use one set of IP addresses for internal traffic and a second for external traffic (Network) NATOA: National Association of Telecommunications Officers & Advisors NAU: Network Access Unit (Network) NAE: Not Above or Equal NAG: National Algorithms Group NAG: Network Architecture Group NAK: Not AcKnowledged A control code returned by a receiving station indicating that a station with an established connection has sent incorrect information NAU: Network Addressable Unit (Network) N NAUN: Nearest Active Upstream Neighbour NAV: Norton Anti Virus (Symantec) NAWS: Negotiate About Window Size NBE: Not Below or Equal NBI: Nothing But Initials NBMA: Non-Broadcast Multi Access NBO: Networked Business Object (Software) NAL: Novell Application Launcher (Software) (Novell) NAM: Number Assignment Module NAMI: Network Adaptive Multimedia Image NAMPS: Narrow-band Analog Mobile Phone Service NAMS: National Association of Multimedia Shareware NaN: Not A Number A symbolic entry that is encoded in oating-point format (Software) NBP: Name Binding Protocol NBS: National Bureau of Standards (Organizations) NBS: Numeric BackSpace NBS: Narrowband Socket NBT: NetBios on Tcp/ip NC: Network Control NC: Network Coordinator NC: Norton Commander NC: Network Computer (Network) Page 97 of 161 NAP: Network Access Point (Network) NAPLPS: North American PresentationLevel Protocol Syntax (Communication) NAS: Netscape Application Server (Operating systems) (Netscape) NC: No Carry NC: No Connection (Hardware) NCSA: National Center for Supercomputing Applications The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign developers of the original NCSA Mosaic browser (Organizations) NC: Numerical Control NCA: Network Communications Adapter NCA: Network Computing Architecture (Oracle) NCSC: National Computer Security Center (Organizations) NCSI: Network Communications Services Interface NCSL: National Computer Systems Laboratory NCTE: Network Channel-Terminating Equipment NCTL: National Computer and Telecommunications Laboratory NDA: Non Disclosure Agreement NDAC: No Data ACcepted NDB: Non-Directional Beacon NDC: Normalized Device Coordinates The coordinate system between the user’s world coordinates (WC) and the graphics system’s physical device coordinates in the viewing pipeline NCAPI: Netscape Client Application Programming Interface (Software) (Netscape) NCC: Network Control Center (Network) NCC: Norton Control Center Norton Utilities' program (Software) (Symantec) NCC: National Computer Conference NCC: Novell Customer Connection (Novell) NCC: National Computing Center NCCF: Network Communications Control Facility NCD: Network Computing Device NCF: Netware Command File (Novell) NDCC: Network Data Collection Center NDDK: Network Device Development Kit NDDL: Neutral Data Definition Language NDE: News Development Environment NDEF: Not DEFined NDIS: Network Driver Interface Specification (Network) NCF: Network Computing Framework (Network) (IBM) NCGA: National Computer Graphics Association N NCI: Non Coded Information NCI: Network Computer, Inc. Manufacturer NDL: Network Database Language (Databases) NCIA: Native Client Interface Architecture NCIC: National Crime Information Center NCMOS: N-channel Complementary Metal Oxyde Semiconductor NCMT: Numerical Control for Machine Tools NCN: Nixdorf Communications Network NCOS: Network Computer Operating System NCP: Non-Carbon Paper NCP: Network Control Program Communication management in IBM networks (Network) (IBM) NDM: Network Data Manager On-line storage service NDMP: Network Data Management Protocol (Network) NDMS: Netware Distributed Management Services NDN: Non-Delivery Notice NDP: Numeric Data Processor NDPS: Novell Distributed Print Services (Network) (Novell) NDR: Network Data Representation (Network) NCP: Network Control Protocol (Network) NDR: Non-Delivery Report NDRO: Non Destructive ReadOut NDS: Netware Directory Service (Network) (Novell) NCP: Not Copy Protected NCP: Netware Core Protocol NCR: National Cash Registers NCS: Network Computing System (HP) NE: Not Equal (Software) NEARNET: New England Academic and Research NETwork Page 98 of 161 NEAT: Novell Easy Administration Tool (Novell) NGIO: Next Generation Input Output (Hardware) (Intel) NEB: Netscape Extension Builder (Software) (Netscape) NGWS: Next Generation Windows Services (Operating systems) (Microsoft) NEC: Nippon Electric Corporation (NEC) NHC: National Hurricane Center NHR: National Handwriting Recognition NHRP: Next Hop Resolution Protocol (Network) NED: Nasa Extragalactic Database (NASA) NEFS: Network Extensible File System NEG: NEGative NEMA: National Electrical Manufacturers Association NEP: Network Entry Point NES: National Education Supercomputer NES: Netscape Enterprise Server (Software) (Netscape) NHSE: National Hpcc Software Exchange NI: Non Interlaced (Hardware) NI: No Increase NI: New Instructions (Hardware) (Intel) NIA: Next Instruction Address NIAM: Natural language Information Analysis Method NIC: Network Interface Card (Hardware) NEST: Novell Embedded Systems Technology (Novell) NetBEUI: NETwork Bios Extended User Interface (Network) NIC: Numeric Intensive Computing NIC: Network Information Center Originally, a single NIC at SRI International served the ARPANET (and later the defense data network [DDN] community) (Network) NetBIOS: NETwork Basic Input Output System (Network) NETBLT: NETwork BLock Transfer NETCDF: NETwork Common Data Format NETMON: NETwork MONitor NEWS: Netware Early Warning System NEWS: Network Extensible Window System A window system based on PostScript that Sun developed and licenses (Operating systems) (Sun) NiCd: NIckel-CaDmium Rechargable battery technology NICE: Network Information and Control Exchange NICE: Narrative, Immersive, Collaborative Environment NICE: Novell Internet Connection Expert (Network) (Novell) N NEWT: NEWs Terminal NeXT: NEw eXtended Technology NEXT: Near-End CrossTalk NF: Naturally Flat Crt technology (Hardware) (Mitsubishi) NICOLAS: Network Information Center OnLine Aid System (NASA) NID: Next IDentifier NID: New Interactive Display (NEC) NFF: No Fault Found NFR: Near Field Recording (Hardware) NID: Network Interface Device (Hardware) NIDL: Network Interface Definition Language (Network) NFS: Network File System A Sun distributed file system that provides transparent access to remote file systems on heterogeneous networks (Operating systems) (Sun) NIFC: Netscape Internet Foundation Classes (Software) (Netscape) NFSNET: National Science Foundation NETwork NFT: Network File Transfer NG: NewsGroup Discussion forum NIH: Not Invented Here NIHCL: National Institute of Health Class Library NII: National Information Infrastructure NIIT: National Information Infrastructure Testbed NIM: Network Installation Management (IBM) Page 99 of 161 NGE: Not Greater or Equal NGI: Next Generation Internet NiMH: NIckel-Metal Hydride Rechargable battery technology NMA: Network Management Architecture NMC: Network Management Center NME: Norton Mobile Essentials (Software) (Symantec) NIO: Native Input/Output NIPS: Network I/os Per Second NIR: Network Information Retrieval NIS: Network Information Service A distributed network database containing key information about the systems and the users on the network. The NIS database is stored on the master server and all the slave servers (Network) (Sun) NMF: Network Management Forum NMI: Non-Maskable Interrupt (Hardware) NMI: Native Method Invocation (Software) NIS: Norton Internet Security (Software) (Symantec) NML: Network Management Layer NMM: Netware Management Map (Novell) NIS/YP: Network Information System/Yellow Pages NISO: National Information Standards Organization NISP: Networked Information Services Project NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology (Organizations) NMM: Network Management Module (Network) NMOS: Negative Channel Metal-Oxide Semiconductor NMP: Network Management Protocol (AT&T) NITC: National Information Technology Center NITOL: Norway-net with IT for Open Learning NIU: Network Interface Unit NJE: Network Job Entry (IBM) NMPF: Network Management Productivity Facility NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMS: Netelligent Management Software (Network) NMS: Network Management System NMU: Network Management Unit (Hardware) N NL: New Line NLANR: National Laboratory for Applied Network Research NLB: Network Load Balancing (Operating systems) (Microsoft) NN: No News NN: Network Node NNI: Network to Network Interface NNM: Network Node Manager (Network) NLDM: Network Logical Data Manager NLE: Not Less or Equal NLM: Netware Loadable Module (Operating systems) (Novell) NNSC: Nsf Network Service Center NNTP: Network News Transport Protocol (Communication) NLP: Natural Language Processing NLPID: Network Layer Protocol IDentifier NLQ: Near Letter Quality NLS: Network License Server NLS: National Language Support (Operating systems) NOC: Network Operation Center A center that operates a production network. Tasks include monitoring and control, troubleshooting, and user assistance (Network) NOP: No OPeration (Hardware) NOPAC: Network On-line Public Access Catalog NORMA: NO Remote Memory Access NOS: Network Operating System NOYB: None Of Your Business (Messages) NLSFUNC: National Language Support FUNCtion NLSP: Netware Link Services Protocol Link-state routing protocol based on IS-IS. See also IS-IS NLT: Natural Language Technology (Software) NPA: Numbering Plan Address NPA: Network Printer Alliance NPDA: Network Problem Determination Aid NLV: National Language Version (IBM) Page 100 of 161 NPH: No Parse Headers NPI: Network Printer Interface NPL: Non-Procedural Language (Software) NSC: Norton System Center (Software) (Symantec) NSERC: National Sciences and Engineering Research Council NSF: National Science Foundation (Organizations) NPM: Network Printer Manager (Software) NSfIP: NextStep For Intel Processors NSFNET: National Science Foundation NETwork NSI: Network Solutions, Inc Manages .com, .net, .org, .edu top level domains (Organizations) NPMS: Named Pipes/Mail Slots NPS: Novell Productivity Specialist (Novell) NPSI: Network Protocol Service Interface NPT: Non-Programmable Terminal (Hardware) NSI: Nasa Science Internet NSIS: National Schengen Information System NSM: Netscape Server Manager (Netscape) NPTN: National Public Telecomputing Network NPU: Natural Processing Unit NPX: Numeric Processor eXtension NQS: Network Queing System NRC: National Research Council NREN: National Research and Education Network NRFD: Not Ready For Data (Communication) NSN: Nasa Science Network NSP: Network Services Protocol NSP: Native Signal Processing NSP: Network Service Provider NSS: Nodal Switching Subsystem NSS: Novell Storage Services (Novell) NRM: Network Resource Manager NROFF: New Run-OFF NRZ: NonReturn to Zero NRZI: NonReturn to Zero Inverted NRZL: NonReturn to Zero Level NS: Name Server NS: Non Stop NS: Network Supervisor NS: Network Series (Hardware) NSS: Network Storage Solutions Company NSSC: Nasa Standard Spacecraft Computer NSTC: National Science and Technology Council NSTL: National Software Testing Labs NT: Network Terminator NT: New Technology (Operating systems) (Microsoft) N NT: Nome Time Timezone: GMT -11:00 ns: NanoSecond Time measurement unit NT-1: Network Terminator type 1 NTAS: New Technology Advanced Server (Operating systems) (Microsoft) NS: National Semiconductor NSA: National Security Agency (Organizations) NTCR: New Technology Challenge/Response (Operating systems) (Microsoft) NSA POLY: National Security Agency POLYgraph NSAP: Network Services Access Point (Network) NTDS: New Technology Directory Service (Operating systems) (Microsoft) NTE: New Technology Embedded (Operating systems) (Microsoft) NSAPI: Netscape Server Application Programming Interface (Software) (Netscape) NTF: No Trouble Found NTFS: New Technology File System (Operating systems) (Microsoft) NSB: Netware for Small Business (Operating systems) (Novell) NTHQ: New Technology Hardware Qualifier Hardware troubleshooting program (Operating systems) (Microsoft) NSC: Network Service Center Page 101 of 161 NTIA: National Telecommunications and Information Administration (Organizations) NURBS: Non Uniform Rational B-Spline A curve definition method based on the B-spline curve, which offers additional exibility through knots along the spline. Some knots can have more weight added (like a magnet) to pull the curve toward those knots NTIS: National Technical Information Service NTK: Newton ToolKit NTLM: New Technology Lan Manager (Operating systems) (Microsoft) NV: No oVerflow NVDM/2: NetView Distribution Manager 2 NVM: Non Volatile Memory (Hardware) NTLN: New Technology Lan Manager (Microsoft) NVOD: Near-Video On Demand NVP: Network Voice Protocol NVP: Nominal Velocity of Propagation NVRAM: Non-Volatile Random Access Memory A type of RAM that retains information when power is removed from the system (Hardware) NTO: Network Terminal Operator (Network) NTONC: National Transparent Optical Network Consortium (Organizations) NTOP: New Technology Option Pack (Operating systems) (Microsoft) NTP: Network Time Protocol (Communication) NVSIMM: Non-Volatile Single In line Memory Module A nonvolatile single inline memory module (SIMM) that incorporates a battery on the device to prevent data loss in a power failure. Battery current is shared among a group of NVSIMMs. This feature prevents memory failure if one battery fails (Hardware) NTRAS: New Technology Remote Access Services NTS/2: Network Transport Services 2 NTSA: Netware Telephony Services Architecture (Novell) NVT: Novell Virtual Terminal (Novell) NVT: Network Virtual Terminal NWFS: NetWare File System (Operating systems) (Novell) NTSC: National Television Standard Committee The group that proposed a method of composite color encoding based on quadrature modulation of I and Q color difference components onto a color subcarrier and adding the resulting chroma signal to luminance (Organizations) NWNet: NorthWestern states NETwork NWS: Netware Web Server (Novell) N NTSL: National Software Testing Laboratories (Organizations) NYSERNet: New York State Education and Research NETwork NZT: New Zealand Time Timezone: GMT +12:00 NTT: Nippon Telephone & Telegraph NTU: Network Termination Unit NTWS: New Technology WorkStation (Operating systems) (Microsoft) NZUSUGI: New Zealand Unix System User Group, Inc. NUA: Network User Address NUB: Network Utility Box (Hardware) NUI: Notebook User Interface NUI: Network User Identification (Network) NUI: Network User Interface (Operating systems) NUL: NULl An invisible character with an internal code of 0 that occupies no space if printed. Not to be confused with a blank, which is invisible but occupies a space NUMA: NonUniform Memory Access NURB: Non Uniform Rational B-spline Page 102 of 161 O O-LTM: Optical Line Terminating Multiplexer O-ROM: Optical Read Only Memory O-WORM: Optical Write Once Read Many O/R: Originator/Recipient OA: Office Automation OAB: One-to-All Broadcast OAD: Open Architecture Driver OAG: Online Air Guide OAG: Official Airline Guide OAI: Open Applications Interface OAM: Operations And Management OARNet: Ohio Academic Resources NETwork OAS: Oracle Application Server (Software) (Oracle) OCF: Object Component Framework (Software) (Inprise) OCI: Oracle Call Interface (Databases) (Oracle) OCL: Os/2 Class Library OCL: Operator Control Language OCLC: Online Computer Library Center OCR: Optical Character Recognition OCS: Object Compatibility Standard OCS: On-Card Sequencer OCX: Ole Control eXtension (Software) (Microsoft) OD: Optical Disk ODA: Open Document Architecture ODAPI: Open DataBase Application Programming Interface (Software) OAS: One-to-All Scatter OASLM: Optically Addressed Spatial Light Modulator (Hardware) ODBC: Open DataBase Connectivity (Microsoft) OASYS: Office Automation SYStem OAW: Optically Assisted Winchester (Hardware) ODBMS: Object DataBase Management System (Databases) ODE: Object Database and Environment ODE: Office 97 Developer Edition (Software) (Microsoft) OBD: Online Bugs Database OBD: On Board Diagnostics OBE: Out-of-Box Experience OBEX: OBject EXchange (Inprise) O ODI: Open Device Interconnect (Novell) ODI: Open Data-link Interface (Network) OBI: Open Buying on the Internet (Organizations) ODIF: Open Document Interchange Format ODISS: Optical Digital Image Storage System ODL: Object Definition Language ODM: Object Data Manager (IBM) OBJ: OBJect File name extension OBV: Object By Value (Software) OBVI: Object-Based Video Interface OBZ: One Big Zip (Messages) ODM: Optimized Distribution Model (Compaq) ODM: Original Design Manufacturing ODMA: Open Document Management Api (Organizations) OC: Optical Carrier OC-3: Optical Carrier level 3 OCD: Out-of-Cell Delineation OCE: Open Collaborative Environment (Apple) ODMG: Object Database Management Group ODP: OverDrive Processor ODP: Open Distributed Processing ODP: On-Demand Producer Multimedia authoring program (Software) Page 103 of 161 OCF: OpenCard Framework ODQL: Object Database Query Language (Databases) OLED: Organic Light Emitting Diode (Hardware) ODR: Optimized Dynamic Routing ODS: Overhead Data Stream ODS: Operational Data Store ODS: Open Data Services (Microsoft) OLGA: OnLine Guitar Archive OLI: Optical Line Interface (AT&T) OLIT: Open Look Intrinsics Toolkit An X Window system-based widget set and library used to create applications using the OPEN LOOK graphical user interface (Operating systems) ODSI: Open Directory Services Interface ODT: Open DeskTop OE: Output Enable (Hardware) OLMC: Output Logic MacroCell OLSP: On-Line Service Provider OLTP: OnLine Transaction Processing OM: Object Manager OM: Object Model (Software) OE: Outlook Express (Software) (Microsoft) OE: Operating Environment OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Organizations) OMA: Object Management Architecture (Microsoft) OME: Open Messaging Environment Protocol OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer A manufacturer that sells equipment for resale under an endequipment manufacturer’s trademark or name (Hardware) OMF: Object Management Framework OMF: Object Module Format (Microsoft) OEP: Operand Execution Pipeline OF: Overflow Flag OFA: Optimal Flexible Architecture OFB: Output FeedBack OFC: Open Financial Connectivity OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OMF: Open Message Format OMF: Open Media Framework OMFI: Open Media Framework Interchange OMG: Object Management Group (Organizations) OMI: Open Microprocessor Initiative OMI: Open Messaging Interface OMI-STN: Optical Mode InterfaceSuperTwisted Nematic OML: Object Manipulation Language (Software) O OFMT: Output ForMaT OFS: Object File System (Operating systems) OFS: Output Field Separator OFX: Open Financial eXchange OHCI: Open Host Controller Interface OIA: Operator Information Area OID: Object IDentifier OIDL: Object Interface Definition Language OIL: Operator Identification Language OIS: Office Information System OIW: Osi Implementors Workshop OJI: Open Java vm Interface (Netscape) OMR: Optical Mark Recognition OMS: Object Management System OMT: Object Modeling Technique (Software) ONA: Open Network Architecture ONAC: Operations Network Administration Center ONAL: Off Network Access Line ONC: Open Network Computing (Network) (Sun) OLAP: On-Line Analytical Processing OLCP: On-Line Complex Processing OLE: Object Linking and Embedding (Software) (Microsoft) ONDS: Open Network Distribution Services (IBM) ONE: Open Network Environment (Sun) ONI: Operator Number Identification ONMS: Open Network Management System Page 104 of 161 ONS: Open Networking System ONU: Optical Network Unit OO: Object Oriented OOA: Object-Oriented Analysis OOAD: Object Orientated Analysis and Design OOB: Out Of Band (Communication) OPC: Ole for Process Control OPCODE: OPerational CODE OPD: OPeranD OPI: Open Press Interface (Software) OPL: Opaque Device Library OPM: Operations Per Minute OPOS: Ole for Point Of Sale OPP: Order Processing Pipeline (Network) (Microsoft) OOBE: Object-Oriented Business Engineering OOCASE: Object Oriented Computer Aided Software Engineering OOCTG: Object Orientated Cobol Task Group OOD: Object-Oriented Design OODB: Object-Oriented DataBase OODBMS: Object-Oriented DataBase Management System OODL: Object-Orientated Dynamic Language OOFS: Object-Oriented File System (Operating systems) OPROM: Optical Programmable Read Only Memory (Hardware) ops: Operations Per Second OPS: Open Profiling Standard (Netscape) OPT: OPTions File name extension OPT: Open Protocol Technology OPUS: Octal Program Updating System OQL: Object Query Language OQS: Object Query Service (Software) OOL: Object-Oriented Language OOOS: Object-Oriented Operating System OOP: Object-Oriented Programming (Software) OR: OverRun (Hardware) OOPL: Object-Oriented Programming Language (Software) ORB: Object Request Broker ORBS: Open Relay Behaviour-modification System ORDBMS: Object Relational DataBase Management System (Databases) OOPS: Object-Oriented Programming System OOPSLA: Object-Oriented Programming Systems and Language Architecture OOPSTAD: Object-Orientated Programming for SmallTalk Application Development association OOS: Off-line Operating Simulator OOS: Object-Oriented Systems OOSA: Object-Oriented System Analysis OOSH: Object-Oriented SHell OOT: Object-Oriented Technology OOUI: Object-Oriented User Interface OP: OPeration OPA: Open Publishing Architecture OPAC: On-line Public Access Catalog OPC: Optical PhotoConductor OPC: Organic Photoconducting Cartridge (Hardware) O ORDVAC: ORDnance Variable Automatic Computer ORI: Online Retrieval Interface ORK: Office Resource Kit (Software) (Microsoft) ORM: Optical Remote Module ORMS: Operating Resource Management System (Software) OROM: Optical Read Only Memory (Hardware) ORPC: Object Remote Procedure Call (Software) ORS: Output Record Separator ORSS: Optical Recognition System Simulator OS: Operating System A collection of programs that monitor the use of the system and supervise the other programs executed by it (Operating systems) Page 105 of 161 OS-9: Operating System-9 OS/2: Operating System 2 (Operating systems) (IBM) OSR: Oem Service Release OSS: Operating System-Specific OSS: Open Source Software (Software) OS/360: Operating System/360 OS/400: Operating System/400 OS/E: Operating System/Environment OSA: Open Scripting Architecture OSA: Open System Architecture OSCE: OfficeScan Corporate Edition OSCRL: Operating System Command Response Language OSD: Open Software Description OSD: On-Screen Display (Hardware) OST: Offline STorage OSTA: Optical Storage Technology Association (Organizations) OSW/L2: Operating System-9 Windows/Level 2 OT: Object Technology OTA: Office of Technology Assessment OTA: Operation-Triggered Architecture OTDR: Optical Time Domain Reflectometer OTF: Open Token Foundation OTN: Oracle Technology Network (Oracle) OSDS: Operating System for Distributed Switching OSE: Open Systems Environment OSE: Office Server Extension (Software) (Microsoft) OTOH: On The Other Hand (Messages) OSF: Operation System Function OSF: Open Software Foundation (Organizations) OTP: One-Time Password OTP: One-Time Programmable OTPROM: One-Time Programmable Read Only Memory OTS: Object Transaction Service OU: Organizational Unit OUCL: Oxford University Computing Laboratory OUG: Occam User Group OUI: Organizationally Unique Identifier OURS: Open User Recommended Solutions group OUTS: OUTput String OV: OVerflow OVAL: Object-based Virtual Application Language OVL: OVerLay File name extension OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Organizations) OSI: Open Systems Interconnection (Communication) O OSI/RM: Open Systems Interconnection/Reference Model OSIG: Online Special Interest Group OSM: Optical Storage Manager OSM: Operating system-Specific Module OSM: On-Screen Manager (Hardware) (NEC) OSM: On-Screen Menu OSME: Open Systems Message Exchange OSN: Office System Node OSN: Open Systems Network OSP: Ole db Simple Provider (Databases) (Microsoft) OVR: OVeRlay File name extension OWA: Outlook Web Access (Network) (Microsoft) OSP: Optical Signal Processing (Hardware) OWG: Optical WaveGuide OWL: Object Windows Library (Software) (Inprise) OSP: Optical Storage Processor OSP: On-Screen Programming OSPF: Open Shortest Path First An Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) specified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) (Network) OSQL: Object Structured Query Language Page 106 of 161 P p: Pico Prefix for 10 power -12 PAF: Postal Address File PAIH: Public-Access Internet Host PAIS: Public-Access Internet Site PAK: PAcKed File name extension P&D: Plug & Display P&M: Personalization & Membership (Microsoft) P&S: Publish & Subscribe P-JPEG: Progressive Joint Photographic Experts Group Compressed images file format PAL: Privileged Architecture Library PAL: Programmable Assembly Language PAL: Programmable Array Logic (Hardware) P-POP: Plain-Paper Optimized Printing (Hardware) (Canon) P-RAM: Parameter Random Access Memory P-SRAM: Pseudo-Static Random Access Memory P/N: Part Number P/PC: Palm Personal Computer (Hardware) PAL: Paradox Application Language (Databases) (Inprise) PAL: Phase Alternate Line European TV standard. A composite color standard similar to NTSC, except that the v-axis subcarrier reference signal inverts in phase at the horizontal line rate PAL: PALette File name extension P/T: Part Time P2C2: Pantone Personal Color Calibrator (Pantone) PAL-SLM: Parallel-Aligned Liquid crystal Spa tial Light Modulator (Hardware) P2P: Peer To Peer P2P: Point To Point P2SC: Power 2 Super Chip IBM's Deep Blue processor (Hardware) (IBM) PALC: Plasma-Addressed Liquid Crystal Display technology PALS: Principles of the Alphabet Literacy System PAM: Primary Access Method PAM: Programmable Attribute Map PAM: Paging Area Memory PAM: Pulse-Amplitude Modulation (Communication) P3P: Platform for Privacy Preferencies Project PA: Precision Architecture (Hardware) (HP) P PA-RISC: Precision Architecture Reduced Instruction Set Computer (HP) PAM: Plug-in Authentication Module PAN: Personal Account Number PAN: Personal Area Network (Network) PAB: Personal Address Book PABX: Private Automatic Branch eXchange (Hardware) PAC: Privilege Attribute Certificate PAC: Platform Adaptor Component PAC: Perceptual Audio Coder (Hardware) PAP: Password Authentication Protocol A security provision in point-to-point protocol (PPP) (Network) PAP: Printer Access Protocol PAP: PAcket-level Procedure PAR: Parallel PAR: Project Authorization Request PAR: Personal Animation Recorder PARC: Palo Alto Research Center PAS: Publicly Available Specification PAS: PAScal File name extension PACE: Priority Access Control Enabled (3Com) PACS: Picture Archiving and Communication System PACS-L: Public Access Computer Systems List PAD: Packet Assembler/Disassembler (Software) PADS: Pen Application Development System Page 107 of 161 PAS/2: Personal Application System/2 PAT: Port Address Translator (Communication) PCDA: Program Controlled Data Acquisition PCEB: PCi to Eisa Bridge (Intel) PAT: PATtern File name extensions PCFS: Personal Computer FIle System A file system specification that provides the capability to read and write files in DOS format on the SPARC (Operating systems) (Sun) PATN: Port Access Telephone Number PAV: Parallel Access Volumes PAX: Portable Archive eXchange PB: Pipeline Burst Cache memory architecture (Hardware) PCI: Protocol Control Information The protocol information added by an OSI entity to the service data unit passed down from the layer above, which together form a protocol data unit (PDU) PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect A 32-bit bus providing a maximum 132 Mbyte/sec data transfer rate. PCI devices have autoconfiguration capabilities and do not have to be configured by users (Hardware) PBA: Printed Board Assembly PBD: PowerBuilder Dynamic library (Databases) (Sybase) PCIC: Pc-Card Interrupt Controller PCL: Portable Common Loops PCL: Programmable Command Language PCL: Process Control Language PCL: Printer Control Language (HP) PBE: Prompt By Example PBGA: Plastic Ball Grid Array (Hardware) PBI: Phone Based Interface PBM: Play By Mail PBOT: Physical Beginning of Tape (Hardware) PCM: Physical Connection Management PCM: Printer Cartridge Metric (HP) PBX: Private Branch eXchange (Communication) PC: Program Counter A CPU register that contains the address (location) of the instruction to be executed next in the program sequence PCM: Pulse Code Modulation (Communication) PCM: Personal Computer Manufacturer PCMA: Paired Carrier Multiple Access PCMC: Pci, Cache and Memory Controller (Intel) PC: Personal Computer PC: Printed Circuit PC-DOS: Personal Computer - Disk Operating System P (IBM) PCMCIA: Personal Computer Memory Card International Association An organization that supports several standards for a compact hardware interface that accepts a variety of devices (Organizations) PC-I/O: Program Controlled Input/Output PC/IXF: Personal Computer Intergrated eXchange Format PC/TCP: Personal Computer/Transmission Control Protocol PCA: Power Calibration Area PCA: Payment gateway Certification Authority PCACIAS: Personal Computer Automated Calibration Interval Analysis System PCAV: Partial Constant Angular Velocity (Hardware) PCMIM: Personal Computer Media Interface Module PCMS: Project and Configuration Management System PCN: Public Communications Network PCN: Personal Computer Network PCNFS: Personal Computer Network File System PCO: Point of Control and Observation PCR: Processor Configuration Register PCR: Packet Cell Rate PCS: Personal Computing System (Hardware) PCB: Printed Circuit Board (Hardware) PCB: Program Control Block PCBC: Plain Cipher Block Chaining PCBO: Personal Computer Branch Office (IBM) PCS: Personal Communication Service PCS: Personal Conferencing Specification PCS: Project Control System PCD: Photo Compact Disc File format for digitized photos (Kodak) Page 108 of 161 PCS: Program Counter Store PCS: Process Control Systems PCS: Patchable Control Store PCS: Planning Control Sheet PCS: Print Contrast Signal PCSA: Personal Computing Systems Architecture PCT: Private Communication Technology (Communication) PDM: Product Data Management PDN: Public Data Network (Network) PDO: Portable Distributed Objects (Operating systems) PDP: Plasma Display Panel (Hardware) PDP: Parallel Data Processing PDP: Programmable Data Processor PDP: Policy Decision Point The point where policy decisions are made, responsible for handling policy decisions on behalf of PEPs (Network) PCT: PiCTure File name extension PCTE: Portable Common Tool Environment PCX: PiCture eXchange File name extension PDP: Primary Dos Partition (Operating systems) (Microsoft) PDQ: Parallel Data Queries PDQ: Pretty Darn Quick (Messages) PD: Phase change Dual Optical recording system (Hardware) (Matsushita) PD: Personal Display (Hardware) PDS: Partitioned Data Set (Databases) (IBM) PD: Public Domain PDA: Personal Digital Assistant PDB: Pilot Database File name extension (3Com) PDS: Processor Direct Slot (Apple) PDS: Professional Developer's Summit (Microsoft) PDS: Planetary Data System PDS: Packet Driver Specification PDS: Portable Document Software PDSP: Peripheral Data Storage Processor PDSS: Post Development and Software Support PDT: Performance Diagnostic Tool (IBM) PDC: Primary Domain Controller (Network) (Microsoft) PDC: Professional Developer Conference (Microsoft) PDC: Personal Digital Cellular (Hardware) PDD: Physical Device Driver PDD: Portable Digital Document PDES: Product Data Exchange Specification PDF: Portable Document Format File format for document interchange (Adobe) PDT: Pacific Daylight Time Timezone: GMT -8:00 P PDT: Programmable Drive Table PDT: Programmable Drive Table PDU: Protocol Data Unit The ISO/OSI term for packet. A PDU is a data object exchanged by protocol machines (entities) within a given layer. PDUs consist of both protocol control information (PCI) and user data PDF: Printer Description File File name extension (Inprise) PDF: Program Development Facility PDF: Package Definition File PDF: Processor Defined Function PDH: Plesiosynchronous Digital Hierarchy PDI: Power and Data Interface PDIAL: Public Dialup Internet Access List PDK: Product Development Kit (Network) (Intel) PDU: Plug Distribution Unit PDW: Package and Deployment Wizard (Microsoft) PDX: ParaDoX File name extension (Inprise) PDX: Phone Data eXchange (Hardware) PDL: Program Design Language PDL: Page Description Language PDL: Program Description Language PDM: Program Development Manager PDX: Printer Description eXtension PE: Phase Encoding PE: Parity Error (Hardware) Page 109 of 161 PE: Processing Element (Hardware) PET: Personal Electronic Transactor Commodore's first personal computer (Hardware) PE: Portable Executable File format for Win32 programs (Software) (Microsoft) PEX: Phigs Extension to X A protocol for 3-D graphics in a network window system that supports both PHIGS and PHIGS PLUS features PE: Protect Enable PE: Parity Even PEA: Pocket Ethernet Adapter PEARL: Process and Experiment Automation Realtime Language PEC: Program Execution Control PEEK: Partners Early Experience Kit PEEL: Programmable Electrically Erasable Logic (Hardware) PFA: Predictive Failure Analysis PFB: Printer Font Binary File name extension PFE: Programmer's File Editor PFM: Printer Font Metrics File name extension PFN: Page Frame Number PFPU: Processor Frame Power Unit PFR: Power Fail Restart PFS: Parallel File System (Operating systems) PEL: Picture ELement (IBM) PEM: Privacy Enhanced Mail (Network) PFX: Personal inFormation eXchange (Microsoft) PEM: Port Expander Module PEOT: Physical End Of Tape (Hardware) PGA: Programmable Gate Array IC pins organization (Hardware) PGA: Pin Grid Array Pin organization (Hardware) PEP: Point-Edge-Polygon Type of graphics editor (Software) PGA: Professional Graphics Adapter (IBM) PEP: Policy Enforcement Point A port on a network device where the policy decisions are actually enforced (Network) PGC: Program Group Control (Microsoft) PEP: Packetized Ensemble Protocol PEP: Packet Exchange Protocol PERC: PowerEdge Raid Controller (Hardware) (Dell) PGD: Planar Gas Discharge Display technology (Hardware) PGDN: PaGe DowN PGL: Professional Graphics Language PGM: ProGraM PGML: Precision Graphics Markup Language (Adobe) P PERC: Portable Environment for Real-time Control (Operating systems) PERL: Practical Extraction Report Language A flexible programming language especially designed for processing text (Software) PGP: Pretty Good Privacy Encryption program (Software) PERM: Pre-Embossed Rigid Magnetic (Hardware) PGP: ProGram Parameter File name extension (Autodesk) PEROM: Programmable Erasable Read Only Memory PERT: Program Evaluation and Review Technique PES: Proposed Encryption Standard PES: Packetized Elementary Stream (Communication) PGUP: PaGe UP PHB: Per-Hop-Behavior The forwarding treatment given to a specific class of traffic, based on criteria defined in the Differentiated Service field. Routers and switches use PHBs to determine priorities for servicing various traffic flows (Network) PHIGS: Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics Standard An international standard 3-D graphics library consisting of a graphical tool set for application developers. PHIGS uses hierarchical data structures. You can create, alter, manipulate, and store objects dynamically PES: Positioning Error Signal PES: Processor Enhancement Socket PET: Progressive Educational Technology PET: Print Enhancement Technology (Compaq) PHIGS PLUS: Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics Standard Plus Lumiere Und Surfaces An extension to PHIGS that includes additional capabilities, such as lighting from single and multiple sources, depth-cueing, NURBS, and complex geometric primitives Page 110 of 161 PHS: Personal Handphone System PHY: PHisical laYer PI: Program Interruption PIA: Peripheral Interface Adapter (Hardware) PIN: Positive Intrinsic Negative PINE: Pine Is Not Elm PING: Packet INternet Groper (Network) PIO: Programmable Input/Output (Hardware) PIC: Point In Call PIC: Programmable Interrupt Controller PIC: Priority Interrupt Controller (Hardware) PIO: Processor Input/Output PIO: Parallel Input/Output PIP: Packet Interface Port PIP: Periphal Interchange Program PIP: Personal Information Processor PIP: Picture In Picture (Hardware) PIC: Personal Information Carrier PIC: Personal Intelligent Communicator PICS: Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement PICS: Plug-in Inventory Control System PICS: Platform for Internet Content Selection PICS/DCPR: Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement/Detailed Continuing Property Record PICT: PICTure PID: Proportional, Integral, Derivative PID: Product IDentifier PID: Personal IDentifier (Software) PIP: Programmable Interconnect Point PIP: Problem Isolation Procedure PIP: Pattern and Information Processing PIPO: Parallel In, Parallel Out PIR: Protocol Independent Routing PIT: Programmable Interval Timer (Hardware) PIU: Path Information Unit PJL: Printer Job Language (Hardware) (HP) PID: Process IDentifier A unique, system-wide, identification number assigned to a process. Also called process ID, process number (Operating systems) PJPEG: Progressive Joint Photographic Experts Group Compressed images file format PIER: Procedures for Internet/Enterprise Renumbering PIF: Program Information File File name extension (Microsoft) PK: Primary Key (Databases) PKC: Public Key Cryptography PKCS: Public Key Cryptography Standard PKE: Private Key Encryption PKI: Public Key Infrastructure PL: Perl Language File name extension P PIF: Picture Interchange Format File name extension PII: Pentium 2 (Hardware) (Intel) PII: Program Integrated Information PIII: Pentium 3 (Hardware) (Intel) PL-LCD: PhotoLuminescent Liquid Cristal Display (Hardware) PIIX: Pci Ide/Isa Accelerator PILOT: Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching PIM: Protocol Independent Multicast PIM: Personal Information Manager PIM: Primary Interface Module PIN: Processor Independent Netware PIN: Process Identification Number PIN: Personal Identification Number PL-OU: Physical Layer Overhead Unit PL/1: Programming Language/1 Programming language (Software) PL/IP: Parallel Line Internet Protocol PL/M: Programming Language for Microcomputers (Microsoft) PL/SQL: Procedural Language/Structured Query Language (Databases) (Oracle) Page 111 of 161 PLA: Programmable Logic Array An array of logic elements. Its interconnections are programmable after manufacture (Hardware) PMAC: Peripheral Module Access Controller PMD: Physical layer, Medium Dependent PMD: Packet Mode Data PMI: Protected Mode Interface PMMU: Paged Memory Management Unit (Hardware) PLATO: Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations PLB: Picture Level Benchmark In computer graphics, an industry-standard benchmark method used to measure graphics performance PLBSI: Picture Level Benchmark Sample Implementation PLC: Programmable Logic Controller (Hardware) PMOS: Positive Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor PMP: Point to MultiPoint PMP: Preventive Maintenance Package PMP: Portable Music Player (Hardware) PLCC: Plastic Leadless Chip Carrier PLCP: Physical Layer Convergence Procedure PLD: Programmable Logic Device (Hardware) PMR: Problem Management Report (IBM) PLDI: Programming Language Design and Implementation PLDS: Pilot Land Data System (NASA) PMS: Policy Management System PMT: PhotoMultiuplier Tube Scanning sensor (Hardware) PMU: PowerMeter Unit PN: Processing Node PNA: Phoneline Networking Alliance (Organizations) PLE: Programmable Logic Element (Hardware) PLIP: Parallel Line Internet Protocol (Communication) PLL: Phase-Locked Loop PLL: PreLinked Library File name extension PNA: Programmable Network Access PnD: Plug aNd Display (Hardware) PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network PLO: Phase Locked Oscillator (Hardware) PNG: Portable Network Graphics File format for graphics network transmission PNNI: Public Network Node Interface PNNI: Private Network to Network Interface PnP: Plug aNd Play PNS: PeaceNet Sweden PNW: Personal NetWare PO: Parity Odd POA: PostOfiice Agent (Novell) PLS: PhysicaL Signaling P PLS: Primary Link Station PLU: Primary Logical Unit PLV: Production Level Video PM: Peripheral Module PM: Phase Modulation PM: Programming Model (Software) (Microsoft) POC: Point Of Contact POD: Proof of Deposit Software system used by financial institutions to verify teller transactions. Usually consists of reader/sorter control software, reject-reentry system, and reporting systems (Software) PM: Presentation Manager PM: Power Management (Hardware) PM: Preventative Maintenance PM: Process Manager PM/X: Presentation Manager for X PMA: Program Memory Area PMA: Physical Medium Attachment PMA: Photo Marketing Association (Organizations) POD: Power On Display POD: Publishing On Demand POD: Plain Old Dos POE: Power Open Environment POEP: Primary Operand Execution Pipeline POF: Plastic Optic Fiber POH: Path OverHead Page 112 of 161 POH: Power-On Hours POI: Path Overhead Indicator POI: Point Of Interaction POI: Point Of Information POI: Point Of Interest POL: Problem Oriented Language POOL: Parallel Object Oriented Language POP: Package for Online Programming POP: PostOffice Protocol A standard protocol used for retrieving e-mail from a mail server (Network) POV: Point Of View (Messages) POWER: Performance Optimization With Enhanced Risc (IBM) PowerPC: Performance Optimization With Enhanced Risc Performance Computing PP: Physical Plane PP: Physical Partition PP: Parallel Port PPA: Pixel Processing Accelerator (Hardware) PPC: PowerPC PPC: Program to Program Communication PPD: PostScript Printer Description File name extension POP: Point Of Presence (Network) POP3: PostOffice Protocol 3 POPA: POP All registers POPF: POP Flags POPL: Principles of Programming Languages POR: Point Of Return POR: Plan Of Record POR: Power-On-Reset POS: POSitive POS: Point Of Sale (Hardware) PPDS: Personal Printer Data Stream (IBM) PPGA: Plastic Pin Grid Array PPI: Programmable Peripheral Interface PPI: Precise Pixel Interpolation ppi: Pixels Per Inch PPID: Parent Process IDentifier PPL: Pcboard Programming Language PPL: Polymorphic Programming Language PPM: Pulse Position Modulation ppm: Pages Per Minute Printing engine speed (Hardware) POS: Programmable Option Select POS: Packet Over Sonet (Network) POS: Persistent Object Server POS: Parent Over Shoulder POSE: Picture-Oriented Software Engineering POSI: Promoting conference for Open System Interconnect POSIX: Portable Operating System for unIX A set of standards that define the applications interface to basic system services for input/output, file system access, and process management. It uses the C programming language, which establishes standard semantics and syntax (Operating systems) PPN: Project Programmer Number PPP: Point to Point Protocol (Network) P PPPoE: Point to Point Protocol Over Ethernet (Network) PPPoI: Point to Point Protocol Over Isdn (Network) PPS: Public Packet Switching PPS: Power Personal Systems (IBM) POST: Power On Self Test Personal computer boot test PPS: Packets Per Second (Network) POSTNET: POSTal Numeric Encoding Technique Bar code PPT: PowerPoinT File format for slide presentations (Microsoft) PPTP: Point to Point Tunneling Protocol A system designed to help create Virtual Private Networks over the Internet and protect the data sent over public wires (Network) POSYBL: PrOgramming SYstem for distriButed appLications POTS: Plain Old Telephone Service POTS: Plain Old Time Sharing (Operating systems) PQ: PowerQuest Manufacturer PQFP: Plastic Quad Flat Package Page 113 of 161 PR: Packet Radio PR: Public Relations PR: Performance Rating (Hardware) PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory A permanent memory chip programmed by the user rather than at the chip manufacturer, as is true with a ROM. You need a PROM programmer or burner to write data onto a PROM (Hardware) PRACSA: Public Remote Access Computer Standards Association PRAM: Parallel Random-Access Machine PRAM: Parameter Random Access Memory PRC: Pilot Resource File name extension (3Com) PROMATS: PROgrammable MAgnetic Tape System PROTEL: Procedure Oriented Type Enforcing Language PRTSC: PRinT SCreen PS: Privilege Service PS: PostScript File format for graphic printers PRD: PRinter Driver File name extension PReP: Powerpc REference Platform PREPNet: Pennsylvania Research and Economic Partnership NETwork PRF: Problem Report Form PRF: PReFerences File name extension PS: Personal Services Office automation integrated programs (Software) PS: Presentation Services PS: Power Supply (Hardware) PS: Proportional Spacing PS/2: Personal System 2 IBM personal computer family (Hardware) (IBM) PRF: Pulse Repetition Frequency PRI: Primary Rate Interface An ISDN standard, similar to basic rate interface (BRI), defined by CCITT protocol, but providing multiple B channels (23 or 30) supported by a single D channel (Communication) PSAPI: Presentation Space Application Programming Interface PSC: Print Server Command PSC: Product Service Center PSC: Personal Super Computer PSC: Primary Site Controller (Operating systems) (Microsoft) PRIDE: PRofitable Information by DEsign PRISM: Parallel Reduced Instruction Set Multiprocessing PRISM: PhotoRefractive Information Storage Materials (Hardware) PRJ: PRoJect File name extension (Inprise) PSCNet: Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center NETwork PSD: Programmer's Supplementary Documents PSD: Postal Security Device (Hardware) P PRMD: PRivate Management Domain PRML: Partial-Response MaximumLikelihood PRN: Printer PRNG: Pseudo-Random Number Generator PRO: PROfile File name extension PSDC: Public Switched Digital Capability PSDN: Packet-Switched Data Network (Network) PSDS: Packet-Switched Data Service (Communication) PROC: PROCedure PROCFS: PROCess FIle System A type of file system that resides in memory. The PROCFS contains a list of active processes, by process number, in the /proc directory. Information in the /proc directory is used by commands such as ps (Operating systems) PSE: Packet Switch Exchange PSE: Port Switched Ethernet PSE: Persistent Storage Engine (Databases) PSF: Print Services Facility PSF: Permanent Swap File PSID: PostScript Image Data PSIU: Packet Switch Interface Unit PSK: Phase-Shift Keying (Communication) PROFS: PRofessional OFfice System (IBM) PROG: PROGram PROGID: PROGrammatic IDentifier (Software) PROLOG: PROgramming in LOGic Programming language (Software) PSL: Problem Statement Language Page 114 of 161 PSL: Public Software Library PSM: Personal Software Marketing PSM: Persistent Storage Module (Databases) PTT: Postal Telegraph and Telephone (Organizations) PTW: Primary Translation Word PTY: Pseudo-Terminal driver PU: Physical Unit (Hardware) PSM: Printing Systems Manager PSN: Processor Serial Number (Hardware) PUB: PUBlic PUC: Peripheral Unit Controller PUC: Public Utilities Commission PUCP: Physical Unit Control Point PUN: Physical Unit Number PUP: Parc Universal Packet Protocol PSN: Packet Switching Network A node in the ARPANET and MILNET, formerly called an interface message processor (IMP) (Network) PSP: Personal Software Product (IBM) PSP: Program Segment Prefix PSPDN: Packet-Switched Public Data Network PSR: PowerSoft Report (Databases) (Sybase) PURL: Persistent Uniform Resource Locator Instead of pointing directly to the location of an Internet resource, a PURL points to an intermediate resolution service. The PURL resolution service associates the PURL with the actual URL and returns that URL to the client. PSRAM: PseudoStatic Random Access Memory (Hardware) PUS: Processor Upgrade Socket PUSHA: PUSH All registers PUSHF: PUSH Flags PV: Physical Volume PVC: Permanent Virtual Circuit Dedicated end-to-end virtual circuit that is set up permanently in an ATM network (Network) PSRG: Privacy and Security Research Group PSRT: PostScript Round Table PSS: Packet Switch Services PSS: Product Support Service PST: Pacific Standard Time Timezone: GMT -8:00 PST: Pakistan Standard Time Timezone: GMT +5:00 PVC: PolyVinyl Chloride PVM: Perc Virtual Machine (Operating systems) PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network PSU: Program Storage Unit PSU: Power Supply Unit PSW: Program Status Word PT: Payload Type PT: Page Table PTD: Parallel Transfer Disk PTE: Path Terminating Equipment PTE: Page Table Entry PTF: Problem Temporary Fix (IBM) PVM: Pass-through Virtual Machine (IBM) PVM: Parallel Virtual Machine PVP: Packet Video Protocol PVP: Parallel Vector Processing PVS: Parallel Visualization Server PW: PassWord PWB: Programmer's WorkBench (Microsoft) P PWB: Printed Wire Board PWD: Print Working Directory PWM: Pulse-Width Modulation (Communication) PTF: Print To Fax Fax driver for Lotus Domino Fax Server (Software) PTI: Packet Type Identifier PTML: Proxicom Template Markup Language PTOCA: Presentation Text Object Content Architecture PTR: Point-in-Time Repair Backup disaster recovery procedure (Software) PWP: Personal Web Pages (Microsoft) PWPN: PowWow for Private Networks Instant messaging program (Software) PWR: PoWeR PWS: Programmable WorkStation (Hardware) Page 115 of 161 PWS: Personal Web Server (Network) PWS: Peer Web Services (Network) (Microsoft) PWSCS: Programmable WorkStation Communication Services (IBM) PX: Primary indeX (Inprise) PXE: Preboot eXecution Environment P Page 116 of 161 Q Q&A: Questions & Answers QA: Quality Assurance QAM: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (Communication) QLI: Query Language Interpreter QLLC: Qualified Logical Link Control QMF: Query Management Facility (IBM) QAS: Quasi-Associated Signaling QBE: Query By Example (Databases) QMT: Quicken Memorized lisT File name extension (Intuit) QNX: Quicken iNdeXes File name extension (Intuit) QBF: Query by Form QBIC: Query By Image Content (Databases) QoS: Quality Of Service QoS can be characterized by several basic performance criteria, including availability, response time and throughput, lost calls or transmissions due to network congestion, connection set-up time, and speed of fault detection and correction (Network) QC: Quantum Coprocessor (Hardware) QC: Quality Control QCDP: Quality Color Dithering Modus QCIF: Quarter Common source Intermediate Format A video format in which frames are 180 pixels wide and 144 pixels high (1/4 the size of the CIF format). Each pixel has its own luminance value; however, blocks of 4 pixels share chrominance values QoSR: Qualiy Of Service Raouting A dynamic routing protocol that has expanded its path-selection criteria to include QoS parameters such as available bandwidth, link and end-to-end path utilization, node resources consumption, delay and latency, and induced jitter (Network) QPA: Quad Port Acceleration (Hardware) (Intel) QPG: Quantum Phase Gate QPL: Qualified Product List QPSK: Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (Communication) QD: Querty/Dvorak Keyboard layout QDA: Qualitative Data Analysis QDI: Quicken DIctionary File name extension (Intuit) QSAM: Queued Sequential Access Method QT: QuickTime File Format for movies (Apple) QDL: Quadri Data Layer QDOS: Quick and Dirty Operating System MS-DOS ancestor (Operating systems) QTAM: Queued Teleprocessing Access Method (IBM) QDT: Quicken DaTa File name extension (Intuit) QTC: QuickTime Conferencing (Apple) Q QEA: Queued Event Architecture QEMM: Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager (Operating systems) (Quarterdeck) QTD: Quarter To Date Time series function QUARC: QUarterdeck's Antivirus Research Center (Quarterdeck) QFA: Quick File Access QFE: Quick Fix Engineering (Software) QUEL: QUEry Language QXGA: Quad eXtended Graphics Array Video specification for a resolution of 2048 X 1536 pixels (Hardware) QFP: Quicken Financial Planner (Software) (Intuit) QFP: Quad Flat Pack QIC: Quality Information using Cycle time QIC: Quarter-Inch Cartridge An industry-standard 1/4-inch magnetic tape cartridge used for data backup or storage (Hardware) QIF: Quicken Interchange Format File format for financial data (Software) QKD: Quantum Key Distribution Page 117 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 118 of 161 R R&D: Research & Development R/O: Read Only R/T: Receive/Transmit R/W: Read/Write RA: Return Authorization RA: Real Audio File name extension RAND: Rural Area Network Design RAND: RANDom RAP: Rapid Application Prototyping RAPI: Remote access Application Programming Interface (Software) (Microsoft) RAPI: Rsvp Application Programming Interface An RSVP-specific API that enables applications to interface explicitly with an RSVP process (Network) RAB: Raid Advisory Board Industry organization of manufacturers and users of disk systems and related products whose mission is to educate users regarding all aspects of storage technology, and in particular, RAID technology. (Organizations) RAPS: Real Application on Parallel Systems RARE: Reseaux Associés pour la Recherche Européenne The European Association of Research Networks. Now called TERENA (Network) RACF: Resource Access Control Facility RACMan: Remote Automation Connection MANager (Network) RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (Network) RAD: Rapid Access Disk RAD: Rapid Application Development RADAR: RAdio Detection And Ranging RADAR: Rights, Availabilities, Distribution Analysis and Reporting RADB: Routing Arbiter Data Base RADIUS: Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service RADSL: Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line (Communication) RAS: Row-Address Strobe RAS: Remote Access Service (Network) RAS: Reliability, Availability, Serviceability RAS: Random Access Storage RAS: Reader Admission System RASAPI: Remote Access Service Application Programming Interface (Microsoft) RATP: Reliable Asynchronous Transfer Protocol RAVE: Rendering Acceleration Virtual Engine (Apple) RAG: Row Address Generator RAID: Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (Hardware) RB: Right Button RBA: Relative Byte Address RBBS: Remote Bulletin Board System RBCS: Remote Bar Code System RBF: Random Block Filemanager RBH: Remote Bridge Hub RBL: Realtime Black List Antispam tool R RAIS: Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Systems RALU: Register-equipped Arithmetic Logic Unit (Hardware) RAM: Random Access Memory (Hardware) RAM: Real Audio Metafile File name extension RAMDAC: Random Access Memory Digital to Analog Converter Chip on a video board that generates the analog video signals (Hardware) RBOC: Regional Bell Operating Company The local telephone company in each of the seven U.S. regions. (Communication) RAMP: Remote Access Maintenance Protocol (Network) RC: Release Candidate Pre-release version of a program (Software) RAMP: Risk Analysis and Management Program RC: Resource Compiler (Software) Page 119 of 161 RCA: Radio Corporation of America (Organizations) RDM: Remote Diagnostic Manager (Operating systems) (Acer) RCC: Remote Cluster Controller RCF: Reader's Comment Form RCL: Rotate Carry Left RCP: Restore Cursor Position RCP: Remote CoPy RCP: Remote Control Panel RCR: Rotate Carry Right RCS: Records Communications System RCS: Revision Control System RCSS: Records Communications Switching System RCTC: Rewritable Consumer Time Code RD: Recursive Design RD: Receive Data (Hardware) RDM: Remote Data Module RDN: Relative Distinguished Name (Operating systems) RDO: Remote Data Object RDOS: Real-time Disk Operating System (Operating systems) RDP: Remote Display (or Desktop) Protocol (Network) (Microsoft) RDP: Reliable Datagram Protocol RDRAM: Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (Hardware) RDS: Radio Digital System RDS: Remote Data Service (Databases) RDSR: Receiver Data Service Request RDT: Radio Digital Terminal RDTO: Receive Data Transfer Offset (IBM) RD: Remove Directory RD-LAP: Radio Data Link Access Protocol RDA: Remote Data Access RDAO: Remote Data Access Object (Software) (Microsoft) RDX: Realistic Display miXer RE/TM: Rare Earth/Transition Metal REC: RECorder File name extension RDB: Rigid Disk Block RDB: Relational DataBase (Databases) RED: Random Early Detection A congestion-avoidance algorithm developed in the early 1990s built on the base-level TCP behavior of automatically slowing transmissions when packet loss is detected (Network) RDB: Receive Data Buffer RDBMS: Relational DataBase Management System (Software) REF: REFerence REG: REGister REGAL: Rigid Epoxy Glass Acrylic Laminate REGEX: REGular EXpression REGIS: REmote Graphics Instruction Set ReLaTe: REmote LAnguage TEaching RELSECT: RELative SECTor REM: Remote Equipment Module REM: REMote REM: REMark REM: Ring Error Monitor REN: Ringer Equivalence Number REN: REName REP: REPeat REPE: REPeat while Equal REPNE: REPeat while Not Equal REPNZ: REPeat while Not Zero R RDBMS-MIB: Relational DataBase Management System - Management Information Base RDC: Remote Data Control (Microsoft) RDC: Ricoh Digital Camera (Hardware) (Ricoh) RDD: Replicable Database Driver RDE: Receive Data Enable (Hardware) RDES: Remote Data Entry System RDF: Resource Description Framework (Netscape) RDF: Resource Definition Format (Software) RDI: Remote Defect Indicator RDL: Remote Digital Loopback RDM: Reliably Delivered Message Page 120 of 161 REPZ: REPeat while Zero REQ: REQuest RES: Remote Execution Service RES: RESet RES: RESolution RES: RESource File name extension RIAA: Recording Industry Association of America (Organizations) RID: Record IDentifier RIDE: Rapid Integrated Drive Electronics (Hardware) RIFF: Resource Interchange File Format File name extension (Microsoft) RET: Resolution Enhancement Technology (HP) RIG: Related Interest Group RIM: Remote Installation and Maintenance (Microsoft) RET: RETurn RETR: RETRieve REX: Relocatable EXecutable REXEC: Remote EXECution REXX: Restructured EXtended eXecutor Programming language (IBM) RIME: Relaynet International Message Exchange RIMM: Rambus In line Memory Module (Hardware) RIP: Raster-Image Processor RIP: Remote Imaging Protocol RIP: Routing Information Protocol An Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) with Berkeley UNIX (Network) RF: Radio Frequency (Communication) RFC: Remote Function Call (Software) RIPE: Reseaux Internet Protocol Européens The European continental TCP/IP network operated by EUnet (Network) RFC: Request For Comments RFD: Request for Discussion RFE: Request for Enhancement RFI: Request For Information RFI: Radio Frequency Interference RFID: Radio Frequency IDentification RFP: Request For Proposal RFQ: Request For Quotation RFQ: Request For Quote RFS: Remote File System (Operating systems) RIPEM: Riordan's Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail RIPES: Reconnaissance Imagery Processing & Exploitation System RIPL: Remote Initial Program Load RIPS: Raster Image Processing System RIR: Regional Internet Registry (Network) RIS: Remote Intallation Service (Operating systems) (Microsoft) RISC: Reduced Instruction Set Computer A computer architecture that uses fewer and less complex instructions than complex instruction set computing (CISC). Some complex instructions performed by hardware in CISC computers are done by software in RISC computers (Hardware) RFS: Remote File Sharing RFT: Revisable Form Text RFU: Reserved for Future Use RGB: Red Green Blue The color systems obtain their colors through a direct combination of red, green, and blue components. The range of colors that can be displayed depends on the number of bits that have been assigned to each pixel (Hardware) R RISLU: Remote Integrated Services Line Unit RIT: Raw Input Thread (Microsoft) RJE: Remote Job Entry RKRM: Rom Kernel Reference Manual RLD: Received Line Detect RLE: Run Length Encoding RLL: Run Length Limited Magnetic supports read/write technology (Hardware) RH: Request (or Response) Header RHCE: Red Hat Certified Engineer RHD: Removable Hard Drive (Hardware) RI: Referential Integrity (Databases) RLN: Remote Lan Node RLP: Radio Link Protocol RLP: Resource Location Protocol RI: Ring Indicate Page 121 of 161 RLSD: Received Line Signal Detected RLT: Remote Line Test RM: Resource Management RM: Reset Mode RM: Relay Module (Hardware) ROI: Return On Investment ROL: ROtate Left ROLAP: Relational OnLine Analytical Processing ROM: Read Only Memory (Hardware) ROOM: Real-time Object-Oriented Modeling ROP: Remote OPeration ROP: Risc OPeration ROP: Raster OPeration The logical operations (called ANDs, ORs, NORs, and so on) performed on portions of the bit planes—called bitmaps or pixmaps—in the frame buffer. These operations perform fundamental movements and transfers of pixel data RMA: Return Material Authorization RMB: Right Mouse Button RMD: Required Markup Declaration RMDIR: ReMove DIRectory RMI: Remote Method Invocation (Software) RMI: Remote Messaging Interface RMID: Resource Manager IDentifier RMM: Ring Management Module RMON: Resident MONitor RMON: Remote MONitoring RMP: Remote Maintenance Processor (IBM) ROR: ROtate Right ROS: Read-Only Storage (IBM) ROSCOE: Remote Operating System Conversational Online Environment ROSE: Remote Operations Service Element A lightweight RPC protocol used in ISO/OSI message handling, directory, and network management application protocols ROT: Running Object Table (Software) RMS: Reason Maintenance System RMS: Record Management System (Operating systems) (DEC) ROT: Rule Of Thumb ROTFL: Rolling On The Floor Laughing (Messages) RMS: Root Mean Square RMSE: Root Mean Square Error RMT: Raw Magnetic Tape RMT: Ring ManagemenT RMTP: Reliable Message Transport Protocol RMW: Read, Modify, Write RP: Relay Party RPC: Remote Procedure Call Interprocess communication mechanism (Software) RPCL: Remote Procedure Call Language RPG: Report Program Generator Programming language (Software) R RN: Read News RNA: Remote Network Access (Microsoft) RPL: Remote Program Load RPL: Remote Program Link RPL: Resident Programming Language RPL: Requested Privilege Level RPM: Radio Packet Modem RPM: Red-hat Package Manager (Operating systems) RND: RaNDom RNG: Random Number Generator RNI: Raw Native Interface Native interface proposed by Microsoft (Software) (Microsoft) RNOC: Regional Network Operations Center RNP: Regional Network Provider RNR: Receive Not Ready RNS: Run from Network Server (Software) rpm: Rounds Per Minute RPN: Real Page Number RPN: Reverse Polish Notation RPPROM: ReProgrammable Programmable Read Only Memory RPQ: Request for Price Quotation RPR: Relative Performance Rating RPT: RePeaT RNUI: Remote Network User Identification ROB: ReOrder Buffer (Intel) ROD: Rewritable Optical Disk Page 122 of 161 RQBE: Relational Query By Example (Microsoft) RSS: Rdf Site Summary A universal way for developers to describe their sites RQN: Real-Quick Newsletter FreeBSD newsletter (Operating systems) RST: ReSeT RST: ReSTart RSTS: Resource Sharing Time Sharing (DEC) RR: Radio Resource RR: Real Reality RRAS: Routing Remote Access Service (Network) RSTS/E: Resource System Time Sharing/Enhanced RSVP: Resource reSerVation Protocol An IETF standard which allows an end device and a network to negotiate specific QoS characteristics (Network) RRCM: Reservation Request Control Mechanism RRDS: Relative Record Data Set RRIP: Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol RRN: Relative Record Number RRP: Recommended Retail Price RRVP: Resource ReserVation Protocol (Network) RSX: Realistic Sound eXperience RSX: Realtime resource Sharing eXecutive RT: Real-Time RT: Risc Technology RT: Run Time RT/DSS: Real Time/Decision Support Service RTAM: Remote Terminal Access Method RTC: Real-Time Clock (Hardware) RS: Registry Service RS: Recommended Standard RS: Register Select (Hardware) RS: Record Separator RS: Radio Shack RS-PC: Reed Solomon Product Code RSA: Random Scheduling Algorithm RSA: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman RSAC: Recreational Software Advisory Council (Organizations) RTDM: Real-Time Data Migration RTEL: Reverse TELnet RTF: Rich Text Format File format for documents RTFM: Read The F***ing Manual FAQ by beginner (Messages) RTG: Real Time Geometry RTI: ReTurn from Interrupt RTL: Resistor Transistor Logic RTL: Run Time Library RTL: Right-To-Left RTL: Register Transfer Language RTM: RunTime Manager (Inprise) RSACI: Recreational Software Advisory Council on the Internet (Organizations) RSCS: Remote Spooling Communications System RSD: Route Server Daemon RSH: Remote SHell RSI: Repetitive Stress Injury RSL: Resilient Server Link RSL: Request-and-Status Link RSM: Route Switch Module Basically a router on a card in the switch for routing between Virtual Local Area Networks (Network) R RTM: Response Time Monitor RTMP: Routing Table Maintenance Protocol RTN: Recursive Transition Network (Network) RTN: Reuters Transaction Network RTOS: Real Time Operating System (Operating systems) RSM: Remote Storage Management (Operating systems) (Microsoft) RSP: Required Space Character RSPX: Remote Sequenced Packet eXchange RSS: Relay Spam Stopper RTP: Real-time Transport Protocol (Communication) RTP: Rapid Transport Protocol RTR: Real Time Replicator (Network) Page 123 of 161 RTS: Request To Send Serial port signal (Communication) RTS: Remote Takeover System RTSE: Reliable Transfer Service Element A lightweight ISO/OSI application service used above X.25 networks to handshake application PDUs across the session service and TP0 (Network) RTSP: Real Time Streaming Protocol (Communication) RTTI: Run-Time Type Information (Software) RTTY: Radio TeleTYpewriter RTU: Right To Use The Sun software licensing, usually included in the price of the software (Sun) RTU: Real Time Unix RTV: Real-Time Video RTX: Run Time eXtension RU: Request (or Response) Unit RUN: Rewind/UNload (IBM) RUW: Remote Unit of Work (IBM) RVA: Relative Virtual Address RVI: ReVerse Interrupt RW: Read Write Device capability to read and write its media (Hardware) RWM: Read-Write Memory RWU: Remote Wake Up (Network) RX: Receive RXD: Receive Data RZ: Return to Zero Return to Zero R Page 124 of 161 S S-DSMA: Slotted Digital Sense Multiple Access S-HTTP: Secure HyperText Transport Protocol (Network) SAIL: Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory SAINT: Symbolic Automatic INTegrator SAL: Shift Arithmetic Left SAM: Scsi-3 Architecture Model SAM: Single Application Mode (Microsoft) S-VHS: Super Video Home System S.u.S.E.: Software Und SystemEntwicklung S/H: Sample/Hold S/MIME: Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (Network) SAM: System Administration Module (Operating systems) SAM: Security Accounts Manager (Operating systems) S/N: Signal to Noise S/PDIF: Sony/Phillips Digital Interface Format S/STP: Screened Shielded Twisted Pair S/TK: Sectors per TracK S/UTP: Screened Unshielded Twisted Pair SA: Structered Analysis SA: Source Adress SA: Security Association SA: Selective Availability SAA: Systems Application Architecture SAAL: Signalling Atm Adaptation Layer SABM: Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode SABRE: Semi-Automatic Business Research Environment SAC: Service Access Control The Service Access Facility (SAF) master program (Operating systems) (Sun) SAM: Sequential Access Method SAM: Serial Access Memory SAN: Storage Area Network SAN: System Area Network (Network) SANE: Standard Apple Numeric Environment (Apple) SAP: Service Advertising Protocol (Network) SAP: Service Access Point The point at which the services of an OSI layer are made available to the next higher layer. The SAP is named according to the layer providing the services SAP: Systeme, Anwendungen, Produkte in der datenverarbeitung A german company that produces the leading suite of clientserver business software ("Systems, Applications and Products in data processing"). SAP: Symbolic Assembly Program SAP: Second Audio Program SAPI: Speech Application Programming Interface (Software) (Microsoft) SAC: Single Attachment Concentrator SACL: System Access Control List (Operating systems) S SAR: Store Address Register SAR: Shift Arithmetic Right SAR: Segmentation And Reassembly SAR: Successive Approximation Register SAR: Synthetic Aperature Radar SARC: Symantec's Antivirus Research Center (Symantec) SAD: Streams Administrative Driver A driver that provides an interface to the autopush mechanism SADL: Synchronous Data Link Control SADT: Structured Analysis and Design Techniques SAF: Service Access Facility A tool provided with the SunOS 5.3 operating system that controls access to local and network system services, such as printers, modems, and terminals (Operating systems) (Sun) SAF: Security Authentication Facility SAFE: Security And Freedom through Encryption SAG: Sql Access Group SAS: Single Audio System SAS: Single Attached Station SAS: Statistical Analysis System SAS: Sales Accounting System Page 125 of 161 SASI: Sughart Associates System Interface Old hard disk bus (Hardware) SCADA: Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition SCAF: Service Control Agent Function SCAM: Scsi Configuration AutoMatically SCAS: SCAn String SCB: Subsystem Control Block (IBM) SASL: Simple Authentication and Security Layer SATAN: System Administration Tool for Analyzing Networks (Network) SATF: Shared Access Transport Facility SAVDM: Single Application Virtual Dos Machine SB: Sound Blaster (Creative Labs) SCC: Scsi Controller Commands SCC: Synchronous Channel Check (IBM) SB: Sound Board SBA: Scene Balance Algorithms (Kodak) SCC: Standards Council of Canada (Organizations) SCC: SuperComputer Center SCC: Serial Controller Chip SCC: Serial Communications Controllers SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part SCCS: Source Code Control System A software development tool for tracking file versions during a long, involved software development or documentation project (Software) SBB: Subtract With Borrow SBC: Scsi Block Commands SBC: Single-Board Computer (Hardware) SBCCS: Single Byte Command Code Set SBCM: Small Business Customer Manager (Microsoft) SCD: Sparc Compliance Definition A formal specification of the system hardware and software to be met by manufacturers of SPARC systems to ensure that those systems run compliant applications (Sun) SBCR: Smart Business Card Reader (Hardware) SBCS: Single-Byte Character Set SBF: Sequential Block Filemanager SBI: Speaker Box Interface An interface that integrates audio capability with ISDN on the Sun workstation (Hardware) (Sun) SCD: Standard Color Display SCDMA: Synchronous Code-Division Multiple Access SCE: Structure Chart Editor SCE: Security Configuration Editor (Operating systems) (Microsoft) SBI: Sound Blaster Instrument SBL: Softbridge Basic Language (Software) SCEF: Service Creation Environment Function SCF: Service Control Function SCF: Sequential Character Filemanager SCF: System Control Facility SCI: Serial Communication Interface (Hardware) SBM: Subnet Bandwidth Manager An IETF proposed standard for handling resource reservations on shared and switched IEEE 802-style local-area media (Network) S SBN: Site Builder Network (Microsoft) SBP: Serial Bus Protocol (Hardware) SCI: Scalable Coherent Interface SCIL: Serial Control Interface Logic (Hardware) SBR: Source BRowser File name extension (Inprise) SBS: Small Business Server (Operating systems) (Microsoft) SCLM: Software Configuration and Library Management (IBM) SBS: Smart Battery Specification (Hardware) SCM: Service Control Manager (Microsoft) SBS: Small Buisness Suite (Software) (Novell) SCM: Software Configuration Management SCM: Station Class Mark SCO: Santa Cruz Operation SCOOPS: SCheme Object Oriented Programming System SC: Smart Card (Hardware) SCA: Simple Connector Attachment (Hardware) Page 126 of 161 SCOPE: Simple COmmunications Programming Environment (Hayes) SDA: Screen Design Aid SDA: System Display Architecture (DEC) SCOS: Single Object Copy Store (Software) (Lotus) SDA: Source Data Automation SDA: Software Disk Array SDA: Self-Decrypting Archive (Security) SCP: Sunlink Communications Processor A printed circuit board that enables multi-vendor connection with either synchronous or asynchronous operation. The SCP works with SNA 3270 and X.25 SunLink software products (Hardware) (Sun) SCP: Session Control Properties (Network) SDAI: Standard Data Access Interface SDAM: Single Dos Application Mode SDB: Symbolic DeBugger SDD: Super Density Disk SDD: Subscriber Data Document SDD: System Distribution Directory SDD: Software Description Database SDDI: Shielded Distributed Data Interface SDDS: Sony Dynamic Digital Sound Multi-channel (5.1 or 7.1) digital audio format, compressed from PCM at 48 kHz. The data rate can go up to 1280 kbps SCP: Save Cursor Position SCP: System Control Program SCP: Subsystem Control Port SCPC: Single Channel Per Carrier SCQL: Structured Card Query Language (Databases) SCR: Standard Context Routing SCR: Sustainable Cell Rate SCR: Silicon Controlled Rectifier SCR: SCRipt File name extension SDE: Spatial Database Engine (Databases) SCRN: SCReeN SCRS: Scalable Cluster of Risc Systems SCS: Sna Character String SCSA: Sun Common Scsi Architecture SCSA: Signal Computing System Architecture (Dialogic) SDF: System Dialog Facility SDF: Space Delimited Format File name extension SDF: Standard Data Format File name extension SDH: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SDI: Storage Device Interface SDI: Storage Device Interconnect SDI: Standard Disk Interface SDI: Single Document Interface (Software) (Microsoft) SCSI: Small Computers System Interface An industry standard for connecting etherogeneous devices (disks, tapes, CD-ROMs, ...) to a workstation (Hardware) SCSIHQ: Small Computers System Interface Hardware Qualifier Hardware troubleshooting program (Operating systems) (Microsoft) SDI: Selective Dissemination of Information SDI: Software Development Interface SDIS: Switched Digital Integrated Service SDK: Software Development Kit (Software) SCU: System Control Unit SCW: Setup Computer Wizard (Microsoft) S SCX: Specialized Communications eXchange SD: Structured Design SD: Serial Digital (Communication) SDKJ: Software Development Kit for Java SDL: System Design Language SDL: Specification and Description Language SDL/GR: Specification and Description Language/Graphical Representation, SDLC: Synchronous Data Link Control (Communication) SD: Super Density (Hardware) SD: Single Density (Hardware) SD: Send Data SD-ROM: Super Density Read Only Memory SDLP: Standard Device Level Protocol SDM: Semantic Data Model Page 127 of 161 SDM: System Development Multitasking SDMI: Secure Digital Music Initiative SDMS: Scsi Device Management System (NCR) SECAM: SEquentiel Couleur Avec Mémoire A composite color standard based on line-alternate U and V color difference signals that are frequency-modulated onto a color subcarrier SECB: Severely Errored Cell Block SECC: Single Edge Contact Cartridge (Hardware) SDN: Software Defined Network (AT&T) SDNS: Secure Data Network Service SDOC: Selective Dynamic Overload Controls SDP: Specialized Data Point SDR: Store Data Register SDR: Streaming Data Request SDRAM: Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (Hardware) SED: Stream EDitor SED: Stream-Oriented Editor SEG: SEGment SEH: Structured Exception Handling SEL: SELector byte SEL: SELect SEM: Sql Enterprise Manager (Databases) (Microsoft) SDS: Synchronous Data Set SDS: Switched Data Service SDS: Sun Directory Services (Operating systems) (Sun) SEM: Strategic Enterprise Management SEM: Standard Electronic Module SEM: Scanning Electron Microscope SEP: Scalable Encryption Module SEPP: Single-Edge Processor Package (Hardware) SDS: Sysops Distribution System SDSC: Synchronous Data Set Controller SDSCnet: San Diego Supercomputer Center NETwork SDSL: Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (Communication) SEPP: Secure Encryption Payment Protocol SEQUEL: Structured English QUEry Language SER: SERial SERCOS: SErial Realtime COmmunications System SERDES: SERializer/DESerializer (Hardware) SDTV: StanDard Definition Television SDU: Service Data Unit SDU: Software Distribution Utilities SDV: Switched Digital Video (AT&T) SERK: Server Extensions Resource Kit Microsoft Frontpage server extensions additional documentation and software (Software) (Microsoft) SDX: Storage Data Acceleration SE: Special Edition SE: Sign Extension SERM: Structured Entity Relationship Model SET: Secure Electronic Transaction SET: Softwave Engineering Technology SETL: SEt Theory Language SEU: Source Entry Utility SEU: Smallest Executable Unit SF: Service Feature SF: Sign Flag SFBI: Shared Frame Buffer Interconnect SFC: System File Checker (Operating systems) (Microsoft) S SE: Second Edition (Software) SEA: Self Extracting Archive (Apple) SEA: Standard Extended Attribute (IBM) SEAC: Standards Eastern Automatic Calculator SEAL: Simple and Efficient Adaptation Layer SEAL: Screening External Access Link (DEC) SEAS: Solaris Easy Access Server (Network) (Sun) SFD: Start Frame Delimiter SFDR: Spurious-Free Dynamic Range SEC: Single Edge Contact (Hardware) (Intel) SEC: Single Error Correction Page 128 of 161 SFF: Small Form Factor (Hardware) SHR: Shift Logical Right SHV: Standard High Volume SI: Source Index Processor register (Hardware) (IBM) SFN: Short FileName SFPS: Secure Fast Packet Switching SFQ: Stochastic Fair Queuing A hash function used to map flow to one of set of queues (Network) SI: System Integrator SI: Serial Input (Hardware) SFQL: Structured Full-text Query Language SFS: System File Server SFT: System Fault Tolerant SFTP: Simple File Transfer Protocol SFX: SelF eXtracting Archive with self extracting capabilities SI: Shift-In SI: System Information SI/SO: Serial In/Serial Out SI/SO: Shift In/Shift Out SIA: Semiconductor Industry Association (Organizations) SFX: Sound eFfectS File name extension SIB: Service Independent building Block SIC: Silicon Integrated Circuit SIC: Standard Industrial Code SID: Sccs delta ID The number used to represent a specific SCCS delta (Software) SG: Signal Ground SGA: Shared Global Area SGC: Scsi Graphic Command SGC: Server Gated Criptography (Microsoft) SID: System IDentification SID: Security IDentifier SID: Station IDentification (AT&T) SGDT: Store Global Descriptor Table SGEN: System GENerator SGEN: Signal GENerator SGI: Silicon Graphics, Inc Constructor (SGI) SID: Serial Input Data SID: Symbolic Interactive Debugger SID: Sound Interface Device (Hardware) SGM: Shaded Graphics Modeling SGML: Standard Generalized Markup Language A method of tagging a document to apply to many format elements. This language has become popular with the increased use of the Internet SIDF: System Independent Data Format SIDH: System Identification for Home Systems SIDT: Store Interrupt Descriptor Table SIFT: Stanford Information Filtering Tool SIG: Special Interest Group (Organizations) SGMP: Simple Gateway Management Protocol The predecessor to Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) (Network) S SGR: Set Graphics Rendition SGRAM: Synchronous Graphics Random Access Memory (Hardware) SIG: SIGnature SIGBIT: Special Interest Group on Business Information Technology SIGCAT: Special Interest Group on Cd-rom Applications and Technology SIGGRAPH: Special Interest Group for GRAPHics A group sponsored by the Association for Computing Machinery. SIGGRAPH holds an annual conference on graphics that includes vendor product displays, lectures, and graphics technology courses (Organizations) SHA: Secure Hash Algorithm (Network) SHAR: SHell ARchive SHD: Self-Healing Driver (Operating systems) SHED: Segmented Hypergraphics EDitor SHF: Super High Frequency SHG: Segmented HyperGraphics SHL: Shift Logical Left SIGPLAN: Special Interest Group on Programming LANguages SII: Static Invocation Interface SIL: Solid Immersion Lens Compact disk head technology (Hardware) Page 129 of 161 SIM: SIMulator SIM: Subscriber Identity Module SIMD: Single Instruction, Multiple Data SIMM: Single In line Memory Module A circuit board that holds surface-mount memory chips. A SIMM is compact and efficient (Hardware) SLAN: Secure Local Area Network SLC: Subscriber Line Concentrator (Communication) SLD: Second Level Domain (Network) SIMTEL: SIMulation and TELeprocessing SIMULA: SIMULAtion Programming language SLDRAM: Synchronous Link Dynamic Random Access Memory (Hardware) SLDT: Store Local Descriptor Table SLED: Single Large Expensive Disk Refers to older mainframe hard disks that were used as a basis for comparison during the initial UC Berkeley RAID studies. (Hardware) SIO: Serial Input/Output Communications driver SIP: Scsi-3 Interlocked Protocol SIP: Smds Interface Protocol SIP: Single In-line Package The packaging of an electronic component with all leads protruding from one side only (Hardware) SLI: Scan Line Interlacing (Hardware) SLIC: Serial Link and Interrupt Controller SLIC: System Licensed Internal Code (IBM) SIP: Session Initiation Protocol SIPC: Simply Interactive Personal Computer (Hardware) (Microsoft) SLIC: System Level Integration Circuit SLIM: Structured Language for Internet Markup SLIP: Serial Line Internet Protocol An Internet protocol used to run IP over serial lines such as telephone circuits or RS-232 cables interconnecting two systems. SLIP is now being replaced by PPP (Communication) SIPO: Serial In, Parallel Out SIPP: SImple Polygone Processor SIPP: Simple Internet Protocol Plus SIPP: Single In line Pin Package (Hardware) SLM: Service Level Management SLM: Spatial Light Modulator (Hardware) SIR: Substained Information Rate SIR: Save Instruction Recognition SIR: Serial InfraRed (Communication) SLMR: Silly Little Mail Reader SLOSH: Sea, Lake and Overland Surge from Hurricane SLP: Service Logic Program SLP: Service Location Protocol (Network) SIRDS: Single-Image Random Dot Stereogram SIRENE: Supplementary Information REquest at the National Entry SIS: Strategic Information System SISAL: Streams and Iteration in a Single Assignment Language SIT: Stuff-IT File name extension (Apple) SLR: Simple Lens Reflex (Hardware) SLS: Softlanding Linux System SLSI: Super Large Scale of Integration The process of placing from 50,000 to 100,000 circuit components. Also, the quality of their connections (Hardware) S SIT: Special Information Tones SIU: System Interface Unit SIVIT: SIemens VIrtual Touchscreen (Hardware) (Siemens-Nixdorf) SLSS: Systems Library Subscription Service (IBM) SLU: Secondary Logical Unit SLU: Spoken Language Understanding SM: System Management SM: Smart Media (Hardware) SKIP: Simple Key management for Internet Protocol (Network) SKU: StockKeeping Unit SLA: Service Level Agreement A contract between a service provider and customer defining provider responsibilities in terms of network levels, times of availability, method of measurement, consequences if service levels aren't met, and all costs involved (Network) SM: Set Mode SM: Shared Memory SMAE: System Management Application Entity Page 130 of 161 SMAF: Service Management Agent Function SMAP: System Management Application Process SMAPI: Speech Manager Application Programming Interface (Software) SMK: Software Migration Kit (Microsoft) SML: Service Management Layer SML: Siemens Modular Link SML: Standard Machine Language SML: Shared Memory Link SML: Standard Meta Language SML/NJ: Standard Meta Language/New Jersey SMLI: Stateful Multi-Layer Inspection SMM: System Manager's Manual SMM: System Management Mode (Intel) SMART: Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology Drives equipped with this feature report predicted failures based on threshold values determined by the manufacturer. This allows the network manager to replace a drive before it fails. (Hardware) SMASE: System Management Application Service Element SMASH: Simple, Many And Self-Healing Supercomputing architecture (Hardware) (IBM) SMB: Server Message Block A common format for sharing files, directories and devices in Microsoft's operating systems (Operating systems) SMOBC: Solder Mask Over Bare Copper SMOR: Storage Manager On Rom (Hardware) (DPT) SMBIIOS: System Management Basic Input Output System SMBus: System Management BUS SMC: Scsi-3 Medium changer Command SMD: Storage Module Device An industry-standard interface used for large-capacity, highperformance disks (Hardware) SMP: Software Motion Picture SMP: Symmetric MultiProcessing A form of multiprocessing in which more than one processor can run kernel-level code simultaneously (Hardware) SMP: Symbolic Manipulation Program SMP: Simple Management Protocol SMPC: Shared Memory Parallel Computer SMPS: Switching Mode Power Supply SMPTE: Society of Motion Picture & Television Engineers (Organizations) SMD: Surface-Mount Device (Hardware) SMDR: Storage Management Data Requester SMDR: Station Message Detail Recording SMDS: Switched Multimegabit Data Service An emerging high-speed networking technology to be offered by the telephone companies in the U.S. SMF: Service Management Function SMF: System Manager Facility (Compaq) SMRAM: System Management Random Access Memory SMS: System Management Server SMS: Short Message Service SMS: System Managed Storage (Hardware) (IBM) SMF: Single Mode Fiber SMFA: Special Management Functional Element SMG: Special Mobile Group SMI: Sun Microsystems Inc. SMI: Structure of Management Information The rules that define the objects that can be accessed through a network management protocol (Network) SMSW: Store Machine Status Word SMT: Surface-Mount Technology (Hardware) S SMT: Station ManagemenT SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol The Internet email protocol. Defined in RFC 821, with associated message format descriptions in RFC 822 SMI: System Management Interrupt (Intel) SMU: System Management Utility SMX: Server Macro eXpansion SN: Serial Number SNA: System Network Architecture The proprietary network architecture of IBM (Network) (IBM) SMI: Static Memory Interface (Hardware) SMIF: Standard Mechanical InterFace SMIL: Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language SMIT: System Management Interface Tool (IBM) SNADS: System Network Architecture Distribution Service (Network) (IBM) Page 131 of 161 SNAFU: Situation Normal All Fouled Up (Messages) SOG: Service Order Gateway SOH: Start Of Header (Communication) SNAM: Server Net Access Manager (Network) SNAP: System and Network Administration Program SNAP: SubNetwork Attachment Point SNAP: Sub-Network Access Protocol SNCA: Solaris Network Cache and Accelerator (Sun) SOHO: Small Office/Home Office SOL: Simulation Oriented Language SOM: Structered Object Method SOM: Scripting Object Model (Software) SOM: Start Of Message (Communication) SNCP: Single Node Control Point SND: SouND File Format for music SOM: System Object Model (Operating systems) (IBM) SONAR: SOund Navigation And Ranging SONDS: Small Office Network Data System SONET: Synchronous Optical NETwork North American transport standard for optical networks with speeds from approximately 52 Mb/s (OC-1) to 10 Gb/s (OC192) (Network) SNEWS: Secure NEWs Server SNF: Server Natural Format SNI: Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme SNI: Sna Network Interconnection SNI: Subscriber Network Interface SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol The protocol that manages networks. SNMP-enabled devices can communicate with each other (Network) SOP: Standard Operating Procedure SOP: Small Outline Package SOS: Silicon On Sapphire (Hardware) SOS: Sophisticated Operating System SOS: Standard and Open System SOTA: State Of The Art SOX: SOund eXchange SP: Signal Processor SP: Stack Pointer CPU register (Hardware) (Intel) SNOBOL: StriNg Oriented symBOlic Language Programming Language (Software) SNP: Serial Number/Password SNPP: Simple Network Paging Protocol (Network) SNR: Signal to Noise Ratio SNS: Subject Name Server SNTP: Simple Network Time Protocol SO: Serial Output (Hardware) SP: Sequence Processor (Hardware) SP: Service Pack SP: System Product SPA: Software Publishers Association (Organizations) S SO-DIMM: Small Outline Dual In line Memory Module SOA: Start Of Authority SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol (Software) SPA: Secure Password Authentication (Microsoft) SOB: Start Of Block (Communication) SPAG: Standards Promotion and Application Group SPAN: Space Physics Analysis Network SPARC: Scalable Processor ARChitecture Architecture based on a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) concept. Sun and its suppliers designed the architecture to significantly improve price and performance (Hardware) (Sun) SOC: System On a Chip SOCKS: SOCKet Secure SODIMM: Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module (Hardware) SPC: Scsi-3 Primary Command SPC: Stored Program Control SPC: Software Publishing Corp.. SOE: Standard Operating Environment SOEP: Secondary Operand Execution Pipeline Page 132 of 161 SPC: Small Peripheral Controller SPC: Statistical Process Control SPCF: Service Point Command Facility SPCS: Stored Program Controlled Switch SPD: Software Product Description (Software) SPM: System Performance Monitor (IBM) SPM/2: System Performance Monitor/2 SPOF: Single Point Of Failure SPOOL: Simultaneous Peripheral Operations On Line SPOT: Shared Product Object Tree (IBM) SPD: Serial Presence Detect SPDL: Standard Page Description Language SPDU: Session Protocol Data Unit SPEC: Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation A group of participating computer system manufacturers that develops a series of accepted test programs to measure system computing performance SPP: Scalable Parallel Processing SPP: Standard Printer Port SPP: Sequenced Packet Protocol SPPS: Scalable Power Parallel System (IBM) SPR: Symmetrical Phase Recording (Hardware) SPECFS: SPECial File System A pseudo file system that provides access to character special and block devices (Operating systems) SPR: Software Problem Report A bug report. (Software) SPF: Shortest Path First (Network) SPR: Special Purpose Register SPR: Statistical Pattern Recognition SPREAD: Systems Programming, Research, Engineering And Development (IBM) SPF: System Programming Facility SPGA: Staggered Pin Grid Array IC pins organization (Hardware) SPI: Serial Peripheral Interface SPI: Stream Programming Interface (Software) SPS: Structured PostScript That PostScript code which has been commented and structured in a strict way to enable filters and print spoolers to manipulate it without actually processing any of the PostScript code SPI: System Programming Interface SPI: Service Provider Interface SPI: Security Parameters Index SPI: Scsi Parallel Interface SPID: Service Profile IDentifier (Network) SPS: Secure Packet Shield SPS: Shock Protection System SPS: Standby Power System SPSS: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPT: Sectors Per Track SPU: System Processing Unit SPUC/DL: Serial Peripheral Unit Controller/Data Link, "SPUC/DL" SPUD: Storage Pedestal Upgrade Disk SPX: Sequenced Packet Exchange (Network) (Novell) SPIKE: Science Planning Intelligent Knowledge-based Environment SPIRE: Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration SPIRES: Stanford Public Information REtrieval System SPKM: Simple Public-Key Mechanism SPL: SPooLer SPL: Set Priority Level SPL: System Programming Language (HP) S SQ: SQueezed SQE: Signal Quality Error SQFP: Small Quad Flat Package IC package SPL: Schedule Plus type Library (Software) (Microsoft) SQL: Structured Query Language The international standard language for defining and accessing relational databases (Databases) SPL: Stored Procedure Language (Databases) SPL: SPelL checker File name extension SQL/CLI: Structured Query Language/Call Level Interface SQL/DS: Structured Query Language/Data System (IBM) Page 133 of 161 SPLD: Simple Programmable Logic Device SQLJ: Structured Query Language for Java (Databases) SS: Single-Sided (Hardware) SQoS: Secure Quality Of Service SQRT: SQuare RooT SR: Status Register (Hardware) SS: Solid State (Hardware) SS/SNA: Server to Server System Network Architecture SS7: Signaling System 7 SSA: Serial Storage Architecture (Hardware) SR: Service Release SR: Shift Register SRAM: Static Random Access Memory (Hardware) SSADM: Structured System Analysis and Design Method SSAP: Session Service Access Point SSAP: Source Service Access Point SSB: Single SideBand SSBAM: Single SideBand Amplitude Modulation SSC: Scsi Stream Command SSCF: Service Specific Coordination Function SSCOP: Service Specific Connection Orientated Protocol SSCP: Service Switching Control Point SSCP: System Services Control Point SSCS: Service Specific Convergence Sublayer SSD: Solid State Disk SSDU: Session Service Data Unit SSE: Software Support Engineer SSE: Streaming Simd Extensions Xeon CPU extension to the instruction set (Hardware) (Intel) SRAM: Shadow Random Access Memory SRAPI: Speech Recognition Application Programming Interface SRB: Source-Route Bridge SRC: System Resource Controller SRC: SouRCe File name extension SRD: Screen Reader System SRDRAM: Self-Refreshed Dynamic Random Access Memory SRE: Self Routing switch Element SRF: Service Resource Function sRGB: Standard Red Green Blue (Hardware) SRL: Segmentation and Reassembly Layer SRM: Storage Resource Manager (Software) SRM: Security Reference Monitor SRN: Source/Recipient Node SRO: Sharable and Read Only SRP: Secure Remote Password authentication (Security) SSEC: Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (IBM) SSF: Service Switching Function SSFDC: Solid State Floppy Disc Card Also known as SmartMedia (Hardware) S SRP: Source Routing Protocol SRP: Suggested Retail Price SRPI: Server-Requester Programming Interface (IBM) SSGA: System Support Gate Array SSH: Secure SHell SSI: Small-Scale Integration The process of placing fewer than 10 components on one chip (Hardware) SRQ: Service ReQuest SRR: Serially Reusable Resource SRS: Screen Reader System SRS: Sound Retrieval System SRS: Shared Registration System (Network) SSI: Server-Side Include SSI: Single System Image SSJS: Server-Side JavaScript (Software) SSL: Synthesizer Specification Language SSL: Secure Sockets Layer (Network) SRVIFS: SeRVer Installable File System SS: Stack Segment CPU register (Hardware) (Intel) Page 134 of 161 SSP: Silicon Switch Processor SSP: System Stack Pointer SSP: Service Switching Point SSP: Switch to Switch Protocol SSP: System Support Program IBM s/36 operating system (Operating systems) (IBM) STF: STructured File File name extension (Lotus) STI: SeT Interrupt flag STING: Software Technology INterest Group STIX: SmallTalk Interface to X STL: Standard Template Library (Software) SSPI: Security Support Provider Interface SSRP: Simple Server Redundancy Protocol (Cisco) STM: Synchronous Transfer Mode STM: Scanning Tunneling Microscope (Hardware) SSS: System Support Station (Hardware) SST: Systems Services and Technology SST: Simple Sipp Transition SST: Shiva Smart Tunneling SST: Sustained Stewardship Teraflop (IBM) STN: Super-Twist Nematic STN-LCD: SuperTwist Nematic Lyquid Crystal Display STONE: STructured and OpeN Environment STOS: STOre String STP: Spanning Tree Protocol STP: Service Transaction Program StP: Software Through Pictures STP: Shielded Twisted Pair (Hardware) SST: Spread-Spectrum Technology SST: Swedish Summer Time Timezone: GMT +1:00 SSU: System Setup Utility SSX: Small Services eXecutive Operating system (Operating systems) STA: Spanning Tree Algorithm STAR: Shareware Trade Association and Resources STAR: Self-defining Text ARchival STB: Software Technical Bulletin STB: Set-Top Box (Hardware) STP: Secure Transfer Protocol STP: Signal Transfer Point STP: Synchronized Transaction Processing STR: Synchronous Transmitter Receiver STR: Store Task Register STRESS: STRuctural Engineering System Solver Programming language STB: STroBe STC: SeT Carry flag STD: State Transition Diagram STD: SeT Direction flag STD: STanDard STDA: StreetTalk Directory Assistance (Banyan) STRUDL: STRUctural Design Language Programming language STScI: Space Telescope SCience Institute STT: Secure Transaction Technology (Microsoft) STTL: Standard Transistor Transistor Logic (Hardware) S STDAUX: STanDard AUXiliary STDERR: STanDard ERRor STDIN: STanDard INput STDM: Statistical Time Division Multiplexer STDOUT: STanDard OUTput STDPRN: STanDard PRiNter STE: Section Terminating Equipment STEP: Standard for The Exchange of Product data STX: Start of TeXt (Communication) STY: STYle File name extension SU: Scalable Unit (Hardware) SUA: Single User Account SUB: SUBstitute SUB: SUBroutine SUB: SUBtract SUG: Sun User's Group Page 135 of 161 SUMA: Software Upgrade and Maintenance Agreement (Software) SWIG: Simplified Wrapper and Interface Generator SWISH: Simple Web Indexing System for Humans SWP: SWaP File name extension SUNET: Swedish University NETwork SUNVIEW: SUN's Visual Integrated Environment for Workstations SUR: Shell Update Release (Operating systems) (Microsoft) SWP: Simple Web Printing SWS: Sun Web Server (Sun) SURAnet: Southeastern Universities Research Association NETwork SUSP: System Use Sharing Protocol SUT: Socket Under Test SUTT: Single User Test Tools SVC: Switched Virtual Circuit Virtual connection set up only for the duration of a single communications session. In contrast, a permanent virtual circuit remains available at all times (Network) SWT: Swedish Winter Time Timezone: GMT +1:00 SXGA: Super eXtended Graphics Array Video specification for a resolution of 1280 X 1024 pixel (Hardware) SXGA+: Super eXtended Graphics Array Plus Video specification for a resolution of 1400 X 1050 pixels (Hardware) SVF: Simple Vector Format SVG: Scalable Vector Graphics SVGA: Super Video Graphics Array Video specification for a resolution of 800 X 600 pixels in 256 colors (Hardware) SYLK: SYmbolic LinK SYM: SYMbols File name extension SYMPL: SYsteM Programming Language SYN: SYNonym File name extension SVID: System V Interface Definition Applies to the Unix OS (Operating systems) SYNC: SYNChronous SYS: SYStem device driver File name extension SVM: System Virtual Machine (Microsoft) SVN: Switched Virtual Network (IBM) SYS: SYStem SYS: SYStem configuration File name extension SVR: SerVeR SVR4: System V Release 4 SVRn: System V Release n Applies to the Unix OS (Operating systems) SYSAD: SYStem ADministrator SYSADMIN: SYStem ADMINistrator SYSGEN: SYStem GENerator SYSLOG: SYStem LOG SYSMOD: SYStem MODification SYSOP: SYStem OPerator SYSREQ: SYStem REQuest SZ: Send Zmodem SVRn: System V Release N (AT&T) SVS: Symmetric Virtual Servers SW: SoftWare S SW: Status Word SWAC: Standards Western Automatic Calculator SWAIS: Simple Wide Area Information Server SWAK: Sealed With A Kiss Saying goodbye (Messages) SWAN: Sun Wide Area Network SWAP: Stewart Warner Array Program SWAP: Shared Wireless Access Protocol (Communication) SWI: SoftWare Interrupts SWIFT: Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication Page 136 of 161 T T: Tera Prefix for 1000 (or 1024) power 4 TB: TeraByte TBAV: ThunderByte Anti Virus (Software) T&E: Travel And Entertainement (Software) T&L: Transform And Lighting Graphics function TBBS: The Bread Board System TBC: Time Base Corrector TBGA: Tape Ball Grid Array TBK: ToolBooK File name extension T/B: Top/Bottom T/R: Transmit/Receive TA: Terminal Adapter An ISDN-compatible device that converts non-ISDN transmission to ISDN transmission (Hardware) TBMT: Transmitter Buffer eMpTy (Hardware) TAB: Tape Automated Bonding (Hardware) TBO: Total Benefit of Ownership TBT: Technology Based Training TBU: Tape Backup Unit TC: Transmission Convergence TC: Transmission Control (Communication) TAC: Terminal Access Controller TACACS: Terminal Access Controller AccessControl System (Network) TACS: Total Access Communication System TAD: Telephone Answering Device TalAE: TALigent Application Environment (Software) TC: Technical Committee TC: Test Control TCAM: TeleCommunication Access Method (IBM) TalDE: TALigent Development Environment TalOS: TALigent Object Services TAN: Table Area Network TAN: TransAction Number TAO: Track-At-Once CD recording technology (Hardware) TCAP: Transaction Capabilities Application Part TCAV: Trend Chip Away Virus Antivirus hardware for motherboards that blocks boot-time viruses (Hardware) TCL: Tool Control Language TCL/TK: Tool Control Language ToolKit TCM: Thermal Conduction Module TCM: Time Compression Multiplexer TCM: Trellis-Coded Modulation TCO: Total Cost of Ownership TCO: Tjänstemännens Central Organization Swedish organization establishing norms for monitor electromagnetic emissions (Organizations) TAP: Terminal Access Point TAP: Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol TAPCIS: The Access Program for the Compuserve Information Service TAPI: Telephony Application Programming Interface (Software) (Microsoft) T TAR: Tape ARchive TAS: Totalnet Advanced Server (Hardware) (Sun) TCP: Transmission Control Protocol A communications protocol that ensures data is sent between computers on the Internet (Network) TAS: Telcom Analysis System (Hardware) TAS: Telephone Access Server TASM: Turbo ASseMbler (Software) (Inprise) TCP: Tape-Carrier Package (Hardware) TCP-ACO: Transmission Control Protocol Alternate Checksum Option TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol The protocol suite originally developed for the Internet. SunOS networks run on TCP/IP by default. Also called Internet Protocol suite (Network) Page 137 of 161 TAT: Theoretical Arrival Time TAXI: Transparent Asynchronous Transceiver Interface TCPBEUI: Transmission Control Protocol Bios Extended User Interface TCPC: The Clean Personal Computer group TCPLDP: Transmission Control Protocol extensions for Long Delay Paths TCQ: Tagged Command Queuing SCSI feature to allow multiple I/O requests TE/2: Terminal Emulator/2 TEAMA: Taiwanese Electric Appliance Manufacturer's Association TEB: Thread Environment Block TEC: Tokyo Electronics Corporation TECO: Text Editor and COrrector TED: Tiny EDitor TEDIS: Trade Electronic Data Interchange Systems TEI: Terminal Endpoint Identifier TEL: Tivoli Enterprise Console TELCO: TELephone Central Office (Communication) TCSEC: Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria TCSH: Trusted C SHell TD: Transmit Data (Hardware) TD-CDMA: Time Division Code Division Multiple Access (Communication) TDC: Terrestrial Data Circuit TDC: Tape Data Controller TDC: Tabular Data Control TDCC: Transportation Data Coordinating Comittee TDD: Telecommunications Device for the Deaf TDE: Terminal Display Editor TDES: Triple Data Encryption Standard TDF: Trace Definition File File name extension (IBM) TeleVAS: TELEphony Value Added Service TELNET: TELephone NETwork TEML: Turbo Editor Macro Language (Inprise) TEMP: TEMPorary TEMS: Tornado Electronic Messaging Service (Software) TEN: TransEuropean Network TER: Thermal Eclipse Reading (Sony) TERMCAP: TERMinal CAPability TERMINFO: TERMinal INFOrmation TERMPWR: TERMinator PoWeR TFDD: Text File Device Driver TFEL: Thin-Film ELectroluminescent TFI: Terminal Facility Identifier TFM: Tagged Font Metric File name extension TDF: Typeface Definition File File name extension TDI: Transport Data Interface TDL: Test Description Language TDM: Telecom Designed Network TDM: Time-Division Multiplexing (Communication) TDM: Technical Document Management TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access TDMS: Terminal Display Management System TDP: Triton Data Path TDP: Tag Distribution Protocol TDP: Telelocator Data Protocol TDR: Time Domain Reflectometry TDS: Tabular DataStream Database client to server communication protocol (Databases) TFP: Tops Filing Protocol TFS: Translucent File Service A copy-on-write file system that enables users to share file hierarchies while providing each user with a private hierarchy for saving files as they are modified T TFT: Task File Table TFT: Thin Film Transistor LCD monitors manufacturing technology (Hardware) TFTP: Trivial File Transfer Protocol (Network) TGA: TarGA File format for images TDSR: Transmitter Data Service Request TDtoDP: Tablet Coordinates TO Display Coordinates TE: Terminal Equipment An ISDN-compatible terminal device that is attached to the ISDN at the user interface Page 138 of 161 TGC: Terminal Group Controller TGT: Ticket Granting Ticket (Security) TH: Transmission Header (Communication) THD: Total Harmonic Distortion A sound quality parameter (lower is better) (Hardware) TIS: Transaction Information System TITOFET: Tunneling-In, Tunneling-Out Field Effect Transistor TK/TK: TracK to TracK TLA: Three Letters Acronym TLB: Translation Look-aside Buffer (Hardware) THEnet: Texas Higher Education NETwork THOMAS: The House of representatives Open Multimedia Access System THOR: Tandy High-performance Optical Recording THR: Transmit Holding Register THS: THeSaurus File name extension TLD: Top Level Domain (Network) THT: Token Holding Timer THX: Tomlinson Holman eXperiment Certification and quality control program that applies to sound systems and acoustics in theaters, home equipment, and digital mastering processes TLE: Template Language Extensions (Software) TLI: Transport Layer Interface An interface that is to supersede the socket-based interprocess communications mechanisms as the way to access transport services. Modeled after the industry standard ISO Transport Service Definition (Communication) TI: Texas Instruments TI: Transport Independent TIA: Thank you In Advance (Messages) TLN: Trunk Line Network TLP: Transmission Level Point TLS: Transport Layer Security (Security) TIA: Telecommunications Industry Association TIA: The Internet Adapter TID: Target IDentifier TIES: Time Independent Escape Sequence TIF: Tagged Image File Filename extension TLS: Thread Local Storage (Software) TLSWG: Transport Layer Security Working Group (Organizations) TLU: Table LookUp TLX: TeLeX TM: Transaction Monitor TM: Transaction Manager TM: TradeMark TMA: Transparent Media Adapter Scanner add-on to acquire material on transparent media (Hardware) TIFF: Tagged Image File Format File format for images TIGA: Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture (Hardware) (TI) TIGER: Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing TIIAP: Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure Assistance Program TIM: Technical Information Memo (Compaq) TMDB: Tivoli Management DataBase TMDS: Transition-Minimized Differential Signalling (Hardware) TIMI: Technology Independent Machine Interface (IBM) TME: Tivoli Management Environment (Tivoli) T TMF: Tivoli Management Framework TMF: Transaction Monitoring Facility TML: TeMpLate File name extension TIMS: Text Information Management Systems TINA: Telecommunication Information Networking Architecture TINA-C: Telecommunication Information Networking Architecture Consortium TIP: Transputer Image Processing TIP: Terminal Interface Processor TIP: Transaction Internet Protocol TIS: Tools Interface Standard TMN: Telecommunication Management Network (Network) TMP: TeMPorary File name extension TMPFS: TeMPorary File System A file system type that uses local memory for disk reads and writes (Operating systems) Page 139 of 161 TMR: Transient Memory Record TMR: Triple Modular Redundancy TMS: Time Multiplexed Switch TMS: Truth Maintenance System TMSC: Tape Mass Storage Control TN: Twisted Nematic (Hardware) TPC: Transaction Processing Council (Organizations) TPCP: Two Phase Commit Protocol (Communication) TPD: Technical Product Documentation TPDU: Transport Protocol Data Unit TPE: Twisted Pair Ethernet TPF: Transaction Processing Facility (IBM) TN-LCD: Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Display TNC: Threaded Neill Concelman TNC: Terminal Node Controller TNG: The New Generation (CAI) TPI: Transport Provider Interface The kernel components of the Transport Layer Interface (TLI) tpi: Tracks Per Inch Recording density (Hardware) TPL: Table Producing Language TPL: Transaction Processing Language tpm: Transactions Per Minute Processing speed TNO: The Netherlands Organization TNPC: Taiwanese New Pc Consortium TNS: Trivial Name Server TNT: The News Toolkit See also NeWS (Sun) TPM: Transaction Processing Manager TPORT: Twisted pair PORT transceiver (AT&T) Tnx: ThanKS (Messages) TOC: Table Of Contents TOD: Time Of Day TODC: Time-Of-Day Clock A clock module that contains the system date and time (yearmonth-day-hour-minutes). (Hardware) TPOS: Transaction Processing Operating System TPPC: Transaction Processing Performance Council (Organizations) TPS: Transactions Per Second TPS: Transaction Processing System TPT: Twisted Pair Transceiver TPW: Turbo Pascal for Windows TPx: Transport Protocol class x TQFP: Thin Quad Flat Pack (Hardware) TODS: Transactions On Database Systems TOEFL: Test Of English as a Foreign Language TOMS: Transactions On Mathematical Software TOOIS: Transactions On Office Information Systems TOP: Technical Office Protocol TOPICS: Total Online Program and Information Control System TQM: Total Quality Management TR: TRavan Tape medium type (TR-3, TR-4) (Hardware) T TOPLAS: Transactions On Programming Languages And Systems TOPS: Timesharing OPerating System TOS: The Operating System ToS: Type Of Service A field within an IP header which can be used by the device originating the packet, or by an intermediate networking device, to signal a request for a specific QoS level (Network) TR: Terminal Ready TRADIC: TRansistorized Airborne DIgital Computer Name of first computer to be entirely transistorized TRAM: TRAnsputer Module (Hardware) TRIB: Transfer Rate of Information Bits TRIPS: Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property rightS TRM: TeRMinal File name extension TP: Twisted Pair TP: Turbo Pascal TP: Transaction Processing TP-PMD: Twisted Pair Physical layer Medium Dependent Page 140 of 161 TRN: Token Ring Network (Network) TRN: Threaded Read News TRO: Total Return on Ownership TROLI: Token Ring Optimized Link Interface TRON: The Realtime Operating system Nucleus TROSN: The Real-time Operating System Nucleus TRP: Token Ring Port TRPC: Transactional Remote Procedure Call TRR: Token Ring Repeater TRT: Token Rotation Timer TS: Transaction Server (Software) (Microsoft) TSO/CMS: Time Sharing Option/Conversational Monitor System TSP: Time Synchronization Protocol TSP: Telephony Service Provider TSPI: Telephony Service Provider Interface (Operating systems) (Microsoft) TSR: Terminate and Stay Resident TSS: Time Sharing System (Operating systems) TSS: Task State Segment TST: TeST File name extension TS: Top Secret TS/SI: Top Secret/Sensitive Information TSA: Target Service Agent (Operating systems) (Novell) TSTN: Triple SuperTwisted Nematic TSV: Tab Separated Values TSW: TeleSoftWare TT: Typewriter Text TTA: Transport-Triggered Architecture TTCN: Tree and Tabular Combined Notation TTF: TrueType Font File format for fonts TSA: Telephony Services Architecture TSA: Technical Support Alliance TSAP: Transport Service Access Point TSAPI: Telephony Server Application Programming Interface (Novell) TTFN: Ta Ta For Now That's all for now (Messages) TSB: Termination Status Block TSC: Triton System Controller TSD: Type-Specific Driver TSDU: Transport Service Data Unit The amount of user data whose identity is preserved from one end of a transport connection to the other TTL: Transistor-Transistor Logic Semiconductor manufacturing technology (Hardware) TTL: Time To Live (Network) TTP: Trusted Third Parties TTP: Thermal-Transfer Printing TTRP: Time Token Rotation Protocol TTRT: Target Token Rotation Time TTS: Trouble Ticketing System TTS: Text-To-Speech TTS: Transaction Tracking System (Novell) TSE: Technical Support Engineer TSE: Terminal Server Edition (Operating systems) (Microsoft) TSE: The Semware Editor TSI: Transmission Subscriber Identification TSI: Time Slot Interchanger TSID: Transmitting Subscriber IDentifier (Communication) TTY: TeleTYpewriter Historically, a Teletypewriter equipment. Today, any dumb terminal that can access a computer or workstation (Hardware) T TSLM: Terminal Services License Manager (Operating systems) (Microsoft) TUC: Total User Cell TUCD: Total User Cell Difference TUCOWS: The Ultimate Collection Of Winsock Software TUG: Tex User's Group TUI: Text-based User Interface TUMS: Table Update and Management System TUP: Telephone User Path TSM: Topology Specific Module (Novell) TSM: Transaction Services Manager TSMP: True Symmetric MultiProcessor TSN: Task Sequence Number TSO: Time Sharing Option Multitasking system for IBM MVS operating system (Operating systems) (IBM) Page 141 of 161 TUT: Transistor Under Test (Hardware) TUT: TUTorial File name extension TUV: Technische Überwachungs-Verein (Organizations) TV: TeleVision (Hardware) TVD: Total Virus Defence TVF: Table of contents Verbosely from File TVFS: Toronto Virtual File System (IBM) TVI: TeleVision Interference TVO: Total Value of Ownership TVOL: TeleVision On-Line TVT: TeleVision Terminal (Hardware) TWAIN: Toolkit Without An Important Name TWIP: TWentIeth of a Point Equal to 1/1440th of an inch. TWT: Travelling Wave Tube (Hardware) TWX: TeletypeWriter eXchange service TX: Transmit (Communication) TXD: Transmit Data TXF: Tax eXchange Format File name extension TXT: TeXT File name extension TXT2STF: TeXT To Structured Text File (Lotus) TYS: Told You So (Messages) TZ: Time Zone T Page 142 of 161 U U2W: Ultra-2-Wide (Hardware) UDA: Universal Data Access (Databases) UA: Unnumbered Acknowledgement UA: User Agent An ISO/OSI application process that acts on behalf of a user or organization in the X.400 message handling system. The UA creates, submits, and receives messages for you UDB: Universal DataBase (Databases) (IBM) UDBC: Universal DataBase Connectivity (Databases) UDC: User Defined Commands UDC: Universal Decimal Classification UDD: User Data Document UDE: Universal Data Exchange UDEC: Universal Digital Electronic Computer UDF: Universal Disk Format (Hardware) UA: User Area UAB: Unix Appletalk Bridge UAC: Universal Access Control UAE: Unrecoverable Application Error UAF: User Authorization File UAM: User Authentication Method UAPDU: User Agent Protocol Data Unit UAProf: User Agent PROFile UART: Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (Hardware) UDF: User-Defined Function UDG: User Defined Gateway UDMA: Ultra Direct Memory Access (Hardware) UDO: User-Defined Object (Software) UAWG: Universal Asdl Working Group (Organizations) UDP: User Datagram Protocol (Communication) UBA: UniBus Adapter UBE: Unsolicited Bulk E-mail UBNI: Ungermann-Bass Network Interface UBR: Unspecified Bit Rate UCAA: Ultimate Computer Acronyms Archive (Remedios) UDP/IP: User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol UDT: User Defined Type UDT: Uniform Data Transfer UFS: Unix File System The default disk-based file system under the Unix operating system (Operating systems) UCAID: University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (Organizations) UFST: Universal Font Scaling Technology UG: User Group UHCI: Universal Host Controller Interface UHE: Ultra High Efficiency (Hardware) UCB: Unit Control Block UCE: Unsolicited Commercial Email UCF: Universal Communications Facility (CAI) UCL: Universal Communications Language UCR: Under Color Removal UCS: User Coordinate System UCS: Unicode Conversion Support UCS: Universal Character Set UCSD: University of California at San Diego UCT: Universal Coordinated Time UD-DVD: Ultra Definition Digital Video (or Versatile) Disk (Hardware) UHF: Ultra-High Frequency UHL: Universal Hypertext Link UHP: Ultra-High Performance (Hardware) U UI: User Interface (Operating systems) UI: Unix International A consortium consisting of Sun, AT&T, and others that formed to advance a UNIX System V-based environment, including the Open Look GUI (Organizations) UIC: User Identification Code UID: Unit IDentifier Page 143 of 161 UID: User IDentifier In the Unix operating system, the number assigned to each login name. The system uses UID numbers to identify, by number, the owners of files and directories (Operating systems) UNC: Universal Naming Convention UNC: Uuencoded Netnews Collator UNCOL: UNiversal Computed Oriented Language UNI: Universal Network Interface UNI: User-Network Interface UNICOM: UNiversal Integrated COMmunication UNII: Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure UNIVAC: UNIVersal Automatic Computer UNIX: UNiversal Interactive eXecutive (Operating systems) UIL: User Interface Language UIMS: User Interface Management System UIN: Universal Internet Number UL: Underwriters Laboratories (Organizations) UL: Unordered List UL: UpLoad ULA: Uncommitted Logic Array ULANA: Unified Local Area Network Architecture ULN: Universal Link Negotiation ulp: Unit in Last Place In binary formats, the least-significant bit of the significand, bit 0, is the unit in the last place UNMA: Unified Network Management Architecture UOW: Unit Of Work UP: UniProcessor UPC: Universal Product Code (Hardware) ULP: Upper Layer Protocol ULSI: Ultra Large Scale Integration The process of placing more than 100,000 components on a chip (Hardware) UPC: User Parameter Control UPG: UPGrade UPI: Universal Peripheral Interface (Hardware) UM: Unified Messaging UMA: Universal Measurement Architecture UMA: Upper Memory Area UMA: Unified Memory Architecture UMA: Universal Management Agent UMADS: Universal Measurement Architecture Data Storage UMB: Upper Memory Block UMC: United Microelectronics Corporation UME: Uni Management Entity UML: Unified Modeling Language UMS: Unified Messaging Server UMS: Universal Management Service (IBM) UPL: User Program Language UPM: User Profile Management (IBM) UPM: Unix Programmer's Manual UPN: User Principal Name UPS: United Parcel Service UPS: Uninterruptible Power Supply (Hardware) UR: Uncommitted Read (Databases) URC: Uniform Resource Characteristics URC: Uniform Resource Citation A set of attribute/value pairs describing a resource. Some of the values may be URIs of various kinds. Others may include, for example, authorship, publisher, datatype, date, copyright status and shoe size. U UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (Hardware) UREP: Unix Rscs Emulation Protocol Protocol UMTS: Universal Mobile Telephony Standard (Communication) URI: Uniform Resource Identifier The generic set of all names/addresses that are short strings that refer to resources (specified 1994; ratified as Internet Draft Standard 1998). (Network) UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (Hardware) UN/EDIFACT: United Nations Electronic Data Interchange For Administration Commerce and Transport UN/GTDI: United Nations Guidelines for Trade Data Interchange URL: Uniform Resource Locator The set of URI schemes that have explicit instructions on how to access the resource on the internet. (Network) Page 144 of 161 URN: Uniform Resource Name A particular scheme which is currently under development in the IETF, which should provide for the resolution using internet protocols of names which have a greater persistence than that currently assiated with internet host names or organizations. (Network) UUE: Unix-To-Unix Encoding Obtained with UUEncode, a Unix utility that encodes data into 7bit ASCII UUI: User-To-User Information (AT&T) US: Unit Separator USART: Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (Hardware) UUID: Universal Unique IDentifier UUT: Unit Under Test (Hardware) UV: UltraViolet UW: Uncommitted Write (Databases) USB: Universal Serial Bus (Hardware) USBIF: Universal Serial Bus Implementers Forum (Organizations) UXGA: Ultra eXtended Graphics Array Display adapter capable of a resolution of 1600 X 1200 pixel (Hardware) USENET: USEr's NETwork USGS: United States Geological Survey USN: Update Sequence Number (Operating systems) USNO: United States Naval Observatory (Organizations) USOC: Universal Service Ordering Code USPS: United States Postal Service (Organizations) USQ: UnSQueezed USR: US Robotics Company USRT: Universal Synchronous Receiver/Transmitter (Hardware) USSA: User Supported Software Association UT: Universal Time UT: User Terminal UTC: Coordinated Universal Time UTF: Ucs Transformation Format UTI: Universal Text Interchange uTOK: User's Tree Of Knowledge UTP: Unshielded Twisted Pair (Hardware) UTRA: Universal Terrestrial Radio Air interface (Communication) U UUCP: Unix to Unix Copy Program A program that uses the UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Protocol UUCP: Unix to Unix Copy Protocol A protocol for communication between consenting UNIX systems (Network) UUD: Unix-To-Unix Decoding Obtained with UUDecode, a Unix utility that decodes data from 7-bit ASCII Page 145 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 146 of 161 V V: Volt Voltage measurement unit VAST: Variable Array Storage Technology VAT: Value Added Tax VAX: Virtual Address eXtension (Hardware) (DEC) V&V: Verification And Validation V.FC: Version First Class Communications standard V/F: Voltage to Frequency converter (Hardware) VB: Visual Basic Programming language (Software) (Microsoft) V/IP: Voice over Internet Protocol (Communication) VB: Variable Block VBA: Visual Basic for Applications (Software) (Microsoft) VA: Visual Age (IBM) VA: Volt-Ampere Power measurement unit VBE/AI: Vesa Bios Extension/Audio Interface VBI: Vertical Blanking Interval (Hardware) VA: Virtual Address VAC: Volts Alternating Current VAD: Value Added Dealer VADD: VisualAge Developer Domain (Software) (IBM) VBIDE: Visual Basic Integrated Development Environment (Software) (Microsoft) VBITS: Visual Basic Insiders' Technical Summit (Microsoft) VADD: Value Added Disk Driver VADSL: Very-high rate Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line VAIO: Video Audio Integrated Operation (Sony) VBL: Vertical Blanking Interrupt VBNS: Very high Bandwidth Network Service (Network) VAJ: Visual Age for Java (Software) (IBM) VBNS: Very high speed Backbone Network Service (Network) VAL: VALue VAL: Voice Application Language VAM: Virtual Access Method VAN: Value-Added Network (Network) VBR: Variable Bit Rate VBRUN: Visual Basic RUNtime VBS: Visual Basic Script VBX: Visual Basic eXtension (Software) (Microsoft) VAN: Virtual Access Network (Network) VC: Virtual Circuit A logical connection between two network nodes that acts as though it is a direct physical connection even though it may physically be packet based (Network) VANDL: VANcouver Data Language VAP: Value Added Provider VAP: Value-Added Process VAR: VARiable VAR: Value Added Reseller VAR: Value-Added Reseller A company that buys hardware and software, adds more features or services to it, then resells the upgraded product VC: Venture Capital VC++: Visual C++ Development platform (Software) (Microsoft) VCC: Virtual Channel Connection (Network) V VCD: Video Compact Disc (Hardware) VCD: Virtual Communications Driver VCI: Virtual Circuit Identifier VCL: Visual Component Library (Software) (Inprise) VaR: Value At Risk (Software) VAR: Value Added Retailer VAROS: VAriable Refraction Optical System Scanner technology (Hardware) (Canon) VCM: Version Conflict Manager (Operating systems) (Microsoft) Page 147 of 161 VCM: Virtual Channel Memory (Hardware) VEMM: Virtual Expanded Memory Manager VEMMI: VErsatile MultiMedia Interface VER: VERsion VER: VERify VERONICA: Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computerized Archives VERR: VERify Read access VERW: VERify Write access VES: Video Encoding Standard (Oracle) VCN: Virtual Cluster Number (Operating systems) VCOS: Visual Caching Operating System VCOS: Virtual Computer Operating System (Operating systems) VCPI: Virtual Control Program Interface VCQ: Vibrant Color Quality (Hardware) (Matrox) VCR: Video Cassette Recorder (Hardware) VCR: Voluntary Content Rating VCS: Version Control System VCS: Virus Control System VDB: Virtual DataBase (Databases) VESA: Video Electronics Standard Association (Organizations) VF: Voice Frequency VF: Virtual Floppy VFAT: Virtual File Allocation Table (Microsoft) VDC: Virtual Device Coordinates In computer graphics, a device-independent coordinate system that isolates the specification of view boundaries from device coordinates VFC: Virtual FIle Cabinet (Software) VDC: Volts Direct Current VDD: Virtual Device Driver VDDM: Virtual Device Driver Manager VDE: Video Display Editor VDE: Visual Development Environment VDE: Virtual Domain Environment (Network) VFD: Vacuum Fluorescent Display (Hardware) VFS: Virtual File System (Operating systems) VFW: Video For Windows (Microsoft) VGA: Video Graphic Array Video specification for a resolution of 640 X 480 pixels in 256 colors (Hardware) VDI: Video Display Input (Hardware) VGC: Video Graphics Controller VGI: Visual Gateway Interface (Software) VDISK: Virtual DISK VDM: Virtual Dos Machine VDMAD: Virtual Direct Memory Access Device (Microsoft) VHDL: Vhsic Hardware Description Language VHF: Very High Frequency VHS: Video Home System VHS: Very High Speed VHS: Virtual Host Storage VHSIC: Very High Speed Integrated Circuit VI: Visual Interactive VI: Vertical Interval The raster lines that are precluded by a video signal standard from containing a picture VDS: Variable Drop Size Printing technology (Hardware) (NEC) VDS: Virtual Dma Services VDSL: Very high bit rate Digital Subscriber Line V (Communication) VDT: Video Dial Tone VDT: Video Display Terminal (Hardware) VI: Virtual Interface (Hardware) VDU: Video Display Unit VDWQT: Vertical Deferred Write Queue Treshold (Databases) VI: Video Input (Hardware) VIA: Virtual Interface Architecture (Network) VEGA: Video7 Enhanced Graphics Adapter VIA: Vendors Isdn Association (Organizations) Page 148 of 161 VIC: Very Inexpensive Computer (Hardware) VLM: Very Large Memory (Operating systems) VIC: Video Interface Chip (Hardware) VLM: Virtual Loadable Module (Operating systems) VID: Visual InterDev (Software) (Microsoft) VLSI: Very Large Scale of Integration The process of placing more than 100,000 transistors on one chip (Hardware) VIDC: VIDeo Controller (Hardware) VIE: Virtual Information Environment VIF: Virtual Interrupt Flag VIF: Virtual InterFace VIM: Vendor-Independent Mail Messaging protocol (Communication) VLSIPS: Very Large Scale Immobilized Polymer Synthesis VLT: Variable List Table VM: Virtual Memory VM: Virtual Machine (Operating systems) VIM: Video Interface Module VINES: VIrtual NEtworking System (Network) VMA: Virtual Memory Address VMB: Virtual Machine Boot VMBOX: Virtual MailBOX VME: Virtual Memory Environment VME: Virtual Machine Environment VME: Versa Module Eurocard VMEBus: Versatile Modular E-BUS Bus architecture (Hardware) VIO: Video Input/Output VIO: Virtual Input/Output VIP: Video Interface Port (Hardware) ViP: VIsual Programming (Lotus) VIP: Virtual Interrupt Pending VIP: Variable Information Processing VIP: Video Information Provider VIPER: Verifiable Integrated Processor for Enhanced Reliability VIRS: Vertical Interval Reference Signal VIS: Video Information System VIS: Viewable Image Size (Hardware) VML: Vector Markup Language VMM: Virtual Memory Manager VMM: Virtual Machine Manager (Operating systems) VMOS: Vertical Metal Oxide Semiconductor (Hardware) VMP: Virtual Modem Protocol VMS: Virtual Memory System (Operating systems) (DEC) VMS: Virtual Machine Storage VMS: Voice Message System VMT: Virtual Memory Technique VNA: Virtual Network Architecture VNC: Virtual Network Computing A remote display system which allows you to view a computing 'desktop' environment not only on the machine where it is running, but from anywhere on the Internet and from a wide variety of machine architectures (AT&T) VIS: Visual Instruction Set VIS: Voice Information System VITC: Vertical Interval TimeCode VITS: Vertical Interval Test Signal VJ++: Visual J++ Java development platform (Software) (Microsoft) VL-BUS: Vesa Local BUS VLAN: Virtual Local Area Network A networking architecture that allows end-systems on topologically disconnected subnetworks to appear to be connected on the same LAN. Predominately used in reference to ATM networking. Similar in functionality to bridging (Network) VO: Video Output (Hardware) V VO: Virtual Office VOC: VOiCe File name extension (Creative Labs) VLB: Vesa Local Bus Bus architecture (Hardware) VOC: VOiCe File format for audio VLD: Variable Length Decoder VLF: Very Low Frequency VLIW: Very Long Instruction Word VOD: Video On Demand VoDSL: Voice Over Digital Subscriber Line (Communication) Page 149 of 161 VOIP: Voice Over Internet Protocol An emerging technology for transporting integrated digital voice, video, and data over IP networks (Network) VRML: Virtual Reality Modeling Language VROOMM: Virtual Real-time Object Oriented Memory Manager (Inprise) VOL: VOLume VOM: Volt Ohm Milliampere (Hardware) VRT: Voltage Regulation Technology (Intel) VOR: Visions Of Reality VOS: Voice Operating System VoxML: Voice Markup Language VP: Vice President VP: Virtual Path VPA: Volume Purchase Agreement VPBX: Virtual Private Branch eXchange (Hardware) VRU: Voice Response Unit VS: Virtual Storage (IBM) VS: Virtual Storage VSA: Virtual System Architecture VSA: Visual Studio Analyzer (Software) (Microsoft) VSAM: Virtual Storage Access Method (Operating systems) (IBM) VPD: Vital Product Data (IBM) VSAT: Very Small Aperture Terminal (Communication) VPD: Virtual Printer Device VPDN: Virtual Private Data Network VPDS: Virtual Private Data Service VPE: Video Port Extension (Hardware) VSB: Vestigial Sideband Modulation (Communication) VSDT: Variable-Size Droplet Technology Print technology (Hardware) VSE: Virtual Storage Extended VSF: Vertical Scanning Frequency VSI: Virtual Socket Interface VSIA: Virtual Socket Interface Alliance (Organizations) VPE: Visual Programming Environment VPIM: Virtual Profile for Internet Mail VPL: Virtual Programming Language VPM: Virtual Parallel Machine VPM: Video Port Manager VPN: Virtual Private Network A network that functions as if it were private, though it exists on public wires. Data is protected through encryption and other security mechanisms (Network) VSIMM: Video Single In line Memory Module A small printed circuit card that contains memory chips for storing video images (Hardware) VSIO: Virtual Serial Input Output VSM: Visual System Management (IBM) VPN: Virtual Page Number VPS: Voice Processing System VPSC: Vault, Process, Structure, Configuration VPT: Virtual Print Technology VR: Voltage Regulator VR: Virtual Reality VSM: Virtual Shared Memory VSM: Virtual Storage Management VSN: Volume Serial Number VSOS: Virtual Storage Operating System VSS: Visual Source Safe (Software) (Microsoft) VSYNC: Vertical SYNChronization (Hardware) V VRAM: Video Random Access Memory A type of dynamic RAM (DRAM) used in high-speed graphics frame buffers, providing separate buses for the CPU and the frame buffer logic (Hardware) VT: Video Terminal (Hardware) (DEC) VT: Vertical Tab VTAM: Virtual Table Access Method IBM operating system module (Operating systems) VRC: Vertical Redundancy Check VRD: Virtual Retinal Display (Hardware) VTAS: Voice Traffic Analysis System (HP) VRE: Voltage Regulated Extended VRM: Voltage Regulation Module (Hardware) VTNS: Virtual Telecommunications Network Service Page 150 of 161 VTR: Video Tape Recorder (Hardware) VTS: Virtual Tape System (Hardware) VTS: Volume Tracking Driver VTX: VideoTeX (Communication) VUI: Visual User Interface (Operating systems) VUP: Vax Unit of Performance VWB: Visual WorkBench (Microsoft) VWM: Virtual Window Manager VXA: Variable Speed Architecture (Hardware) VxD: Virtual device Driver (Operating systems) (Microsoft) VxD: Virtual eXtended Driver (Microsoft) VxFS: Veritas File System (Operating systems) VXML: Voice eXtensible Markup Language V Page 151 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 152 of 161 W W: Watt Power measurement unit WATS: Wide Area Telephone Service WAV: WAVeform File format for audio streams W-CDMA: Wide-band Code Division Multiple Access (Communication) WBEM: Web-Based Enterprise Management WBI: Web Browsing Intelligence WBMP: Wireless BitMaP File Format for bitmapped images suitable for WAP devices W/: With W/O: WithOut W2K: Windows 2000 (Operating systems) (Microsoft) WBS: Work Breakdown Structure WBTS: Windows-Based Terminal Server WC: World Coordinates The coordinate system that is scaled so that user-defined objects can be represented in units appropriate to the application, such as inches, meters, and miles W3: World Wide Web W3A: World Wide Web Applets W3C: World Wide Web Consortium (Organizations) W4: What-Works-With-What WAAS: Wide Area Augmentation System WAB: Windows Address Book Filename extension (Software) (Microsoft) WC: Word Count WCCP: Web Cache Communications Protocol (Network) (Cisco) WCS: World Coordinate System WCTL: Web Crossing Template Language WD: Western Digital (Hardware) WABI: Windows Application Binary Interface WADT: West Australian Daylight Time Timezone: GMT +7:00 WAE: Wireless Application Environment WAG: Wireless Applications Group (Organizations) WDJ: Web Developer's Journal WDL: Windows Driver Library (Operating systems) (Microsoft) WAI: Web Application Interface (Netscape) WDM: Windows Driver Model (Operating systems) (Microsoft) WAI: Web Accessibility Initiative WAIS: Wide Area Information Server (or Service) (Network) WDM: Wavelength-Division Multiplexing A mechanism to allow multiple signals to be encoded into multiple wavelengths (Communication) WDP: Wireless Datagram Protocol WDRAM: Windows Dynamic Random Access Memory WDU: Windows Desktop Update (Operating systems) (Microsoft) WAITI: WAIT for Interrupt WAITS: Wide Area Information Transfer System WAL: Write Ahead Log WAN: Wide Area Network A T1, T3, broadband, or other network covering an area generally larger than a city or metropolitan area network (Network) WE: Write Enable (Hardware) WebNFS: WEB Network File System (Sun) WAP: Wireless Application Protocol WAR: Web ARchive WAS: Web Application Server (Network) (Oracle) WECA: Wireless Ethernet Compatible Alliance (Organizations) WEDT: Western Europe Daylight Time Timezone: GMT +0:00 W WELL: Whole Earth eLectronic Link WEMA: Western Electronics Manufacturers Association (Organizations) WAST: West Australian Standard Time Timezone: GMT +7:00 WAT: West Africa Time Timezone: GMT -1:00 WEO: World Economic Outlook Page 153 of 161 WEP: Watchguard Event Processor WEP: Windows Entertainement Pack (Software) (Microsoft) WISE: Web-Integrated Software metrics Environment (Network) WEP: Windows Entry Point (Software) WISE: Wordperfect Information System Environment WIT: Web Interactive Talk WKB: WorKBook File name extension WEST: Western Europe Standard Time Timezone: GMT +0:00 WFC: Windows Foundation Classes (Software) WKS: WorKSheet File name extension (Lotus) WfM: Wired For Management WFP: Windows File Protection (Operating systems) (Microsoft) WL: Word Line WLG: dr. Watson LoG Filename extension (Microsoft) WFQ: Weighted Fair Queuing Per-flow packet scheduling in network elements that automatically categorizes traffic flows into high and low priority, based on volume of packets seen by a router or switch (Network) WLL: Wireless Local Loop (Communication) WLM: Work Load Manager WM: Workstation Manager (Novell) WfW: Windows For Workgroups (Microsoft) WG: Working Group WGPO: WorkGroup PostOffice WGS: WorkGroup System WHAM: Waveform Hold And Modify (Microsoft) WMA: Windows Media Author (Microsoft) WMC: Workflow Management Coalition WME: Windows Media Encoder (Microsoft) WHC: Workstation Host Connection WHISPER: Whindows Highly Intelligent SPEech Recognition (Microsoft) WMF: Windows Metafile Format File format for graphics (Microsoft) WMI: Windows Management Instrumentation (Microsoft) WHQL: Windows Hardware Quality Labs WIC: Whole Internet Catalogue WIF: Wavelet Image File File format for images WML: Wireless Markup Language WMLS: Wireless Markup Language Script WMRM: Write Many, Read Many (Hardware) WIMP: Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointing devices WINA: Wap Interim Naming Authority WINE: Wine Is Not an Emulator Windows Emulator for Unix paltforms (Operating systems) WMT: Windows Media Technology (Operating systems) (Microsoft) WNIC: Wide-area Network Interface Coprocessor WNIM: Wide-area Network Interface Module WOF: Web Objects Framework (Network) WINForum: Wireless Information Networks FORUM WinHEC: WINdows Hardware Engineering Conference WINS: Windows Internet Name Service (Operating systems) (Microsoft) WOL: Wake On Lan (Hardware) WOM: Write-Only Memory (Hardware) WINSOCK: WINdows SOCKets WORM: Write Once Read Many (Hardware) W Wintel: WINdows/inTEL System based on Intel Processors and Microsoft Windows operating system WOS: Workstation Operating System WOSA: Windows Open Systems Architecture (Operating systems) (Microsoft) WIS: Windows Installer Service (Operating systems) (Microsoft) WISC: Writable Instruction Set Computer (Hardware) WOW: WithOut Worry (Hardware) (Xerox) Page 154 of 161 WOW: Windows on Win32 (Operating systems) (Microsoft) WTLS: Wireless Transport Layer Security WTO: World Trade Organization (Organizations) WP: Word Processor WP: WordPerfect (Software) (Corel) WTP: Wireless Transaction Protocol WTS: Windows Terminal Server (Microsoft) WP: Write Protected WPD: WordPerfect Document File format for documents (Corel) WUI: Web User Interface (Network) WPD: Windows Printer Description File name extension WV: Working Voltage (Hardware) WPG: WordPerfect Graphics File name extension WWIS: World Wide Information System WWW: World Wide Web The web of systems and the data in them that is the Internet (Network) WPHD: Write-Protect Hard Disk wpm: Words Per Minute Speech recognition processing power (Software) WYSBYGI: What You See Before You Get It WYSIWYG: What You See Is What You Get WPM: WordPerfect Macro File name extension WPOS: WorkPlace Operating System WPS: Windows Printing System (Microsoft) WPS: WorkPlace Shell (IBM) WPVM: Windows Parallel Virtual Machine WPW: WordPerfect for Windows (Software) WRAM: Window Random Access Memory (Hardware) WRDS: Wharton Research Data Service WRED: Weighted Random Early Detection Combines IP precedence and Random Early Detection capabilities to provide differentiated performance characteristics for different classes of service (Network) WRI: WRIte File name extension WRK: Windows Resource Kit (Microsoft) WS: WorkSpace WS: WorkStation WS: WordStar WSAPI: Web Site Application Programming Interface (O'Reilly & Associates) WSH: Windows Scripting Host WSP: Wireless Session Protocol WT: Write Through WTA: Wireless Telephony Application WTD: Week To Date Time series function W WTF: What The F**k (Messages) Page 155 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 156 of 161 X X: X windows A windowing system developed by MIT (Operating systems) XLK: eXceL Backup File name extension (Microsoft) X2B: heXadecimal To Binary (IBM) XLL: eXtensible Link Language XLM: eXceL Macro File name extension (Microsoft) X2C: heXadecimal To Character (IBM) X2D: heXadecimal To Decimal (IBM) XLT: eXceL Template File name extension (Microsoft) XA: eXtended Architecture XA: eXtended Attribute XAPIA: X.400 Application Programming Interface Association (Organizations) XMA: eXtended Middleware Architecture (Software) XMIT: TransMIT XML: eXtensible Markup Language XMM: eXtended Memory Manager XMS: eXtended Memory Specification (Operating systems) (Microsoft) XBM: X BitMap File format for bitmapped images XCHG: ExCHanGe XCMD: eXternal CoMmanD (Software) (Apple) XNS: Xerox Network Services (Network) XOFF: Transmitter OFF XON: Transmitter ON XOR: eXclusive OR XP: eXtreme Performance (Hardware) (Compaq) XDF: Extended Density Format (IBM) XDM: X Display Manager A program supplied with the OpenWindows interface that manages X displays XDR: eXternal Data Representation A standard for machine-independent data structures developed by Sun (Sun) XP: eXtreme Programming (Software) XFCN: eXternal FunCtioN XGA: eXtended Graphics Array Video specification for a resolution of 1024 X 768 pixels in 256 colors (Hardware) XPG: X/open Portability Guide (Operating systems) XPM: X PixMap File format for bitmapped images XHTML: eXtensible HyperText Markup Language (Software) XPRM: Xerox Print Resources Manager (Xerox) XQL: eXtensible Query Language XR: eXternal Reset (Hardware) XID: eXchange IDentifier XIF: eXternal Interface File XIFF: eXtended Image File Format File format for images XRF: eXtended Recovery Facility (IBM) XRT: eXtensions for Real-Time XSL: eXtensible Style Language XSMD: eXtended Storage Module Drive XSSI: eXtended Server Side Includes XT: eXtended Technology (IBM) XIL: X Imaging Library The XIL is a platform programming interface for imaging and video support (Operating systems) XIOS: eXtended Input/Output System XIP: eXecute-In-Place XL: eXtended Length (Hardware) XTAL: CrysTAL XTCLK: eXternal Transmit CLocK XVGA: eXtended Video Graphics Array Dispaly standard (Hardware) X XLA: eXceL Add-In File name extension (Microsoft) XLAT: TransLATe XLF: Exceptional Fortran (IBM) XWD: X Window Dump Page 157 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 158 of 161 Y Y2K: Year 2000 YACC: Yet Another Compiler Compiler Unix program (Operating systems) YAHOO: Yet Another Hierarchically Officious Oracle YAHU: Yet Another Header Utility Utilities for peeking into executables headers (Software) YAI: Yet Another Isp YAM: Yet Another Modem YAST: Yet Another Setup Tool YATE: Yet Another Terminal Emulator (Software) YDT: Yukon Daylight Time Timezone: GMT -9:00 YST: Yukon Standard Time Timezone: GMT -9:00 YTD: Year To Date Time series function Y Page 159 of 161 This page was intentionally left blank Page 160 of 161 Z Z-CAV: Zoned Constant Angular Velocity ZAC: Zero Administration Client ZAI: Zero Administration Initiative ZAK: Zero Administration Kit (Microsoft) ZAW: Zero Administration for Windows (Microsoft) ZBR: Zero Bug Release Pint in the software development at which all features are correctly implemented and have no bugs logged against them (Software) ZBR: Zone-Bit Recording ZCAV: Zone Constant Angular Velocity (Hardware) ZD: Ziff-Davis ZDBOp: Ziff-Davis Benchmark OPeration ZDL: Zero Delay Lockout ZDMI: Ziff-Davis Market Intelligence ZDS: Zenith Data Systems ZDTV: Ziff-Davis TeleVision ZEN: Zero Effort Networking (Novell) ZIF: Zero Insertion Force (Hardware) ZIP: Zigzag In-line Package (Hardware) ZIP: Zone Improvement Plan Postal code ZPV: Zoomed Port Video ZSL: Zero Slot Lan ZV: Zoomed Video Z Page 161 of 161