Computer

All about Computer: History, Features, Uses, Advantages and Disadvantages
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    December 1969
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COMPUTER DEFINITION Computer is derived from a Latin word “computare” which means to “to calculate” , “to count” , “to sum up” or “to think together” . So, more precisely the word computer means a "device that performs computation ". According to Wikipedia the word “Computer" was first used in a book called “the Young man’s gleanings” in 1613. A computer is a general-purpose electronic device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. “A Computer is programmed device with a set of instructions to perform specific tasks and generate results at a very high speed”. The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data: 1. Vacuum Tubes (1950s) - one bit on the size of a thumb; 2. Transistors (1950s and 1960s) - one bit on the size of a fingernail; 3. Integrated Circuits (1960s and 70s) – thousands of bits on the size of a hand 4. Silicon computer chips (1970s and on) – millions of bits on the size of a finger nail. The progression of the ease of use of computers: 1. Almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses (1950s); 2. Programmable by highly trained people only (1960s and 1970s); 3. Useable by just about anyone (1980s and on) to see how computers got smaller, cheaper, and easier to use. HISTORY OF COMPUTER ABACUS  The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacus, developed in the period between 2700–2300 BCE in Sumer.  It was initially used for arithmetic tasks. ANTIKYTHERA MECHANISM  …dating between 150 to 100 BC, is the world's oldest analog computer  It was believed to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer according to Derek J. de Solla Price.  It was designed to calculate astronomical positions. ASTROLABE  The astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic world in either the 1st or 2 nd centuries BC and is often attributed to Hipparchus.  A combination of the planisphere and dioptra, the astrolabe was effectively an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy.  It was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan, Persia in 1235. SECTOR  It is a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry, multiplication and division, and for various functions, such as squares and cube roots  It was developed in the late 16th century and found application in gunnery, surveying and navigation. PLANIMETER  It was a manual instrument to calculate the area of a closed figure by tracing over it with a mechanical linkage. SLIDE RULE  It was invented around 1620–1630, shortly after the publication of the concept of the logarithm  It is a hand-operated analog computer for doing multiplication and division. JOHN NAPIER  When John Napier discovered logarithms for computational purposes in the early 17th century, there followed a period of considerable progress by inventors and scientists in making calculating tools. WILHELM SCHICKARD  In 1623, Wilhelm Schickard designed a calculating machine, but abandoned the project, when the prototype he had started building was destroyed by a fire in 1624 BLAISE PASCAL  Around 1640, Blaise Pascal , a leading French mathematician, constructed a mechanical adding device based on a design described by Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria. ANALYTICAL ENGINE  In 1837, it was designed as the first design for a modern computer invented by Charles Babbage, known as the “Father of Modern Computer”  It has expandable memory, an arithmetic unit, and logic processing capabilities able to interpret a programming language with loops and conditional branching.  It has a memory capacity of less than 1 kilobyte of memory and a clock speed of less than 10 Hertz.  The input of programs and data was to be provided to the machine via punched cards. ADA LOVELACE (Augusta Ada Byron)  Pioneer of computer programming  Ada Lovelace became the designer of the first computer algorithm, which had the ability to compute Bernoulli numbers. Moreover, Lovelace’s work with Babbage resulted in her prediction of future computers to not only perform mathematical calculations, but also manipulate symbols, mathematical or not. THE MILL  Henry Babbage, completed a simplified version of the analytical engine's computing unit in 1888. He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in 1906. TIDE-PREDICTING MACHINE  It is considered as the first modern analog computer invented by Sir William Thomson in 1872. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSER  A mechanical analog computer designed to solve differential equations by integration using wheel-and-disc mechanisms, was conceptualized in 1876 by James Thomson, the brother of the more famous Lord Kelvin  The art of mechanical analog computing reached its zenith with the differential analyzer , built by H. L. Hazen and Vannevar Bush at MIT starting in 1927. This built on the mechanical integrators of James Thomson and the torque amplifiers invented by H. W.Nieman. TURING MACHINE  The principle of the modern computer was first described by mathematician and pioneering computer scientist Alan Turing  In 1936, the introduction of the formalization of an algorithm, with limits on what can be computed, and a "purely mechanical" model for computing. Z3 (Zuse 3)  the world’s first functional program-controlled computer developed by Konrad Zuse in 1941 S2 COMPUTING MACHINE  considered the first process-controlled computer developed by Konrad Zuse Z4 (Zuse 4)  the world’s first commercial computer built by Konrad Zuse PLANKALKUL  the first high-level programming designed in 1946 ATANASOFF-BERRY COMPUTER  the first automatic electronic digital computer developed by John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford E. Berry in 1942  its design was all-electronic and used about 300 vacuum tubes, with capacitors fixed in mechanically rotating drum for memory COLOSSUS   world’s first electronic digital programmable computing device built by Max Newman in early February 1943 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)  first electronic programmable computer built in the US  first Turing-complete devices performed trajectory calculations  developed under the direction of John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennysylvania  was huge weighing 30 tons and using 200 kilowatts of electronic power and contained over 1800 vacuum tubes, 1500 relays and hundred thousands of resistors, capacitors and inductors MANCHESTER SMALL-SCALE EXPERIMENTAL MACHINE  also known as Manchester Baby  first stored-program computer  the world’s first general purpose electronic digital computer  was built in Victoria Univ. of Manchester by Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn and Geoff Tootill  it ran its first program on June 23, 1948 PILOT ACE  a small scale programmable computer based on Turing’s philosophy  with an operating speed of 1MHz, it was considered as the world’s fastest computer VON NEUMANN ARCHITECTURE  known as a model for computer architecture designed in 1946  it allows machine instructions and data to share memory space  It has three major parts: 1. arithmetic logic unit, 2. memory, and 3. instruction processing unit. FERRANTI MARK 1  the world’s first commercially available general-purpose computer LEO I  become operational in April 1951 and ran the world’s first regular routine office computer job INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (ICs)  the first conceived the idea of using IC in developing computer is Geoffrey W.A. Drummer  the first practical IC was invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor  Kilby was successfully demonstrated the first working integrated example on Sept. 12, 1958  In Feb.06, 1959, Kilby described his new device as “a body of semiconductor material wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are completely integrated.”  While Noyce developed a chip half a year later than Kilby. He solved many practical problems regarding computers.  the explosion of the commercial and personal use of computers and lead to the invention of microprocessor MICROPROCESSOR  the single-chip microprocessor was the Intel 4004 by Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin and Stanley Mazor … and the continuous growth of cellular phones, mobile phones, tablets, smartphones, laptops and other portable computers and other computing device FEATURES OF COMPUTER  Speed: Computer’s processing speed is measures in a fraction of a second.  Millisecond (Kilo Hertz – KHz): a thousandth of a second  Microsecond (Mega Hertz – MHz): a millionth of a second  Nanosecond (Giga Hertz – GHz): a billionth of a second  Pico second (Tera Hertz – THz): a trillionth of a second  Storage: Computer has mass storage section where we can store large volume of data for future work.  Reliability: Computer can do its work without making any mistakes and is able to store data for future use.  Versatile: Computer can do varieties of task such as simple to complex computation.  Diligence: Computer can work for many hours continuously without taking any rest and without decreasing its accuracy and efficiency.  Automatic: Computer does its work automatically by itself as the instructions were given by the users. TYPES OF COMPUTER Personal computer: it is also known as a Microcomputer. It is a small, single- user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data. Workstation: a powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor. Minicomputer: a multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously. Microcontrollers are mini computers that enable the user to store data and execute simple commands and tasks. These single circuit devices have minimal memory and program length but are normally designed to be very good at performing a niche task. Many such systems are known as embedded systems. Mainframe: a powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously. Supercomputer: an extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second. It was the fastest and the most expensive computers. These huge computers are used to solve very complex science and engineering problems. Supercomputers get their processing power by taking advantage of parallel processing; they use lots of CPUs at the same time on one problem. A typical supercomputer can do up to ten trillion individual calculations every second. Ex. K Computer, Columbia and Jaguar Server Computer: Servers are a step under supercomputers, because they don't focus on trying to solve one very complex problem, but try to solve many similar smaller ones. A server is a central computer that contains collections of data and programs. Also called a network server, this system allows all connected users to share and store electronic data and applications. Two important types of servers are file servers and application servers. DISADVANTAGES OF ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTER  Speed up work efficiency    COMPUTER  Unemployment  Wastage of time and energy Large and Reliable Storage Capacity  Violation of Privacy Connection with Internet  Health Risks  Data Security Consistency  Computer Crime  Impact on environment  Financial transactions  Great Educational Tool  Leisure and Entertainment USES OF COMPUTER AT HOME  Home Budget IN EDUCATION  CBT  Endorsing Product  Computer Games  CAL  Working from Home  Online Examination  Entertainment   Information  Chatting and Social Media Online Resources Training Financial  Transactions IN BUSINESS a  Marketing  Stock Exchange IN MEDICAL FIELD Desiree Bayeta Evangelista  Hospital BSEd III Math Management @ixdesiree System Patients  Monitoring