Human resources is a term used to describe the individuals who make up the workforce of an organization, although it is also applied in labor economics to, for example, business sectors or even whole nations. "Human capital" is sometimes used synonymously with human resources, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view; i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and can contribute to an organization. Likewise, other terms sometimes used include "manpower", "talent", "labor", and simply "people". The professional discipline and business function that oversees an organization's human resources is called human resource management (HRM, or simply HR)
Human resources may be defined as the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organization's workforce, as well as the values, attitudes, approaches and beliefs of theindividuals involved in the affairs of theorganization. It is the sum total or aggregate of inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills represented by the talents and aptitudes of the persons employed in the organization. The human resources are multidimensional in nature. From the national point of view, human resources may be defined as the knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes obtained in the population; whereas from the viewpoint of the individual enterprise, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of its employees. Human Resource Management: Defined Human Resource Management has come to be recognized as an inherent part of management, which is concerned with the human resources of an organization. Its objective is the maintenance of better human relations in the organization by the development,application and evaluation of policies, procedures and programmes relating to human resources to optimize their contribution towards the realization of organizational objectives. In other words, HRM is concerned with getting better results with the collaboration of people. It is an integral but distinctive part of management, concerned with people at work and their relationships
within the enterprise. HRM helps in attaining maximum individual development, desirable working relationship between employees and employers, employees and employees, and effective modeling of human resources as contrasted with physical resources. It is the recruitment, selection, development, utilization, compensation and motivation of human resources by the organization. Human Resource Management: Evolution The early part of the century saw a concern for improved efficiency through careful design of work. During the middle part of the century emphasis shifted to the employee's productivity. Recent decades have focused on increased concern for the quality of working life, total quality management and worker's participation in management. These three phases may be termed as welfare, development and empowerment. Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. HRM can also be performed by line managers. HRM is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. HRM is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization's goals and objectives. HRM is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurem , the process of defining HRM leads us to two different definitions. The first definition of HRM is that it is the process of managing people in organizations in a structured and thorough manner. This covers the fields of staffing (hiring people), retention of people, pay and perks setting andmanagement, performance management, change management and taking care of exits from the company to round off the activities. This is the traditional definition of
HRM which leads some experts to define it as a modern version of the Personnel Management function that was used earlier.
Human Resource Management: Nature Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include: • It is perhe second definition of HRM encompasses the management of people in organizations from a macro perspective i.e. managing people in the form of a collective relationship between management and employees. This approach focuses on the objectives and outcomes of the HRM function. What this means is that the HR function in contemporary organizations is concerned with the notions of people enabling, people development and a focus on making the “employment relationship” fulfilling for both the management and employees. These definitions emphasize the difference between Personnel Management as defined in the second paragraph and human resource management as described in the third paragraph. To put it in one sentence, personnel management is essentially “workforce” centered whereas human resource management is “resource” centered. The key difference is HRM in recent times is about fulfilling management objectives of providing and deploying people and a greater emphasis on planning, monitoring and control. Whatever the definition we use the answer to the question as to “what is HRM?” is that it is all about people in organizations. No wonder that some MNC’s (Multinationals) call the HR managers as People Managers, People Enablers and the practice as people management. In the 21st century organizations, the HR manager or the people manager is no longer seen as someone who takes care of the activities described in the traditional way. In fact, most organizations have different departments dealing with Staffing, Payroll, and Retention etc. Instead, the HR manager is responsible for managing employee expectations vis-à-vis the management objectives and reconciling both to ensure employee fulfillment and realization of management objectives.
In conclusion, this article has briefly touched upon the topic of HRM and served as an introduction to HRM. We shall touch upon the other topics that this field covers in other articles. vasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises. • Its focus is on results rather than on rules. • It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. • It encourages employees to give their best to the organization. • It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups. • It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results. • It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well-motivated employees. • It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization. • It is a multidisciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology, economics, etc. Human Resource Management: Scope The scope of HRM is very wide: 1. Personnel aspect-This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, layoff and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives, productivity etc. 2. Welfare aspect-It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, creches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities, etc. 3. Industrial relations aspect-This covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary procedures, settlement of disputes, etc. Human Resource Management: Beliefs The Human Resource Management philosophy is based on the following beliefs: • Human resource is the most important asset in the organization and can be developed and increased to an unlimited extent. • A healthy climate with values of openness, enthusiasm, trust, mutuality and collaboration is essential for developing human resource. • HRM can be planned and monitored in ways that are beneficial both to the individuals and the organization. • Employees feel committed to their work and the organization, if the organizationperpetuates a feeling of belongingness. • Employees feel highly motivated if the organization provides for satisfaction of their basic and higher level needs. • Employee commitment is increased with the opportunity to dis¬cover and use one's capabilities and potential in one's work.
• It is every manager's responsibility to ensure the development and utilisation of the capabilities of subordinates. Human Resource Management: Objectives • To help the organization reach its goals. • To ensure effective utilization and maximum development of human resources. • To ensure respect for human beings. To identify and satisfy the needs of individuals. • To ensure reconciliation of individual goals with those of the organization. • To achieve and maintain high morale among employees. • To provide the organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees. • To increase to the fullest the employee's job satisfaction and selfactualization. • To develop and maintain a quality of work life. • To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society. • To develop overall personality of each employee in its multidimensional aspect. • To enhance employee's capabilities to perform the present job. • To equip the employees with precision and clarity in trans¬action of business. • To inculcate the sense of team spirit, team work and inter-team collaboration. Human Resource Management: Functions In order to achieve the above objectives, Human Resource Management undertakes the following activities: 1. Human resource or manpower planning. 2. Recruitment, selection and placement of personnel. 3. Training and development of employees. 4. Appraisal of performance of employees. 5. Taking corrective steps such as transfer from one job to another. 6. Remuneration of employees. 7. Social security and welfare of employees. 8. Setting general and specific management policy for organizational relationship. 9. Collective bargaining, contract negotiation and grievance handling. 10. Staffing the organization. 11. Aiding in the self-development of employees at all levels. 12. Developing and maintaining motivation for workers by providing incentives. 13. Reviewing and auditing man¬power management in the organization
14. Potential Appraisal. Feedback Counseling. 15. Role Analysis for job occupants. 16. Job Rotation. 17. Quality Circle, Organization development and Quality of Working Life. Human Resource Management: Major Influencing Factors In the 21st century HRM will be influenced by following factors, which will work as various issues affecting its strategy: • Size of the workforce. • Rising employees' expectations • Drastic changes in the technology as well as Life-style changes. • Composition of workforce. New skills required. • Environmental challenges. • Lean and mean organizations. • Impact of new economic policy. Political ideology of the Govern¬ment. • Downsizing and rightsizing of the organizations. • Culture prevailing in the organization etc. Human Resource Management: Futuristic Vision On the basis of the various issues and challenges the following suggestions will be of much help to the philosophy of HRM with regard to its futuristic vision: 1. There should be a properly defined recruitment policy in the organization that should give its focus on professional aspect and merit based selection. 2. In every decision-making process there should be given proper weightage to the aspect that employees are involved wherever possible. It will ultimately lead to sense of team spirit, team-work and inter-team collaboration. 3. Opportunity and comprehensive framework should be provided for full expression of employees' talents and manifest potentialities. 4. Networking skills of the organizations should be developed internally and externally as well as horizontally and vertically. 5. For performance appraisal of the employee’s emphasis should be given to 360 degree feedback which is based on the review by superiors, peers, subordinates as well as self-review. 6. 360 degree feedback will further lead to increased focus on customer services, creating of highly involved workforce, decreased hierarchies, avoiding discrimination and biases and identifying performance threshold. 7. More emphasis should be given to Total Quality Management. TQM will cover all employees at all levels; it will conform to customer's needs and expectations; it will ensure effective utilization of resources and will lead towards continuous improvement in all spheres and activities of the organization.
8. There should be focus on job rotation so that vision and knowledge of the employees are broadened as well as potentialities of the employees are increased for future job prospects. 9. For proper utilization of manpower in the organization the concept of six sigma of improving productivity should be intermingled in the HRM strategy. 10. The capacities of the employees should be assessed through potential appraisal for performing new roles and responsibilities. It should not be confined to organizational aspects only but the environmental changes of political, economic and social considerations should also be taken into account. 11. The career of the employees should be planned in such a way that individualizing process and socializing process come together for fusion process and career planning should constitute the part of human resource planning. To conclude Human Resource Management should be linked with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility. All the above futuristic visions coupled with strategic goals and objectives should be based on 3 H's of Heart, Head and Hand i.e., we should feel by Heart, think by Head and implement by Hand.
Nature of HRM: 1. HRM involves management functions like planning, organizing, directing and controlling. 2. It involves procurement, development, maintenance and management of human resource. 3. It helps to achieve individual, organizational and social objectives. 4. HRM is a mighty disciplinary subject. It includes the study of management psychology communication, economics and sociology. 5. It involves team spirit and team work.
The scope of HRM refers to all the activities that come under the banner of HRM. The activities are as follows 1. Human resources planning: - Human resource planning is a process by which the company to identify the number of jobs vacant, whether the company has excess staff or shortage of staff and to deal with this excess or shortage. 2. Job analysis design: - Another important area of HRM is job analysis. Job analysis gives a detailed explanation about each and every job in the company. Based on this job analysis the company prepares advertisements. 3. Recruitment and selection: - Based on information collected from job analysis the company prepares advertisements and publishes them in the news papers. A number of applications are received after the advertisement is published, interviews are conducted and the right employee is selected thus recruitment and selection are yet another important areas of HRM. 4. Orientation and induction: - Once the employees have been selected an induction or orientation program is conducted. The employees are informed about the background of the company. They are told about the organizational culture and values and work ethics and introduce to the other employees. 5. Training and development: - Every employee goes under training program which helps him to put up a better performance on the job. Training program is also conducted for existing staff that have a lot of experience. This is called refresher training. Training and development is one area were the company spends a huge amount.
Performance appraisal: - Once the employee has put in around 1 year of service, performance appraisal is conducted i.e. the HR department checks the performance of the employee. Based on these appraisal future promotions, incentives, increments in salary are decided.
Compensation planning and remuneration: - There are various rules regarding compensation and other benefits. It is the job of the HR department to look into remuneration and compensation planning.
Motivation, welfare, health and safety: - Motivation becomes important to sustain the number of employees in the company. It is the job of the HR department to look into the different methods of motivation. Apart from this certain health and safety regulations have to be followed for the benefits of the employees.
Industrial relations: - Another important area of HRM is maintaining co-ordinal relations with the union members. This will help the organization to prevent strikes lockouts and ensure smooth working in the company.