Instructional Design Process



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Instructional Design Process and Curriculum Development Contents Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Instructional design process learning need assessment Selecting a title and setting instructional goals Page 5 12 15 Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Chapter 8: Chapter 9: Chapter 10: Chapter 11: Chapter 12 : learner characteristics learning objectives Subject contents and task analysis Teaching learning activities Instructional resources Support services Evaluating learning An overview of curriculum development. Reference. 20 24 31 36 44 49 53 58 151 Chapter 1 Instructional Design Process Introduction : Learning begins at birth and ends at death, learning is an intervening variable between something that happens in the world and the subsequent behavior of the learner. The concept of instructional design started during and immediately following the World War II by the military training command, The psychologists was revealing important new information about how human learning takes place, including the importance of specifying details of a task to be learned or performed. In the early 1950 much interest was being shown in educational applications of the learning theory known as behaviorism. B.F. skinner, the psychologist, developed a stimulus –response (S-R) model based on the principle that learning takes place through a series of small steps in which the learner must actively participate. The theoretical view of learning proposed by skinner and it is applications through programmed instruction have most influential for the emergence of the instructional design process. Definition of instructional design process:It’s a procedure for identifying the instructional process to increase learning and improve performance (kemp, 1985). Key elements of the instructional design process. On planning instructional design process. There are four fundamental elements. 1.For whom is the program being developed [learners characteristics] 2.What do you want the learners to Learn [Objectives] 3.How is the subject content best learned [Teaching methods ] 4.How do you know if the learning has been achieved or not {Evaluation} Students Objectives Teaching Methods Evaluation [Figure I] Key elements of the instructional design process. There are additional components which require attention to make a complete instructional design model. Goal 1. learning needs assessment 2. select topic priorities Constraints Purpose 3. learner characteristics 4. learning objectives according to the goals 5. State your subject content according to your objectives. 6. teaching method according to your objectives 7. Instructional resources. 8. Support services 9. learning evaluation. 10. Pre-testing. Instructional Design Plan Revision Topic Pre-testing learner Evaluation Need Assessment Support Services Objective Content Instructional Resources Teaching Method Revision (figure3) Note: - the elements are not connected with lines. Each person can start with any element. ●Rationale of using Kemp model:- An oval does not have a specific starting point. - These elements are interrelated to each other. The elements are not connected with lines or arrows. Decisions relating to one may affect others and encourages flexibility in the selection of elements and in the order of their treatment. - The indication of revision around the elements illustrates the feedback feature which allows for change in the content or treatment of element at any time during development. Definition of learning learning:- Is a change in behavior (kemp,1985). General principles which enhance learning. 1. Relating instruction to student experience . 2. Relating instruction to student interest. 3. Relating instruction to student future. Learning barrier 1.student are bored 2.student are frustrated 3.student are hurt emotionally 4.Students are subjected to unpleasant physical condition. Chapter 2 Learning Need Assessment We learned in school that human beings to have a number of basic needs which must be satisfied. These are food, water, clothing, shelter, and economic security. Most daily activities are devoted to satisfying these needs. Beyond the basic needs, the motivation for action in various aspects of life is based on a desire to satisfy interests and needs at a higher level. Need Assessment :- it’s the process of planning, obtaining, and applying information (kemp, 1985). [Gathering information] Need Assessment can be done by two ways:1. Internal assessment procedure. 1.Giving a test and analyzing student result. 2.Interviewing instructor's about student competencies. 3.Talking with the students and their impression about the value and success of the program. 2. external assessment 1.Interviewing person from other institute. 2.Comparing between instructional program at other institution to our local program. 3.Distribution of questionnaire or survey to recognized needs in the field. The process of need assessment. 1. Preparing to do a need assessment. 2. Gathering information, data collection should be done through:- •Interviews. •Questionnaire. •Observation. 3. Analyzing the need assessment information. 4. Prorating needs assessment information Once a need assessment is completed and there is a need, give your project a title or name, then goal should be set. Chapter 3 Selecting a title and setting instructional goals Once a needs assessment is completed, give your project a title or name. Goal: is abroad statement about the learning that will take place. (Kemp, 1985). Types of Learning  1- Cognitive Learning: deals with information and mental processes as remembering sign and symptoms of a disease.  2- Psychomotor Learning: involves some form of physical activity and coordination between the brain and the muscles.  Affective Learning: emphasizes feeling, emotions, attitudes and values. Examples of the verbs that used in writing the goals To interest, To help, To provide, To present, To gain, To acquire, To know, To understand, To become, To be familiar. Example Topic: Diabetes Mellitus Goal: to acquire knowledge and understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the disease process, and proper nursing care for the diabetic patients. Topics and job tasks Topic :- is a heading for a unit or component of the course that treats subject content knowledge to be learned. (Marger, 1972) Job task :- is a heading that relates to a physical skill that is to be performed. (Marger, 1972)  The topics and tasks should be listed in a logical sequence:  A- By chronological, numerical.  By proceeding from treatment of simple to more complex content.  From an overall view to a detailed consideration of the components.  By proceeding from the concrete to the abstract. Examples :- Goal : To acquire knowledge and understanding the physiology of the digestive system and management of patients with digestive problems. Topic:     The digestive system The cardiovascular system Metabolic and endocrine function Urinary and renal function Example :Tasks: 1. Catheterization of the urinary bladder. 2. Irrigating an indwelling catheter. 3. Inserting a naso-gastric tube. 4. Obtaining the blood pressure. 5. Administration of subcutaneous insulin injection. Goal :- To present essential information and skills required for obtaining the blood pressure. Differences between a topic and task. (table I) Topic Related to subject Task content - Emphasis on accomplishing of physical actions. knowledge. - The learner learn certain facts, - Performing skills correctly. concepts and principles, - Use the information to make - Required physical activity. problem solving, - Knowledge based. - Physical skill based. Chapter 4 Learner Characteristics When plans are to be made for lecture or group instruction, we should obtain general indications of the academic and asocial characteristics of potential and actual learners. The instructional planner must obtain information a bout the abilities, needs, and interests of the learners to know the level at which topics are introduced. Characteristics of the student 1.Academic information The most easily obtainable information about individual learners. •School grade or training level completed. •Grade- point average for academic studies. •Score of intelligence test and basic skills such as reading, writing and mathematics •Special courses relating to major area of training. Note: Also we can obtain knowledge and skills information through pre-testing. 2- personal and social characteristics •Age and maturity level. •Motivation and attitude toward the subject. •Vocational aspirations. •Work experience These information can be obtained by observation, interviews and informational questionnaires. Disabled learners The category of disabled learners includes physically handicapped individuals and others with learning disabilities such as hearing and vision loss, speech impairment and mild mental retardation. Each type of handicapped requires special consideration. Instructional program may require extensive modification in order to serve handicapped learners appropriately. Characteristics of no conventional learners Non conventional learners are those learners whose preparation, behavior and expectations may not be conventional. These group include individuals from ethnic minorities, and learners with special disabilities.] Characteristics of adult learners 1.Adult enters the program with a high level of motivation and readiness to learn, they clearly know what goal they want to reach. 2.Adults brings to the course extensive background experience from both their personal and professional lives. 3.Adult may be less flexible than younger learner, before they accept change, they must see an advantage in doing so. 4.Adult want to be treated as adults, they want to participate in decision making. 5.Most mature adult are largely self- directed and independent. 6.Adult time is important consideration because they may have outside responsibilities. Learning styles There are two aspects of learning styles 1. Human brain hemisphere functions A. Left Hemisphere:- suited to the functions of language such as reading, speaking, and writing. B. Right. hemisphere: this side focus attention to the synthesis of information and problem solving. 2. Learning conditions A. physical Environment:- sound, light, temperature levels. B. Emotionality:- motivation, and taking responsibility. Chapter 5 Learning Objectives We are considering a procedure for systematically planning instruction in which the specification of learning objectives plays a key role . The objectives indicate what a learner should be able to do after completing a unit of instruction and are expressed in precise. Objectives can be grouped into (3) major categories. 1. Cognitive Domain. 2. Psychomotor Domain. 3. Affective Domain Bloom developed a taxonomy for the cognitive domain that is widely used and classified into (6) categories. Level of cognitive Domain 1. Knowledge :- recall of information. Verbs applicable to knowledge level are :- arrange, define, label, test, name, order, repeat. 2. Comprehension :- interpret information. Verbs Applicable classify, describe. discuss, explain, report, tell, translate, and review. 3. Application: (apply knowledge) Verbs applicable to Application level are Apply, choose, illustrate, prepare, practice, solve, use. 4. Analyses :- break down knowledge into parts and show relationship among parts. Verbs Applicable to analyses level are:- Arrange, collect, construct, formulate, manage, prepare, synthesize. 5. Synthesis :- Bring together parts of knowledge to form a whole and build relationships for a new situation Verbs applicable to evaluation level are:- Arrange, collect, construct, formulate, manage, prepare, synthesize 6. Evaluation :- make judgments Verbs applicable to evaluation level are:- Appraise, estimate, support, select, evaluate, predict, assess. Advantages of objectives 1- Provide a guide for the instructor and lets the students know clearly what the teacher intends. 2- Guide the teacher on what is to be taught, and how to design a logical sequence for learning. 3- Provide a guide to the selection of appropriate methods of instruction. 4- Provide an exact guide to construction of examinations. 5- Acts as criteria for evaluation of instruction. Writing cognitive objectives A learning objective is a statement that answer the question or what should the learner be able to do. Essential parts in writing the objectives 1. Action verbs :- To manage, operate, arrange, compare. 1. Subject content reference :- That describe the content being treated. Example: to define congestive heart failure. 3. Performance standards :- indicates the minimum level of acceptance. Example:  At least 8 out of 10 correct  within 3 minutes  in proper order  meeting the criteria stated in the manual Examples of learning objectives 1. To arrange the six steps or level of cognitive domains in proper order. 2. To List at least (3) Sings and symptoms of Myocardial Infarction according to medical surgical nursing book Note: Objectives derived from the goal and not from the purpose. Differences between goal and objectives Goals Objectives - Verbs can be used in the goal - Verb can be used in objectives are broad such as to know, are not broad, (specific) such as understand, become, and familiar to solve, apply, and choose - Derived from philosophy. - Not measurable - Derived from goal - Measurable SHOPING LIST OF VERBS Verbs APPLICABLE TO THE Six levels in The cognitive Domain 1. knowledge: Recall of information Arrange Define Duplicate Label List Match Memorize Name Order Recognize Relate Recall Repeat reproduce 2. comprehension : Interpret information in one’s own words Classify Describe Discuss Explain Express Recognize Report Restate Review Select Identify Indicate Locate Sort Tell Translate 3.Application Apply knowledge or generalization to new situation Apply Choose Demonstrate Dramatize Employ Illustrate Interpret Operate Prepare Practice Schedule Search Solve Use 4. Analysis break down knowledge into parts and show relationship among parts Analyze Appraise Calculate Categorize Compare Contrast Criticize Diagram Differentiate Discriminate Distinguish Examine Question Test 5. synthesis bring together parts of knowledge to form a whole and build relationships for new situations Arrange Assemble Collect Compose Construct Create Design Formulate Manage Organize Plan Prepare Propose Set up Synthesize Write 6. Evaluation make judgments on basis of given criteria Appraise Argue Assess Attack Choose Compare Defend Estimate Evaluate Judge Predict Score Select Support Value Chapter 6 Subject Content and Task Analysis Organizing Subject Content In organizing Subject Content, Gagne’ depends on the Level of learning ;- 1. Verbal information : The lowest Level of Learning, requires recall and memorization. Example : to name, define, describe . 2. Intellectual Skills : Concepts (relating together more than two facts) “or objects” Example : - apple watermelon Fruit - peach (concept) objects 3. Cognitive Strategy: The highest level of learning . (Problem Solving) If subject content is carefully organized the learners can become capable of solving Problem. Diagramming Subject Content Usually subject content is outlined from facts to generalization. Example : Topic :- The circulatory system . Arteries blood plasma capillaries Circulation Veins Lt. Atrium Rt. Atrium Heart Lt. Ventricle Valves Rt. Ventricle Two ways of Diagramming Subject Content 1. Inductive method : Starting from simple to complex (fact, concept, problem solving). 2. Deductive method : Starting from complex (general) to simple (fact) 1 ) Task analysis by using detailing Task Task analysis : A detailed inventory (list of things) of the knowing and doing components of the skill. (kemp, 1985) Example of task analysis by using detailing task Task:- Correct technique for insulin administration A. Equipment: •Insulin syringe •Alcohol swab •Tray. B. preparatory steps :•Wash your hands •Inspect the bottle for the type of insulin •wipe the top of the bottle with an alcohol swab. •Turn the bottle and syringe upside down in one hand and draw up the insulin dose into the syringe . C. Administration procedure :•Select the site of injection •Clean the site with alcohol swab •Push needle and inject the insulin •Pull the needle straight out quickly. •Dispose of the syringe and needle without recapping in the container 2) Task analysis by using flow charting : When elements or steps within a task may follow different paths, based on choices or decisions that must be made, it is useful to prepare a flow chart. Visually the chart shows the sequence for performing the task. Beginning or end of a task Information function Action or operation function decision point based on a question leads to alternative paths, including recycle to earlier step Connector , leading to another point in the flow chart Chapter 7 Teaching / Learning Activities Introduction: The purpose is to select and plan learning activities based on the content associated with the learning objectives in order to achieve maximum learner success. We need to provide some basis on which satisfactory decisions can be made about teaching methods and affective learning activities. This is necessary to enable the largest possible number of learners to master the learning objectives at an acceptable level of achievement in a reasonable amount of time. Teaching Method: The teacher way of deliver the information. Learning activities: What the student has to do in order to achieve the Goals and understand the content. The teaching method should. 1.Suit the teacher's ability. 2.Suit the student's ability. 3.Suit the type of teaching aimed. 4.Suit the time and place. 5.Suit the subject matter. 6.Suit the number of students. 7.Suit the interest and experience of the students. 8.suit the teacher relationship with the students Methods of teaching 1. lectures 2. demonstration 3. discussion groups 1) Lecture Definition: is one method of teaching in which the teacher give a lot of information about the topic and the student will take notes and its one way communication. How to prepare a lecture 1.use your objectives 2.Gather information. 3.Choose related information 4.Arrange information 5.Divide time 6.Plan the question you will ask 7.Use simple language 8.Summarize important points 9.Ask student what they know Delivery skills: 1. Personal warmth 2. Talk as you talk to one 3. Not too quick or slow 4. Your pitch of voice Characteristics related to lecture: 1. Compulsory attendance 2. Time of date 3. Length: attention declines after 20 minutes 4. Recall : 20% after one week 5. Delivery speed is related to the difficulty of materials 6. Tone of voice Advantage and Disadvantage of Lecture Advantage  very efficient method of transmitting  Disadvantage lack of involvement of the learner knowledge to a large number of students  Exerting a considerable saving on teacher  time.  Motivating function of a good lecturer.  Inability of the method to reach the need of the individual learner. Length and poor presentation effect. 2- Demonstration: It’s a visualized explanation of facts, concepts and procedure. Purpose: 1. Designed to show the learner how to perform certain psychomotor skill 2. Designed to show learner why certain things occur. Advantage and Disadvantage of Demonstration Advantage    Show learner the skill step by step. Each learner sees what is going on.   Disadvantage Costly if much equipment is involved. Need careful preparation. Provide immediate practice by the Need careful attention. learner himself.  Can be used with individual or group. 3- Discussion group: we have controlled discussion group and action group a- controlled discussion group: I will be a leader and I will give the topic to the student. b- Action group (role playing) Dramatization by two or more persons of a situation relating to a problem. Advantage of discussion group Two ways communication, which encourage critical thinking and problem solving within a group. Other types of Discussion group 1.puzzle group: Consist from 2-6 members, frequently used to provide learner involvement during a lecture. Purpose: a- providing the student with social activity. b- Helping to maintain their level of aroused during the lecture. 2. free discussion group: It is under the control of the group members and the teacher acts as an observer and resource person. The topic and direction are decided by the group. 3. learning through discussion group: Similar to the free discussion group, but the topic decided by the teacher rather than the learner. 4. Seminar group: It involves the reading of a paper by one group member, after which there is discussion of the paper by the total group. The teacher or one of the group member is the leader. Other types of action groups: In contrast to discussion group's action groups involves the members in activity, and involves a greater degree of activity on the part of their members. 1. Simulation: is an abstract representation of a real life situation that requires a learner or a team to solve a complex problem. Aspects of the situation that are close to reality are created, and the learner must perform manipulations, make responses and take actions to correct any deficiencies. 2. Games: A game is a formalized situation activity in which two or more participant or team complete a set of objectives relating to a training topic. The game takes place under a set of rules and procedures with information being provided required decision making and follow up actions. Chapter 8 Instructional Resources Introduction Audiovisual aids are important to the teaching process. In order not to limit communication with student to voice and gesture alone. Criteria for selecting the appropriate teaching learning material or equipment When you select any material or equipment you should consider 1.setting 2.number of students 3.objectives 4.learner variables reader, non reader) Purposes of using learning resources 1.motivate learners by stimulating interest in a subject 2.involve learners in learning experiences 3.Explain and illustrate subject content and performance skill We have two resources to support teaching learning activities 1.Non projected materials A. Diagram: are usually intended to show relationships between items and help explain processes. B. Chalk board :- Useful for displaying lists as outlines or may be used to communicate words, symbols and drawing. C. Models: Tangible simulations can be substitute for real items which are too big or small. Functions of Non Projected materials : 1.Promote correlation of information. 2.Assist organization of material 3.Meet my teaching methods 4.Help to Explain process. (More understanding and clarification of the subject) 2- Projected materials A. Overhead correlation of information. B. Slide and slide projector. A. Overhead projector: it is very simple machine with few components requiring special maintenance procedures such as keeping it as clean as possible. To prolong the life of the lamp allow it to cool before moving the projector, and move the projector with care. Advantage : 1. can be used for a large audience 2. Presenter facing audience. 3. Easy to prepare. 4. It’s a very simple machine. Disadvantage : 1. Electricity required 2. Equipment for making transparencies are expensive 3. Usually restricted to teacher use. B. Slide and slide projector: the term slide refers to a small- format photographic transparency . The size is 2x2 inches or 5x5cm. advantage 1. It's easy to produce your own slides. 2. The automatic projectors allow the presenter to remain at the front of the room. 3. Easily to handle it 4. Can be used for small and large group. 5. More flexible than filmstrips or other fixed sequent materials. Disadvantage 1. Electricity Required 2. Equipment for making slides are expensive 3. They can easily become disorganized 4. Sides are susceptible to accumulation of dust and finger prints. 5. Careless storage or handling can easily lead to permanent damage. Factors to consider in making final media 1- Preparation costs. 2- Time to prepare. 3- Maintenance and storage. 4- Students preference. 5- Instructors preference. Chapter 9 Support Services Introduction Once the actual instruction, teaching learning activities and resources has been planned then a attention should be given to some number of services necessary to support the instruction. These services are:- 1. Budget: All new programs require funds to get started. Any institution interested in supporting its instructional program must provide money for development and implementation of the program. We need money during the preparation and implementation of the program. A- During the preparation of the program, workshop and lesson plan we need money for 1- Preparation of instructional materials including transparencies and multiple copies. 2- Development of evaluation tools to evaluate the learner and program. 3- Cost for tryouts, including consumable materials, as insulin syringes 4- Administration cost, as telephone, and overhead projector. B- During implementation of the program 1. faculty and staff salaries 2. consumable and damaged materials 3. maintenance of equipment 4. overhead charges for facilities and services 2- Facilities: a- room for presentation to group of average (40) b- Small room for meeting. c- Staff meeting and working room. 3- Material: a- transparencies. b- Preparing graphic. c- Taking pictures. d- Making slides. e- Video taping. f- Tape recorder. 4- Equipment: Decisions about equipment usually depend on your choice of materials. a. overhead projector. b. Recorder c. Camera d. Video 5- Personal services a. Instructor or teacher b. Instructional designer (this person must be experienced with the instructional design process and know about teaching learning methods c. Evaluation specialist • • formative Evaluation (during program) summative evaluation (at the end of the program) d. Secretary to handle all office work including typing, and correspondence. 6- Time and schedules. To do schedule for all participant. Chapter 10 Evaluating Learning There is a direct relationship between evaluation and objective. Some suggestions mentioned that as soon as an objective are listed, you should immediately write the examination questions relating to the objectives Evaluating learning: Is the last of the four essential elements in the instructional design process. Types of evaluation 1. Formative Evaluation: used to know how well the program is serving the objectives and done during the course teaching. Example quizzes during and after lecture 2. Summative Evaluation: It measured the degree to which the major outcomes are attained and it's done at the end of the course. Example •Final examination. 3- Performance Evaluation: performance evaluation can be done by Using checklist. Example: •Catheterization 4- Objectives evaluation: objectives can be evaluated be using Questionnaire. Types of questionnaire A. Open ended question: the teacher gives questions and the student allowed time to answer these questions by their own words. Advantage :- Easy to construct it. Disadvantage :- Difficult to analyze it. B. Closed ended question: The teacher gives questions with many alternative answer and the students should select the proper answer. Types of closed ended questions a. Dichotomous items: yes of no questions b. multiple- choice questions: The teacher put the questions with 3-5 alternative answer c. check list Items that included several questions related to the topic. 5- pre and post-test evaluation a. pre-test: a measurement of learning before starting the topic b. Post-test: a measurement of learning when study of a topic is concluded. Validity and reliability of tests there are two important features that tests must fulfill in order for them properly to accomplish the job for which they are intended. Definition of validity : the ability of the instrument to measure what it is intended to measure. Internal validity : the ability of the independent variable (IV) to cause change on the dependent variables not other extraneous variable. External validity: the degree to which the finding of the study can be generalized to other similar sitting. Types of validity a. Face and content validity: the question is submitted to a panel with experience and knowledge of the topic, who make suggestion about the adequacy of the instrument. b. Criterion related validity: comparing the finding with data collected on the same phenomenon by other method. c. Construct validity: how well the questionnaire measures a particular construct as (self esteem). Reliability: is the degree of consistency of an instrument Types and reliability 1. Test- retest: is used to measure the stability of the instrument by administering the questionnaire in two occasions and comparing the responses. 2. alternate from test: asking the same question with other method 3. spilt-half test: dividing the instrument into two parts (e.g. 10 questions) the first five score should equal the second five questions to be sure of homogenous of the questions.