Local and National Impact
NYC Justice Corps Mural
Table of ConTenTs
Letter from Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg Letter from Deputy Mayor for Health and Human Services Linda I. Gibbs Letter from CEO Executive Director Veronica M. White Executive Summary Creating Economic Opportunity National Replication: The Social Innovation Fund Poverty Research: Policy Affects Poverty Appendices A. Program Descriptions B. Research and Evaluation Reports C. Program Performance Data D. Conferences and Presentations Acknowledgements
iii iv v 1 10 24 38 44
MillionTrees Training Program participants during training
In October, I visited a Young Adult Literacy Program site in the Bronx and met Louis, a 20-yearold young man proud of having earned his GED and looking forward to beginning college. Louis dropped out of high school at age 16 thinking he could earn money to help his family. Not finding a lot of opportunity, he described himself as having no urgency, no motivation, and just drifting for several years. He described his story as being fairly typical. The Young Adult Literacy Program is a great example of the Center for Economic Opportunity’s (CEO) work. CEO worked with the Department of Youth and Community Development, the public libraries, and community organizations to offer young people a way to reconnect to both school and work. The program includes an alternative educational environment, quality instruction, and a paid internship that offers valuable work experience and income. This combination of work, education, and support has been so successful that CEO now has several programs with these key elements. The labor market is tight for young people who lack experience, and the earning potential for anyone who lacks a degree or other credentials is limited. New York has fared better than most other cities during the national economic downturn, but there is still so much work to be done. CEO is making sure that when young people are ready for a second chance, we help them make the most of it.
Michael R. Bloomberg Mayor
ive years ago we announced CEO and its major new anti-poverty agenda. CEO delivered on that promise by implementing and testing over 50 new programs and developing an alternative poverty measure that has since been adopted by the Federal Census Bureau. CEO programs have been instrumental in developing a comprehensive set of education and employment supports for disconnected young adults, improving the public workforce system, and building the asset development field. This summer we announced a new campaign to address the barriers that stand in the way of young black and Latino males. The Young Men’s Initiative is a set of programs and policies that span employment, health, education, and re-entry issues. CEO will collaborate in the implementation of this important new initiative by applying its diligent oversight and evaluation resources to the challenge. In addition, several CEO programs will be expanded under the initiative, including Jobs-Plus, the Young Adult Internship Program, the Young Adult Literacy Program, and others. These are issues that matter; they are worthy of Mayoral attention and need national action. In taking them on, New York City has marshaled its resources for the remarkable task of reducing both poverty and racial disparities. We have engaged a wide set of agencies, funders, providers, community leaders, experts, and young people themselves to carry out this mission. The city is so well served by the highly skilled and effective team at CEO, matching innovation with skill in implementation and integrity in evaluation to solutions for some of the City’s most vexing challenges. I thank the Mayor for taking on these challenges and entrusting us with the task. Sincerely,
Linda I. Gibbs Deputy Mayor for Health and Human Services
ver the last five years, CEO has become a catalyst for innovative and effective programs. CEO’s work to enhance the City’s asset development, education, training, and employment efforts have resulted in dozens of new initiatives that have helped thousands of low-income New Yorkers. These achievements have helped CEO to attract and direct new resources to effective anti-poverty programs. Furthermore, its success has drawn national recognition to CEO’s work. In the coming years, CEO will advance its strategic initiatives and have an impact in New York City and beyond. CEO works with many dedicated and talented partners to incorporate best practices and ensure that programs are effective. As a result, many CEO pilots, including the Office of Financial Empowerment and CUNY ASAP, are being fully integrated into City agency operations. Our successful programs are also being expanded through the Mayor’s Young Men’s Initiative. In addition, we are expanding five of CEO’s evidence-based programs in New York and cities across the country through the Federal Social Innovation Fund. CEO also continues to lead local and national efforts to improve measures of poverty – work that informs the Census Bureau’s new Supplemental Poverty Measure. CEO’s approach to identifying promising programs and building evidence was recently recognized by Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government with the Innovations in American Government Award. The honor of this award belongs to many: to the Mayor, the Deputy Mayor, my staff, agency leadership, our public and private funders, providers, researchers, policymakers, and — most importantly — the individuals and families that we serve. While we reflect on our successes since 2006, we are also thinking ahead to the next five years. Our work remains relevant as long as families struggle to make ends meet, and CEO will continue to look for new opportunities to design, assess, and expand effective anti-poverty programs. We look forward to sharing the results of these efforts in the years to come. Sincerely,
Veronica M. White Executive Director
Left: Young Adult Internship Program participant Above: Deputy Mayor Linda Gibbs and CEO Executive Director Veronica White at Harvard University’s Kennedy School
he nYC Center for economic opportunity was established in 2006 as a bold new effort to identify effective anti-poverty strategies and use new resources to enhance the City’s ongoing work to help low-income new Yorkers. over the past five years, Ceo has demonstrated its commitment to developing new models and expanding successful programs by launching more than 50 new program and policy initiatives.
2 | Center for Economic Opportunity
CEO’s mission is a unique one within city government: to pilot new anti-poverty initiatives, conduct rigorous evaluation, replicate what works, and eliminate those programs that fail to demonstrate results. CEO recently received national recognition for its approach with Harvard University’s 2011 Innovations in American Government Award. CEO was also honored with the 2011 Citizens Budget Commission Public Service Innovation Award. These awards are a significant acknowledgement of CEO’s excellence and success. Equipped with strong results, the Center is using City, Federal, and philanthropic funds to expand its most successful initiatives in New York City and replicate its projects in cities across the country. CEO’s evaluation and replication agenda is essential to improving services and building a body of evidence that can inform Federal policy. CEO is now deepening and expanding its anti-poverty work through several new initiatives.
opportunities. Through collaboration with City agencies and dozens of community organizations, these new programs seek to expand communitybased services for probationers and other courtinvolved young adults, reduce neighborhood violence, improve access to reproductive health services, and increase educational and employment opportunities. CEO will lead the implementation of the majority of YMI programs, including both new pilots and new sites of CEO’s successful programs, such as the Young Adult Literacy Program, the Young Adult Internship Program, Jobs-Plus, and the NYC Justice Corps.
Social Innovation Fund
The Federal Social Innovation Fund supports the expansion of CEO pilots in New York City and broadens CEO’s reach by supporting the replication of its promising programs in cities across the country. In July 2010, the Mayor’s Fund to Advance New York City and CEO were awarded a fiveyear Social Innovation Fund (SIF) grant from the Federal Corporation for National and Community Service to replicate and test five CEO programs in partnership with private funders, nonprofit providers, and MDRC, a nonprofit research organization. In 2011, all 18 of the Mayor’s Fund/CEO SIF sites launched, providing new and important services to low-income residents in New York and seven other cities. The five CEO programs will further the education, employment, and asset development of low-income adults and families, and combat poverty across a diverse cross-section of America. By working together to pilot these promising programs and share lessons learned, the participating cities seek to build a national body of evidence to inform policy at the Federal level — investment that is essential to bringing promising new anti-poverty programs to scale.
Participants at the Transportation Career Center
Young Men’s Initiative
CEO programs are at the core of Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg’s Young Men’s Initiative, announced in August 2011. The Young Men’s Initiative (YMI) is a comprehensive new effort to address the disparities that hinder the advancement of young Black and Latino men. This cross-agency enterprise includes broad policy changes and agency reforms over the next three years, and invests approximately $43 million annually in programs that connect young men to education, employment, and mentoring
CEO’s research has advanced the understanding of poverty in New York City and created a measure of poverty that is more useful to policymakers. In contrast to the official measure, the CEO Poverty Measure accounts for a wide variety of programs that bolster the resources of low-income families and compares those resources against a more realistic set of poverty thresholds. The result is an
Executive Summary | 3
informative indicator of the extent to which public policies are meeting the needs of low-income New Yorkers. In 2008, CEO issued its first working paper on the alternative poverty measure, making New York City the first government in the country to revise the outdated and inaccurate official measure. CEO has since issued additional reports to update the measure and show changes in the poverty rate over time. Inspired and informed by CEO’s successes, the U.S. Census Bureau released its first report on a new Supplemental Poverty Measure in September 2011. This new Census Bureau measure, like CEO’s measure, is based on recommendations made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1995. A recent CEO report shows that the 2009 poverty rate for New York City was 19.9 percent, compared to the official rate of 17.3 percent. More importantly, the report sheds light on the important role that food stamps and tax credits played in preventing a sharp rise in the local poverty rate during the 2008-2009 recession. At a time when many in Washington, D.C., are looking to reduce these important work supports, CEO’s approach offers an alternative perspective: policy does affect poverty. These three initiatives — the Young Men’s Initiative, the Social Innovation Fund, and CEO’s poverty research — are powerful examples of CEO’s accomplishments over the past year. These achievements show that CEO’s importance lies not only in its ability to produce impactful programs, but also as a replicable model of excellence within government. CEO has demonstrated that its approach is an effective way to develop new models, ensure robust implementation, and hold programs accountable for results. In the current economic climate, CEO is more relevant than ever.
show that taxpayer and philanthropic funds can be invested wisely to support innovative new approaches. Additional information on CEO programs and evaluation reports can be found at the end of this report. Appendix A includes descriptions of CEO’s program and policy initiatives. The CEO evaluation reports, including analyses of CEO’s workforce, conditional cash transfer, and youth development programs, among others, are listed in Appendix B and are available on CEO’s website www.nyc.gov/ceo. Appendix C includes performance data that show the impact of CEO’s initiatives. A list of presentations given by CEO staff at conferences can be found in Appendix D.
Employment Works participant meeting with staff member
This report provides compelling examples of what a small, but highly effective and creative government entity can achieve. It also explains how CEO’s initial pilots have been expanded to help even more individuals and how the Center is deepening its evaluation agenda to understand how programs change and adapt during replication. These results
4 | Center for Economic Opportunity
RePlICaTInG nYC InnoVaTIon
sTRaTeGY Ceo PRoGRaMs
The Center for Economic Opportunity (CEO) designs and tests new anti-poverty initiatives in collaboration with City agencies.
CEO pursues a rigorous monitoring and evaluation agenda, working with realtime performance data and independent evaluators, including MDRC, Metis, Westat, and the University of North Carolina (UNC).
neW YoRK CITY RePlICaTIon
CEO seeks to expand and replicate successful programs. Several CEO programs will be expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI), a threeyear action plan to support the well-being of Black and Latino young adults.
CEO shares its findings with stakeholders nationwide to inform policy and practice. CEO is also replicating and testing five of its promising programs in cities across the country through the Federal Social Innovation Fund (SIF).
Asset building and saving strategies to promote selfsufficiency.
Financial Empowerment Centers (DCA/OFE) offer free one-on-one professional financial counseling at community-based organizations and mobile sites. Managed by the City’s Office of Financial Empowerment, counselors conduct individual counseling sessions, review credit reports, create budgets, and help New Yorkers to reduce debt and build assets. $aveNYC (DCA/OFE) provided a unique opportunity for eligible low-income tax filers to use a portion of their Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) to build savings by earning a 50 percent match contribution for maintaining the account balance for one year. Jobs-Plus (HRA & NYCHA) is a public housing-based, workforce development program that offers employment and training services, community support for work, and incentives designed to help ”make work pay.”
Financial Empowerment Centers served more 13,500 clients during the first three years, helping residents paydown more than $4.2 million in debt.
Financial Empowerment Centers will be expanded with City funds in 2012, with the goal of providing 10,000 counseling sessions to New Yorkers each year. The City’s Protect Your Money campaign, managed by the Office of Financial Empowerment, now includes information on free and low-cost education and training opportunities as part of YMI.
$aveNYC results show that individuals with low and very low incomes can and do save when provided simple and safe banking products. During the three-year pilot, approximately 80 percent of participants saved for a full year, many for the first time (UNC). Jobs-Plus is based on a national demonstration that resulted in increased earnings for residents for at least seven years after the program’s full implementation, relative to a control group (MDRC). CEO’s Jobs-Plus replication successfully engaged its target community and placed over 300 participants in jobs in its first two years (CEO). Sector-Focused Career Centers (Transportation) participants are placed at higher rates, have higher hourly wages, and work more hours, compared to Workforce1 Centers’ clients (Westat). Jobs-Plus will be expanded to new sites in up to seven target communities. The new sites are expected to connect nearly 4,000 NYCHA residents to jobs over three years. The Jobs-Plus expansion is supported by YMI.
SIF SaveUSA offers matched savings accounts to low-income tax filers, building on the savings opportunity presented by the EITC. The program is offered in New York City, Newark, San Antonio, and Tulsa. SIF Jobs-Plus is being replicated in New York City and San Antonio. Innovations from the CEO Jobs-Plus pilot, including the “membership” model, are being incorporated into the New York and San Antonio SIF Jobs-Plus programs.
Stable employment and career advancement to provide a clear pathway out of poverty.
Sector-Focused Career Centers (SBS) are job placement and training Centers that focus on a single economic sector. Each Center strives to meet the specific employer needs of that sector and provide lowincome workers with access to jobs with career advancement opportunities.
Expanded Training Opportunities will be available through YMI at existing Sector-Focused Career Centers, including training for Emergency Medical Technicians, paramedics, commercial truck drivers, diesel mechanics, and other in-demand jobs.
SIF WorkAdvance is a blended model that combines sector and advancement strategies. WorkAdvance is designed to assist adults obtain employment in targeted sectors that have room for advancement. The program is offered in New York City, Cleveland, Tulsa, and Youngstown.
Advance at Work (SBS) increases income for employed low-wage workers through job upgrades, access to work supports, and asset-building activities.
Advance at Work participants have higher placement rates, higher hourly wages, and more weekly work hours, compared to traditional Workforce1 Centers’ clients (Westat).
Executive Summary | 5
NYC Justice Corps (CUNY) helps young adults involved with the criminal justice system to reintegrate into their communities through community benefit projects, paid internships, educational opportunities, and support.
The NYC Justice Corps builds on the national Civic Justice Corps (CJC) model that has been supported by the U.S. Department of Labor. The CEO program is currently undergoing a random assignment evaluation (Westat).
neW YoRK CITY RePlICaTIon
NYC Justice Corps will be expanded by YMI to serve additional high-need neighborhoods. Justice Community (DOP) builds on elements of NYC Justice Corps, including reparative service to the communities of court-involved young adults. It also offers communities the flexibililty to configure education, work, and support services to meet the needs of participants. Young Adult Internship Program is adding four new sites and expanding capacity at five existing sites to serve an additional 501 disconnected youth per year. The program will undergo a random assignment evaluation.
NYC Justice Corps was featured prominently at the 2011 Annual Corps Network Forum in Washington, DC as a model Civic Justice Corps (CJC) program. The CEO program strongly influenced the development of a CJC model funded by the U.S. Department of Labor that is now operating in several states across the country.
Re-entry services to reduce recidivism.
Education, employment, and support services to disconnected young adults.
Young Adult Internship Program (DYCD) provides short-term paid internships, placement into jobs, education or advanced training, and follow-up services to disconnected youth ages 16-24.
Young Adult Internship Program data suggest that the program is effective in reengaging disconnected youth. Approximately one-half of the youth who entered the program remained engaged in employment or education nine months after completing the internship (Westat). Young Adult Literacy Program showed through evaluation that adding paid internshipsconditioned on attendance at the education services led to increased attendance and program retention, as well as an increase in participants’ math gains (Westat). Opportunity NYC – Family Rewards preliminary results show that the program reduced poverty and improved a number of outcomes, including rates of school attendance and grade advancement, standardized test results, and preventive dental and health care (MDRC).
Young Adult Literacy Program (DYCD & Libraries) offers literacy and math instruction, work readiness, support services, and paid internships at libraries and community-based organizations. The Opportunity NYC – Family Rewards (CEO) demonstration used cash incentives to reduce short-term material hardship and support long-term human capital development. This familyfocused program offered rewards for activities related to educational effort and achievement, preventive health care, and employment and training. CEO adapted the National Academy of Sciences methodology to develop a new poverty measure. CEO issues annual reports updating the poverty measure and poverty rate for New York City.
Young Adult Literacy Program is adding 5 new sites, and DOP is launching 5 sites tailored to probationers, both as part of YMI.
SIF Project Rise builds on the success of CEO’s young adult programs by pairing education and paid internships. This twelvemonth intervention targets disconnected young adults ages 18 to 24 in New York City, Kansas City, and Newark.
ConDITIonal CasH TRansfeR
Innovative antipoverty strategy modeled on the success of programs in more than 20 countries worldwide.
SIF Family Rewards is a second-generation conditional cash transfer program that builds on the preliminary results of Opportunity NYC, focusing on the most promising health, education, and employment incentives. The program is offered in New York City and Memphis.
Improve the poverty measure to better reflect the cost of living and of work supports, and assist agency efforts to target programs to individuals in need.
The CEO Poverty Measure was first released in 2008, showing a greater number of people in poverty, particularly older New Yorkers, relative to the official measure. CEO’s Policy Affects Poverty report, released in 2011, showed how the increased generosity of food stamps and the expansion of tax credits due to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act offset what would have otherwise been a sharp rise in the City’s poverty rate, 2008 to 2009.
CEO’s Poverty Research Team supports agencies in their efforts to develop new programs. CEO’s Research Team identifies populations in need and works with the City’s Young Men’s Initiative to design and target programs, and enhance outreach efforts.
The U.S. Census Bureau released a research report on the new Supplemental Poverty Measure. This effort was informed by the work of CEO, which released its first report on an alternative measure for New York City in 2008. Both the CEO measure and new Supplemental Measure provide a more realistic picture of poverty by accounting for families’ resources and expenses.
6 | Center for Economic Opportunity
MillionTreesNYC Training Program
Neysha Vasquez is a graduate of the MillionTreesNYC Training Program. “Chainsaw safety was my favorite training,” says Ms. Vasquez. As part of the program, Ms. Vasquez was placed at The High Line, an historic elevated freight railway that has been transformed into new urban green space. She also led Street Tree Care classes, showing school children how to care for the trees that line sidewalks throughout the City. Through this work, Ms. Vasquez says that she was able to “ignite a spark in children” by increasing their environmental awareness. The MillionTreesNYC Training Program prepares unemployed, out-of-school youth for jobs in the green-collar industry by building their skills in arboriculture and ecological restoration. For Ms. Vasquez, this was an opportunity both for her to earn money and to grow as a person. Ms. Vasquez says that the program helped to develop participants’ public speaking skills and leadership abilities, and built confidence as the Trainees witnessed their ideas put into action. Ms. Vasquez summed it up well, saying “You get out of it what you put into it; the harder you work, the more you succeed.” Ms. Vasquez plans to go to school to study sustainable development. “I want to do something that aligns with my personal ethics on a personal and global level, leaving a positive footprint,” she says. “I always try to inspire myself and think big picture. It helps me to move forward.”
Executive Summary | 7
CEO designs and evaluates innovative new anti-poverty programs and builds on evidence to invest in programs with the biggest impact.
Asset Development Asset building and saving strategies promote self-sufficiency and long-term economic success. • Office of Financial Empowerment · Cities for Financial Empowerment · Financial Education Network · Financial Empowerment Centers · Tax Campaign • Earned Income Tax Credit Mailing • Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards • Opportunity NYC-Work Rewards
Workforce Development Stable employment and career advancement provide a clear pathway out of poverty.
Programs & Policy
• Business Solutions Training Funds= • Community Partners • Employment Works=
• Food Handlers Certification • Jobs-Plus= • Nursing Career Ladders: LPN
• Nursing Career Ladders: RN/BSN • NYC Training Guide • Sector-Focused Career Centers=
Education & Employment for High-Risk Youth Every effort to graduate a child to the next level is an investment in moving them out of poverty.● • Advocate Intervene Mentor (AIM)k • Archesk • Community Education Pathways to Success (CEPS)= • Cornerstone Mentoring Programk● • CUNY ASAP • CUNY Fatherhood Academyk • CUNY Prep● • ECHOESk • IMPACT: Peer Mentoring for Young Adult Literacyk • Justice Community=● • Justice Scholars= ● • MillionTreesNYC Training Program • NYC Justice Corps= • Project Ceasefirek● • School-Based Health Centers • Teen ACTION● • Teen and Young Adult Health Programk●● • Young Adult Internship Program=● • Young Adult Literacy Program= • Youth Financial Empowerment ●
Policy & Practices Policies and practices designed to improve quality of life for low-income families.● • Food Policy Coordinator · Healthy Bodegas Initiative · Healthy Meals/Food Standards • Increase FSET for Workforce Development • Child Care Tax Credit● • Language Access
social Innovation fund
National Replication The Federal Social Innovation Fund (SIF), administered by the Corporation for National and Community Service, is a public-private partnership that seeks to grow high-impact organizations delivering proven solutions. CEO, in partnership with the Mayor’s Fund, MDRC, and private funders, is working to replicate five CEO initiatives in New York and seven cities across the country. ● • Family Rewards • Jobs-Plus ● ● • Project Rise ● • SaveUSA • WorkAdvance●
evaluation & Research
Program Evaluation Evaluate programs and policies to determine success at reducing poverty and increasing self-sufficiency. • Conduct evaluations to assess the effectiveness of programs. • Determine the ways that CEO initiatives affect overall agency operations. • Share lessons learned through reports, briefings, and conferences. Poverty Research Improve understanding of poverty and the impact of anti-poverty programs and policies.● • Created the CEO Poverty Measure, a local measure of poverty for New York City. • Collaborate with other states and cities to develop similar measures. • Support the adoption of a similar poverty measure by the Federal government. • Launch additional research projects to support citywide initiatives.
CEO program expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative. New program funded by the Young Men’s Initiative.
CEO programs exceeded targets, including the Community Partners program, which placed more than 2,000 people into jobs in one year, and CUNY Prep, which achieved a higher graduation rate than any GED program citywide The Office of Financial Empowerment led several new initiatives, including $aveNYC and the Cities for Financial Empowerment Coalition CEO released early implementation reports describing the evidence base, design, and performance targets for 17 of the Center’s programs CEO, MDRC, and The Rockefeller Foundation created the Conditional Cash Transfer Learning Network to share lessons learned from Opportunity NYC CEO issued its first report on an alternative poverty measure, making New York City the first local government to implement an alternative to the outdated Federal measure
Thirty-one programs were successfully implemented by CEO and partner agencies within a 12-month period The first CUNY ASAP students started classes at the City’s six community colleges CEO released its Strategy and Implementation Report, which provides an overview of the CEO approach and the details of each new program Opportunity NYC, the nation’s first conditional cash transfer program, was launched House Committee on Ways and Means invited testimony from New York City on Measuring Poverty in America New York State Governor Spitzer signed enabling legislation for the City’s Child Care Tax Credit CEO selected Westat and Metis Associates as the Center’s independent evaluators Mayor Bloomberg signed Executive Order No. 117 institutionalizing CEO within the Mayor’s Office
Mayor Bloomberg established the Commission for Economic Opportunity, chaired by Geoffrey Canada and Richard Parsons, to analyze the causes, scope, and consequences of poverty The Commission presented its findings to the Mayor, urging the City to focus on three populations: the Working Poor, Young Adults age 16-24, and Families with Children Mayor Bloomberg established the NYC Center for Economic Opportunity under the leadership of Executive Director Veronica M. White CEO and the Department of Consumer Affairs launched the first CEO initiative, the Office of Financial Empowerment
CEO, in partnership with the Mayor’s Fund to Advance New York City and MDRC, received a Social Innovation Fund award from the Corporation for National and Community Service to expand promising programs, including $aveNYC, Jobs-Plus, Family Rewards, young adult education and internship programs, and the sectorfocused and career advancement workforce initiatives CUNY ASAP surpassed graduation targets, with more than half of ASAP students graduating in three years MDRC released the first evaluation report on Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards, highlighting impacts for high school students and families CEO released Evidence & Impact, a report that highlights program impacts and CEO’s ongoing evaluation agenda Additional reports were released, including Workforce Innovations, which compares the outcomes for three CEO/SBS programs with traditional Workforce1 clients A second working paper on the CEO Poverty Measure was released, examining poverty in New York City from 2005-2008 The U.S. Census Bureau announced plans to develop a Supplemental Poverty Measure, following in the steps of New York City New York City won the National League of Cities’ Municipal Excellence Award for the City’s Financial Empowerment Centers CEO won the Harvard University Kennedy School’s Ash Center for Democratic Governance Innovations in American Government Award Mayor Bloomberg launched the $127 million Young Men’s Initiative, designed to remove barriers to success for young Black and Latino males, and builds on CEO programs CEO, the Mayor’s Fund, and MDRC collaborated to launch 18 programs in eight cities through the Federal Social Innovation Fund CEO released Replicating Our Results, a report that details CEO’s successful programs, provides an overview of the CEO poverty measure, and describes ongoing efforts to replicate five of CEO’s most promising initiatives in New York City and cities across the country CEO issued Policy Affects Poverty, a working paper on the CEO poverty measure from 2005-2009 which shows that policies designed to combat poverty actually have an effect on the poverty rate The U.S. Census Bureau released a research report on the new Supplemental Poverty Measure, an effort informed by the work of CEO, which released its first report on an alternative measure for New York City in 2008 CEO won the Citizens Budget Commission’s annual Prize for Public Service Innovation
CEO and the Department of Small Business Services used Federal stimulus funds to scale-up CEO programs, including the SectorFocused Career Centers and Advance at Work Mayor Bloomberg and Agriculture Secretary Vilsack announced a $2 million grant to create jobs for CEO’s MillionTreesNYC Training Program participants CEO released Early Achievements & Lessons Learned, a report that takes a look at the first two years of program planning and implementation The first evaluation reports were released on the LPN Program, NYC Justice Corps, and the Young Adult Internship Program MDRC released preliminary results from Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards CEO was a finalist for the Harvard University Kennedy School’s Ash Center for Democratic Governance Innovations in American Government Award
Creating Economic Opportunity
Left: Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg visiting a Business Solution Training Funds site Above: Participants at a Jobs-Plus youth fair at Jefferson Houses
he one in five new Yorkers who live in poverty face significant challenges, compelling Mayor Michael R. bloomberg to convene the 2006 Commission for economic opportunity. after several months of consultation with stakeholders and experts, the Commission recommended that the City develop and test new initiatives, and pursue an improved measure of poverty.
12 | Center for Economic Opportunity
The Commission for Economic Opportunity recommended that the City build on successful precedents and existing initiatives. The Commission also recommended that the City design and test innovative new program models. This approach, the Commission argued, would ensure that every dollar spent would either produce results or build evidence to inform future work — or both. The Mayor established the NYC Center for Economic Opportunity (CEO) to implement these recommendations and inaugurate the City’s new anti-poverty agenda. Strategically located in the Mayor’s Office, CEO manages a $100 million annual public-private Innovation Fund to support its programs and policy initiatives. The Innovation Fund is structured so that dollars are allocated to the Fund rather than to specific budget lines within City agencies. CEO then measures and evaluates programs each year. Programs and policies with strong performance records receive continued funding and are expanded, while those that do not show positive results are terminated. Over the last five years, CEO has developed, implemented, and evaluated more than 50 programs in partnership with 28 City agencies and nearly 200 community-based providers in the areas of asset development, health, education, and employment. CEO programs have served over 280,000 New Yorkers and reached an additional 2 million residents through outreach and marketing campaigns, online guides, and other resources. As charged, CEO has ended programs that failed to produce results and reinvested in other promising innovations. CEO’s successful programs are now being replicated at new sites in New York City and other parts of the country. These programs are informing local agency practice and national policy. Government partners from around the world have been inspired to create similar vehicles for innovation and are requesting CEO’s guidance. This expansion acknowledges that even in tough economic times government can help constituents develop their skills, secure jobs, increase their earnings, and protect their health — if resources are strategically directed to what works.
The Commission also charged the City to create a more accurate picture of poverty for New York City. Unlike the official Federal measure, the CEO Poverty Measure, first released in 2008, more accurately incorporates the needs and resources of today’s households and takes into account regional considerations, such as housing costs, that differentiate New York City from other localities. The CEO measure tells the real story about how New Yorkers are faring economically and even captures the impact of public policy. Experts continue to recognize CEO’s commitment to innovation and applaud the Center’s many accomplishments. Recently, Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government granted CEO its prestigious Innovations in American Government Award. The Stanford Social Innovation Review featured CEO in its winter 2012 issue as a noteworthy example of innovation in government. CEO was also honored with the 2011 Citizens Budget Commission Prize for Public Service Innovation.
Innovations in American Government Award “Poverty is one of the great challenges of our time, so I am particularly pleased that the Center for Economic Opportunity was selected as our Innovations in American Government Award winner. The award honors the Center’s efforts to support the working poor at key transition points — starting school, entering the workforce, and having a family.” David T. Ellwood Dean, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Creating Economic Opportunity | 13
Replicating & Expanding Programs
A number of CEO’s pilot programs have produced measurable, positive results and are now being replicated and expanded with new funding. These programs have also produced evidence that shapes local and national policy. CEO’s successful programs prove that resources spent well can produce a sum greater than its parts. CEO is working in partnership with seven other cities to replicate five of its successful programs through the Federal Social Innovation Fund (SIF). CEO also helped to inform the Census Bureau’s new Supplemental Poverty Measure, released in November 2011. City agencies are also integrating successful CEO programs into core services in order to serve additional participants. CEO deems a program “successful” if it meets three criteria: the program strategy produces measurable positive results, the managing agency demonstrates its ongoing commitment to the program by integrating the model, or similar strategies, into broader agency activities, and the managing agency invests in the model by dedicating additional resources. More than one year after CEO graduated the first group of pilot programs, many continue to thrive and are being expanded by City agencies.
Unfortunately, the majority of these students encounter challenges that prevent them from ever reaching graduation, and less than 20 percent of community college students nationwide graduate within six years.1 To address this problem, CUNY ASAP set its sights on an ambitious goal: to increase the community college graduation rate to 50 percent within three years. Established in the fall of 2007 with CEO funding, CUNY ASAP operates at all six of CUNY’s community colleges. Program elements include full-time study, a limited number of majors, consolidated class schedules, academic advisement, career development, and other academic support. The program also offers financial supports to promote full-time study, including tuition assistance, free use of textbooks, and monthly MetroCards. In surveys and focus groups, CUNY ASAP students report that one-on-one relationships with program staff and the structured support they receive are instrumental in helping them to graduate. CUNY ASAP employs a rigorous evaluation agenda that includes quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Program staff rely on data to assess program efficacy and make adjustments to programming that will improve participant success. CUNY released a preliminary outcome report in November 2009. ASAP is now involved in a random assignment study led by MDRC, with the first impact report expected in 2012. So far, CUNY ASAP has exceeded its ambitious goal. The fall 2007 cohort achieved a 55 percent threeyear graduation rate — higher than the 24 percent graduation rate for the comparison group and three times the national urban community college graduation rate of 16 percent. These promising results have persisted, even for the subsequent, higher-need cohorts that began in 2009. Comprised primarily of low-income students with some developmental education needs, the fall 2009 cohort has so far achieved a two-year graduation rate of 31 percent — a rate very close to the twoyear graduation rate experienced by the initial cohort of ASAP students.2 These findings show that the CUNY ASAP model is similarly effective
The City University of New York Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (CUNY ASAP) initiative is designed to increase community college graduation rates. Last year, CEO designated CUNY ASAP a success and gave ongoing funding and decisionmaking authority to the agency. The program continues to perform well. CUNY plans to use agency funding to expand the program from 1,000 students to more than 2,500 students by the fall of 2012. CUNY ASAP removes barriers to graduation by offering participating students a prescribed course to degree completion and a variety of academic and financial supports. Each year, thousands of students intent on pursuing a degree enter community colleges across the country.
1 U.S. Department of Education. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS), 1996. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2003). 2 CUNY ASAP graduation rate based on college reported data effective June 2011, pending final review of summer grades and completion of all graduation requirements.
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sInaI CUaHUTenCo PRofIle: DeRRICK GRIffITH
CUNY Prep & CUNY ASAP
Sinai Cuahutenco is a graduate of CEO’s CUNY Prep and CUNY ASAP programs. Both programs helped bring In 2003, the City University of New York was searching Ms. Cuahutenco closer to her career goals. She is now for a director for what was to become CUNY Prep, working towards her bachelor’s degree and dreams a GED and college preparatory program for out-ofof becoming an oncologist in an underserved rural school youth in the Bronx, but the search committee community. “No matter what anyone says, whoever was struggling to find a candidate with the unique wants to bring you down, you should always be like skill-set they were looking for. Then they met Derrick a rock,” says Ms. Cuahutenco. “You have to motivate Griffith. “There was something about him that made yourself even when people say your goals are too me confident that he’d be able to do this,” says John ambitious. You will come to embody those goals and Mogulescu, the CUNY Senior University Dean for be better!” Academic Affairs and the Dean of the CUNY School of Professional Studies. “He is incredibly charismatic, Ms. Cuahutenco was 14 years old when her mother but as valuable a characteristic as that is, I was more away from cancer. Ms. Cuahutenco spent the passed impressed by his intelligence, his decency, his passion next four years living in Mexico, where she started for his work, and his relentless commitment to high school. Upon returning to the United States at the well-being of young people.” age 18, she attempted to register for high school, but was told that she would have to repeat two years. Over the last seven years, Griffith fashioned a unique Ms. Cuahutenco looked for alternatives to advance educational model at the school, combining rigorous her education and discovered CUNY Prep, a program standards, an experiential learning curriculum and a that helps young adults pass the GED and prepare for commitment to community building. At the same time, college. recognizing the transient nature of his students’ lives, Griffith worked hard to build a sense of community at CUNY Prep, Ms. Cuahutenco earned her GED While at the school through events, such as the school’s and received career and college preparation. “CUNY annual prom. Prep is very demanding. They have high expectations,” she remarks. “The teachers are caring and it motivates Griffith’s life experiences made him uniquely suited students to go to college.” While at CUNY Prep, Ms. for this work. Raised in the Chelsea projects by a single Cuahutenco was also a member of CUNY Prep’s Job mother with drug abuse problems, Griffith could Corps, which provided her with a job to help cover her personally relate to growing up with tremendous living expenses while in school. economic and emotional hardships. But while he empathized with the challenges that his students After graduating from CUNY Prep, Ms. Cuahutenco faced, he was also committed to showing themenrolled at Hostos Community College, where she was that they could succeed despite the many obstacles accepted into CUNY ASAP, a successful CEO program in their lives. “I understand what it’s like to come from that offers financial, academic and other support an abusive environment and it’s tough,” says Griffith. “But to help students graduate from community college. my goal is to provide a bridge so that these kids can “Before ASAP, I was very shy, but having classes in get to a different place in their lives.” cohorts and block scheduling helped me to become comfortable in school.” Ms. Cuahutenco received Throughout his tenure at CUNY Prep, Griffith’s her associate’s degree in 2011 and is now enrolled interactions with his students were characterized by at CUNY’s Hunter College, where she is studying this combination of high expectations and empathetic biochemistry. understanding. “Derrick would be the first one to tell them to pull their pants up or take their hats off,” says Shannon Taggart, a staff-member.
Creating Economic Opportunity | 15
with students who have even greater academic challenges.3 This year, CUNY will double the number of students in ASAP. CUNY has further demonstrated its commitment to the program by integrating many components of the ASAP model into the design of its new community college, scheduled to open in the fall of 2012. In scaling-up the program, CUNY is investing new resources and exploring how to maintain ASAP’s level of success while lowering the per student cost.
Financial Empowerment Centers
The Office of Financial Empowerment (OFE) was the first program launched under the CEO umbrella. Established in December 2006, OFE was created to educate, empower, and protect New Yorkers with low incomes, and to help them build assets and make the most of their financial resources. OFE is housed in the Department of Consumer Affairs. OFE has made significant strides over the last five years, launching a number of program and policy initiatives. The Office has increased New Yorkers’ financial capacity through campaigns designed to help individuals manage and improve their financial resources, including the City’s Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) campaign, new safe and affordable banking products called SafeStart, and matched savings accounts ($aveNYC). OFE also created the Citywide Financial Education Network to improve the accessibility of high-quality, community-based financial education services throughout New York City and developed an online directory. To enhance consumer protection, OFE pursues policy initiatives to deter deceptive practices in industries such as tax preparation and predatory lending. The Office has also brokered strategic partnerships with private industry, nonprofit organizations, and government to maximize capacity-building, education, and consumer financial protection. In all of its efforts, OFE has sought to identify and nurture best practices that most benefit low-income workers in New York City and beyond.
OFE also manages Financial Empowerment Centers (FECs), which provide free, one-on-one, professional financial counseling. Beginning in 2008, OFE established five FECs at community-based organizations, as well as a network of mobile sites, with the support of private funds. As of November 2011, Financial Empowerment Center counselors had conducted more than 25,000 counseling sessions with nearly 13,500 clients, and helped New York City residents reduce more than $6.5 million in debt and build more than $840,000 in savings. Due to this success, the Centers will now receive $2.4 million annually in City funds to expand the program, with the goal of providing approximately 10,000 counseling sessions to New Yorkers each year.
For more information on CUNY ASAP and the Office of Financial Empowerment see “What Happens to CEO’s Successful Programs?” on page 23.
Civic Justice Corps Mural
3 Thirty percent of the original ASAP students (fall 2007 cohort) completed a developmental or remedial course in the summer they entered ASAP. In the second cohort, all students entered the program with one or more developmental course needs.
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Nursing Career Ladders: RN/BSN Program
Several years ago, Lorena Modesto-Valentin decided that she needed a change. Working as a waitress, Mrs. Modesto-Valentin was not making enough money to support her family. She decided to return to school to get an associate’s degree, and later became the first college graduate in her family. Mrs. Modesto-Valentin first learned about CEO’s Nursing Career Ladder: Registered Nurse / Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN/BSN) Program when she saw Mayor Bloomberg describe it on the news. “I applied that day, and was enrolled in the program by the end of the week!” Mrs. Modesto-Valentin was interested in medicine as a means to earn a better living, but she was also inspired by the support she received from medical staff after the birth of her son, now 13 years old. Her son was born with heart troubles, and he — and the entire Modesto-Valentin family — felt that they received exceptional care. Mrs. Modesto-Valentin says that “though he had so many heart problems, surgeries, and complications before the age of three, he always had a smile on his face, and it was my job to smile back at him.” The CEO RN/BSN program provided Mrs. Modesto-Valentin with everything she needed to successfully complete the two years of clinical coursework. “While others struggled to get review books, and had to juggle work and school, the scholarship and support system allowed me to focus on my studies,” she explains. In addition to the program supports, Mrs. Modesto-Valentin received encouragement from the other students in her cohort. “We were like a second family to each other,” she says, “and family plays a role in sharing accomplishments. Not too many students make it through to the end, but we all got there together.” Mrs. Modesto-Valentin is also able to smile because of the investment she feels New York City made in her future. “The investment the City made in me reflects that I am the stock of the city, it allows me to give back to my community,” she says. As for what she tells those in her community? “Never give up. Dreams are possible, but you have to look for it — it won’t fall into your lap. People can strive and have faith that the City is investing in people.”
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CEO’s lessons learned shape the next generation of CEO programs. As a result, CEO programs targeting disconnected young adults have evolved to adopt a combination of education, employment, and case management strategies. In particular, CEO has found subsidized jobs to be an effective tool for engaging young participants and improving outcomes. CEO is now working to expand these programs and find ways to integrate subsidized employment into other young adult programming. Today there are anywhere from 136,000 to 197,000 young people, ages 16 to 24, in New York City who are not in school or at work.4 These “disconnected” young adults are losing out on opportunities to become members of an increasingly skilled and educated workforce — and therefore they are increasingly at risk for long-term economic hardship. Over the last five years, CEO has created a number of initiatives to engage these young adults, providing a range of education, re-entry, and workforce development services. CEO’s evaluations of these programs are now helping to identify effective practices. Although subsidized or transitional jobs have had mixed results for adults, CEO has found that this strategy can be very effective for disconnected young adults. Evaluations of the Young Adult Internship Program (YAIP) and the Young Adult Literacy Program (YALP) show that paid internships do re-engage young people in education and help sustain them in educational programs. YAIP had positive outcomes for a broad group of young people regardless of race, gender, or academic preparation. The evaluation also found that program attendance was the most significant predictor of program completion, placement, and retention in education or unsubsidized employment.5 Similarly, an evaluation of the YALP program showed that students who were provided with paid internships — in addition to their educational classes — had better attendance and retention rates, as well as improved math scores.6
CEO’s subsidized jobs programs offer critical opportunities for early work experiences that young adults might not otherwise gain. In Fiscal Year 2011, CEO paid more than $5 million in subsidized wages to over 2,000 program participants, many of them under the age of 25. CEO is now expanding this effective strategy through the Social Innovation Fund and the Young Men’s Initiative, launching new program sites that will utilize subsidized jobs to maintain participation and improve participant outcomes. CEO’s early evaluations make a strong case for subsidized jobs programs, but more evidence will be needed to justify increased Federal or State investment. Through ongoing and future evaluations of its pilot programs, CEO will continue to build evidence in support of effective strategies that connect young adults to opportunity.
MillionTreesNYC Training Program participant removing a fallen tree after Hurricane Irene
4 U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, 2010. When “disconnected” is defined as not in school and not in the labor force (as opposed to unemployed), the count is 136,000, but when defined as not in school and not employed (neither employed nor in the labor force), the count is 197,000. The difference between these two figures is the number of unemployed youth, which stands at 60,000. 5 Evaluation of the Young Adult Internship Program (YAIP): Analysis of Existing Participant Data. (Rockville, MD: Westat, 2009). 6 CEO Young Adult Literacy Program and the Impact of Adding Paid Internships. (Rockville, MD: Westat, 2011).
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Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg (left) and Commissioner Jeanne B. Mullgrav (right) with Young Adult Literacy Program participants
Mayor Bloomberg on the Young Men’s Initaitive “We want all New Yorkers, in all communities, to succeed. But to make that a reality, we’ve got to face some very sobering facts about who is succeeding and who is not. “Just think about this: across the five boroughs, Black and Hispanic young men have a poverty rate that is 50 percent higher than White and Asian young men. Their rate of unemployment is 60 percent higher. They are two times more likely to not graduate from high school, far more likely to become a teen father and — most troubling of all — more than 90 percent of all young murder victims and perpetrators are Black and Hispanic. “These statistics aren’t so different from those in other cities, but they are totally unacceptable here. We don’t and won’t accept them! This is New York! We can do better and we will! “As far as we’ve come in creating an equal opportunity society, we still have plenty of work to do in fulfilling Dr. King’s dream of making the promise of that society a reality in the communities where it is too often viewed as a fantasy.” Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg State of the City Address, January 2010
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Young Men’s Initiative
Announced by Mayor Bloomberg in August 2011, the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI) is a multi-agency initiative comprised of over 30 program and policy initiatives in four key areas: education, employment, health, and justice. This $43 million annual public private partnership, supported by City funds, Bloomberg Philanthropies, and Open Society Foundations, funds the expansion of CEO programs and a number of new initiatives designed to improve outcomes for young men of color. CEO is overseeing the implementation and evaluation of the majority of YMI programs.
Ceo PRoGRaMs exPanDeD UnDeR YMI
Program Expanded Training and Employment Business Solutions Training Funds Employment Works Sector-Focused Career Centers Jobs-Plus Agency SBS Description Expands training slots in existing SBS programs.
HRA & NYCHA
Expands this evidence-based employment services program for residents of public housing. Expands this community service and workreadiness program for youth involved with the criminal justice system. Expands this internship program for unemployed, out- of- school youth. Expands this literacy program that combines educational instruction with internships and support for pre-GED young adults. Expands pre-GED programs in the South Bronx, Harlem, East New York, and Brownsville to include young adults on probation.
NYC Justice Corps
Young Adult Internship Program Young Adult Literacy Program
DYCD DYCD & Libraries
Community Education Pathways to Success (CEPS) at Neighborhood Opportunity Network (NeON)
CEO will also support new Young Men’s Initiative programs. These programs will promote mentoring, seek to reduce violence and recidivism in targeted communities, increase access to reproductive health services, and put young people to work through job training and subsidized jobs programs. In addition, privately-funded alternative-to-placement programs for juveniles on probation, education and mentoring interventions for probationers, and a fatherhood initiative for young adults will be implemented.
CEO’s participation in YMI is consistent with the mission it has executed since the Center’s inception: replicate proven and effective strategies, incubate innovative anti-poverty programs, and measure results. The YMI programs incorporate recommendations by researchers and practitioners on effective ways to reach young adults. Participation in these programs does not exclude other participants, but rather they are programs that had positive outcomes for young men of color.
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Continuing to Innovate: New Programs
Ceo sPoTlIGHT: Jobs-PlUs
An evidence-based strategy to increase earnings among public housing residents
Jobs-Plus is a workforce development program that offers services to working-age residents in targeted public housing developments. The program serves as a platform to help residents build their skills and connect to the labor market in order to increase earnings. Jobs-Plus has three program components: on-site, high-quality employment services, rent-based and other incentives designed to “make work pay,” and neighbor-to-neighbor support for work. The Jobs-Plus model was developed and tested by MDRC, a nonprofit education and social research organization, through a major national demonstration project supported by the U.S. departments of Health and Human Services, Labor, and Housing and Urban Development, as well as philanthropic donors, including The Rockefeller Foundation and the Annie E. Casey Foundation. MDRC’s rigorous evaluation found that where Jobs-Plus was properly implemented, residents’ earnings increased by 16 percent.7,8 These remarkable gains were sustained over seven years — including three years after the programs ended — for program participants and others in the development. These positive effects were observed across diverse subgroups (e.g., TANF recipients). These impacts demonstrate that Jobs-Plus is an effective model to help participants find jobs or maintain and upgrade their jobs. In 2009, CEO and its agency partners launched the first Jobs-Plus replication in the nation at Jefferson Houses in East Harlem. In 2011, CEO collaborated with local and national partners to replicate Jobs-Plus in the South Bronx and San Antonio, Texas with the support of the Federal Social Innovation Fund. Now, through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI), the City will make a significant new investment in Jobs-Plus, adding up to seven new sites in New York City and connecting nearly 4,000 NYCHA residents to work within three years. These replications will generate important lessons on how to scale the Jobs-Plus model in the current economic, service, and policy environments.
Finding the right combination of strategies to effectively serve young people involved with the criminal justice system has been challenging, and a number of CEO programs have been discontinued due to underperformance. However, CEO has identified some promising programs, including Employment Works and NYC Justice Corps. Since the launch of Employment Works in August 2008, more than 1,200 people on probation have gained meaningful employment at an average salary of more than $10 per hour. Over one-third of the participants were young adults. The NYC Justice Corps achieved an above average 70 percent engagement rate for the entire six month program. The results inform the next generation of CEO programs. CEO is building on lessons learned to design several new programs, many of which will be launched in partnership with the Young Men’s Initiative. In particular, CEO is interested in learning more about what combinations of re-entry services are most effective and cost-efficient. One new program, Justice Scholars, is an education-based program that will serve court-involved young adults. The model employs educational services, tutoring, career exploration, case management and peer support, financial incentives, placement, and follow-up services to produce positive impact. A second new program, Justice Community, is a community-based program that will serve courtinvolved young adults living in communities with high rates of poverty, incarceration, probation, and parole. The program will engage participants in subsidized community benefit projects, youth leadership, peer mentorship, life skills, and case management. These flexible models will allow providers to determine the mix of services that is right for their participants. Other new CEO programs are summarized on the following page.
7 Bloom, Howard S., James A. Riccio, Nandita Verma, and Johanna Walter. Promoting Work in Public Housing: The Effectiveness of Jobs-Plus Final Report. (New York, NY: MDRC, 2005). 8 Riccio, James A. Sustained Earnings Gains for Residents in the Public Housing Jobs Program: Seven Year Findings from the Jobs-Plus Demonstration Policy Brief. (New York, NY: MDRC, 2010).
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neW Ceo PRoGRaMs
Program AIM (Advocate, Intervene, Mentor) Agency DOP Description Establish intensive mentoring programs for youth on juvenile probation in the South Bronx and East New York/ Brownsville. Establish an intensive mentoring and group cognitive behavior therapy program for young adults on probation. Establish a group-based mentoring program for middle school students. Provide after-school employability development services through an alternative-to-placement program that will serve youth on Family Court probation. Train staff and establish peer counseling to provide adolescent-friendly health services and social support within HHC hospitals and clinics. Establish two pilot projects at existing GED programs that add peer mentoring and an alumni network to this existing GED program. Establish Neighborhood Opportunity Network (NeON) based program that includes community service, subsidized employment, and career development for court-involved youth. Establish new education and career exploration programs serving court-involved youth. Establish evidence-based anti-violence programs in three neighborhoods with high rates of gun violence in collaboration with nearby public hospitals.
Cornerstone Mentoring Every Child Has an Opportunity to Excel and Succeed (ECHOES) Teen and Young Adult Health Program IMPACT: Peer Mentoring in Young Adult Literacy Justice Community
DYCD & Service DOP
Justice Scholars Project CeaseFire
DOP DOHMH & HHC
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Participants of the Nursing Career Ladder: Registered Nurse / Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program with program staff at graduation
Measuring Impact & Reporting Results
Evaluation and accountability are the hallmarks of CEO’s approach. CEO’s partner agencies and the providers are required to document robust client outcomes in order to maintain CEO funding. CEO also works with nationally-recognized, independent evaluation firms, as well as an in-house evaluation team. As described above, CEO and its partners continue successful programs with positive evaluation results and discontinue low-performing programs. This evidence not only informs CEO’s budget decisions, but also provides valuable information about what works to reduce poverty and build opportunity. In this way, CEO ensures that government resources are invested efficiently and effectively. CEO and agency staff monitor program performance, using real-time administrative data to determine whether programs are meeting their primary objectives and serving their intended populations. These administrative data are also primary sources for more formal evaluations. For example, Westat used administrative data from the Department of Small Business Services to compare placements and wages of participants in CEO’s Sector-Focused Career Center. To determine the success of its diverse portfolio of programs, CEO employs a range of evaluation
strategies that reflect the existing knowledge of the program model, the maturity of the program, opportunities for data collection and appropriate comparison groups, interests of stakeholders, and the level of investment. Strong program monitoring for all programs enables CEO to focus evaluation resources on selected programs.
Citizens Budget Commission Public Service Innovation Award “CEO’s Innovation Fund is creative in multiple respects. It uses both public and private resources to rigorously test and assess performance-based interventions, many involving multiple City agencies, to determine the interventions’ effectiveness before implementing the proven ones more broadly. That’s the kind of fact-based objective analysis that taxpayers deserve when government determines how best to spend their money.” Carol Kellermann, President Citizens Budget Commission
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WHaT HaPPens To Ceo’s sUCCessfUl PRoGRaMs?
In 2010, five initiatives met the required criteria for success and “graduated” from CEO pilot status to become permanent programs housed at City agencies. This designation transfers ongoing funding and decision-making authority to the managing agency, allowing staff full autonomy to integrate and adapt the program. CEO asked Metis Associates to examine the effects of these decisions on both the pilot programs and the agencies. Metis Associates conducted a qualitative study of CEO’s successful programs, interviewing representatives of the partner agencies and the Mayor’s Office. The interviews explored stakeholders’ perspectives on each program’s successes, agency responses to their new program authority, lessons learned, and any impacts on the agencies or the national field. The interviews also addressed the role of CEO and its effectiveness in fulfilling its mission. Respondents described CEO as an innovation laboratory for anti-poverty programs and emphasized CEO’s effectiveness in terms of its ability to foster innovation, make connections between programs, reduce agency silos, and evaluate success. The Metis report finds that the CEO approach spurred increased cooperation and collaboration among City departments, and across the health and human services, economic development, education, and community development agencies. It is too soon to tell whether CEO’s “graduates” will continue to produce results, but the early data are promising. In 2011, citywide budget reductions offered an early test of whether the programs are a lasting priority for the agencies. Fortunately, all but one of the CEO graduates were protected from budget cuts, meaning that the agencies had to reduce spending in other programs in order to preserve the strong CEO programs. Agency support for the CEO models is further signaled by evidence that programs are becoming even more deeply embedded in agencies or expanded with agency resources, private funds, and other public funding.
Financial Empowerment Center (FEC) participant who participated in the City’s “Protect your Money” campaign
National Replication: The Social Innovation Fund
Left: Per Scholas participant attends WorkAdvance training Above: Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Memphis Mayor AC Wharton, Jr. at SIF Learning Network Kick-Off
s Ceo has expanded its reach throughout new York City, other cities have taken notice and are eager to learn from Ceo’s approach. a prestigious grant from the federal social Innovation fund (sIf) has provided a platform for new York City to partner with other cities and to test whether programs that have been effective in new York will be equally successful in other parts of the country.
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CEO’s national multi-site Social Innovation Fund effort is funded by an annual grant of $5.7 million and other matching funds which support the replication and rigorous evaluation of five programs across eight cities. CEO leads this SIF project, directing program model design, overseeing and monitoring the providers, and manages the Learning Network. The CEO SIF replications will serve close to 18,000 women, men, and children across the country by 2015, creating opportunities for families to advance out of poverty. The programs are already having an impact. For example, after years of part-time, low-wage work, Travis, a single father in Tulsa, recently found a full-time job as a shipping and receiving clerk through WorkAdvance. At Newark’s Project Rise site, Nelson is back in the classroom and working towards becoming a firefighter, years after dropping out of school. In New York City, Angela opened her first bank account and deposited $500 of her tax refund through the SaveUSA program. When she receives the 50 percent match through SaveUSA, she will have $750 in savings, enough to save for a potential family emergency. The box on page 32 highlights some key accomplishments of CEO’s SIF project during 2011. With CEO’s leadership, this SIF project will have an even wider reach in future years, as learnings from these replications influence policy and programs across the nation. Each of the CEO SIF program models are designed to address significant policy issues, and rigorous evaluations will provide support for a compelling case for Federal or local adoption. The Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) manages the overall SIF initiative. CNCS describes the initiative as a new way of doing business for the Federal government that stands to yield greater impact on urgent national challenges. The selection of CEO, in partnership with the Mayor’s Fund to Advance New York City, as one of 16 intermediaries nationally is an endorsement of the way CEO has been doing business for five years: a public-private partnership that supports innovative and effective solutions to poverty and documents and evaluates those impacts.
“CEO is itself an innovative organization that has been very effective in identifying, piloting and evaluating very promising programs that address serious economic challenges of disadvantaged people in low-income communities. With the help of the SIF, CEO is now able to share these powerful programs with other needy communities.” Paul Carttar, Director, Social Innovation Fund, CNCS
CEO’s five-year, $85 million SIF project creates a unique opportunity for cities to work together to expand and test CEO’s innovative anti-poverty pilots. Over the last year, CEO and its partners launched each of the five program models across 18 sites, developed a Learning Network, were awarded Year 2 funding by CNCS, providing an additional $5.7 million in Federal dollars, and secured funding commitments from over 25 local and national funders. The SIF is a public-private partnership and every Federal dollar is expected to leverage three private dollars. CEO and evaluation partner MDRC have launched evaluations of all programs, and are on track to develop a broad base of evidence about what works to fight poverty. Three programs will be evaluated with randomized control trials. The Mayor’s Fund to Advance New York City led New York City’s application to the SIF and serves as the fiscal agent and program coordinator. In partnership with local government and funders in each city, CEO and the Mayor’s Fund selected 18 organizations to deliver the SIF programs in local communities. The provider organizations include small and large community-based organizations, a community college, a public housing authority, and organizations rooted in the settlement house tradition. These organizations demonstrated strong track records of meeting the needs of their communities and a commitment to developing evidence-based programs.
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The Center for Economic Opportunity
CEO is leading the SIF project. In this role, CEO works with strategic partners to create and support well-designed programs, and to oversee their implementation. CEO works with the Mayor’s Fund to Advance New York City, MDRC, the Department of Consumer Affairs’ Office of Financial Empowerment, and others, including funders and local policymakers, to ensure that the program models respond to local needs and interests, and shares lessons learned with policy makers. CEO is also working with the Mayor’s Fund to raise the required 3:1 private match.
Funders and the Philanthropic Community
The Mayor’s Fund to Advance New York City, CEO, and MDRC work closely with a wide range of foundations and other organizations that are lending their expertise and financial support to the Social Innovation Fund initiative. These partners participate in program design, provider selection, and learning activities. By design, the SIF requires that donors contribute $3 for every Federal dollar invested. Their contributions support the local implementation of programs and the overall performance monitoring, evaluation, and learning network efforts. To date, support has been provided by almost 30 funders, including: Bloomberg Philanthropies, Open Society Foundations, The Rockefeller Foundation, Altman Foundation, Annie E. Casey Foundation, Catholic Charities of San Antonio, City of Memphis, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Ford Foundation, Fund for Our Economic Future, Goldman Sachs, George Kaiser Family Foundation, Kresge Foundation, Haas Foundation, Ira W. DeCamp Foundation, Morgan Stanley, Pinkerton Foundation, The New York Community Trust, The Nicholson Foundation, Robin Hood Foundation, Surdna Foundation, Tiger Foundation, Tulsa Community Foundation, United Way of Greater Kansas City, United Way of San Antonio and Bexar County, Victoria Foundation, and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. CEO and the Mayor’s Fund continue to seek additional private funds to support the project.
Mayor’s Fund to Advance New York City
The Mayor’s Fund to Advance New York City is a notfor-profit organization that supports innovative publicprivate partnerships, and serves as the fiscal agent and program coordinator of the SIF project. The Mayor’s Fund, in partnership with CEO, coordinated the planning and application process with partner cities, led the effort to identify the local program providers, and is raising private funds to support the initiative.
Created in 1974 by the Ford Foundation and a group of Federal agencies, MDRC is best known for mounting largescale evaluations of real-world policies and programs targeted to low-income people. Through its research and the active communication of its findings, MDRC seeks to enhance the effectiveness of education and social policies and programs. MDRC is the lead evaluation partner for the CEO SIF project and is providing extensive on-the-ground technical assistance to providers on program implementation, MDRC also provides fiscal management services and monitors subgrantee spending.
Local Partner Cities
The CEO SIF relies on the engagement of eight partner cities, each of which is committed to embracing innovation and prioritizing evidence-based policies and programs. City leaders are committed to the projects and see them as critical to addressing local needs. Partner cities have also dedicated in-kind staff to ensure that SIF initiatives are successful and raise the required funding match, and will use lessons learned and program evaluations to inform future policymaking and funding decisions. The CEO partner cities are Cleveland, OH; Kansas City, MO; Memphis, TN; Newark, NJ; New York City; San Antonio, TX; Tulsa, OK.; and Youngstown, OH. During this start-up year, partnerships developed that will continue to strengthen the programs’ connections with their communities. In Kansas City and Memphis, for example, the Mayor’s offices and the funding communities have created advisory committees to provide local leadership and support to the provider organizations. The committees are working to secure additional private funding, spread the word about the programs, and identify internship and job placement sites. Serving as local learning communities, these committees are identifying key lessons and considering how to ensure the sustainability of the program models.
Corporation for National and Community Service
The Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) is a Federal agency that engages more than five million Americans in service through Senior Corps and AmeriCorps, and leads President Obama’s national call to service initiative, United We Serve. The SIF, a public-private partnership, is an initiative of CNCS enacted under the Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act of 2009 which targets millions in public funds to expand effective community solutions to social challenges. CNCS has selected 16 Intermediary organizations, including the Mayor’s Fund/CEO, to launch programs to improve the lives of people in low-income communities. CNCS supports a Knowledge Network for the intermediaries to share learnings and disseminate findings about the SIF programs.
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The SIF project builds on the strength of CEO’s pilots, and demonstrates that local government can successfully innovate and develop effective, new program models. CEO piloted and tested each of these models in New York. The CEO/SIF project will replicate each model in two or more cities. The five program models being replicated are:
SaveUSA. Building on a program first piloted
by the City’s Office of Financial Empowerment in 2008 as $aveNYC, this initiative offers a matched savings account to low-income tax filers. SaveUSA is available during the tax season in New York City; Newark, New Jersey; San Antonio, Texas; and Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Family Rewards. This conditional cash transfer
program builds on the success of an earlier New York City demonstration1 and programs in more than 20 countries worldwide. Family Rewards provides incentive payments to families for achieving milestones that lead to better health, education, and employment outcomes. Family Rewards targets families with high school aged children and is being replicated in Memphis, Tennessee and New York City.
WorkAdvance. CEO identified national best
practices from these programs and others to create new workforce programs that employ sectorfocused and skills-building strategies, launching two of its own initiatives, Advance at Work and Sector-Focused Career Centers.4 WorkAdvance combines the best practices from these programs and others to connect adults to career ladders in Cleveland, Ohio; New York City; Tulsa, Oklahoma; and Youngstown, Ohio. By advancing the education, employment, and assets of low-income adults and families, the CEO SIF programs will combat poverty across a diverse cross-section of America, while developing best practices that can inform future policy and direct public and philanthropic funding. In the start-up year, CEO’s SIF programs are already making a difference: • Almost 200 disconnected young people across three cities have begun paid internships and to work towards their educational goals through Project Rise. • Through the SaveUSA program, over 1,500 low-income tax-filers in four cities opened new savings accounts, pledging to save a total of over $855,000, making them eligible for up to $427,500 in matching funds. • All four WorkAdvance providers are now recruiting job seekers interested in a job with
Jobs-Plus. The Jobs-Plus program addresses
entrenched poverty among public housing residents by saturating developments with job and career support, community building, and rent incentives. In a previous national demonstration project, JobsPlus increased residents employment and earnings and those earnings continued to rise three years after the program ended, greatly outpacing the income of a comparison group.2 Through the SIF, Jobs-Plus is being offered in New York City and San Antonio, Texas.
Project Rise. This program offers education and
paid internships to young adults who are out of school, out of work, and who lack a high school diploma or GED. Multiple CEO programs have successfully reengaged young adults by offering short-term paid internships as a hook for returning to school or work.3 Project Rise provides education, employment and social supports to disconnected young adults in Kansas City, Missouri; New York City; and Newark, New Jersey.
1 Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards is being evaluated with a random assignment research design. For early results, see Riccio, J., Dechausay, N., Greenberg, D., Miller, C., Rucks, Z., and Verma, N. Toward reduced poverty across generations: Early Findings From New York City’s Conditional Cash Transfer Program. (New York, NY: MDRC, 2010). 2 Riccio, James, Sustained Earnings Gains for Residents in a Public Housing Jobs Program Seven-Year Findings from the Jobs-Plus Demonstration; Howard S. Bloom, James A. Riccio, and Nandita Verma with Johanna Walter, Promoting Work in Public Housing: The Effectiveness of Jobs-Plus. (New York, NY: MDRC, 2005). 3 CEO Young Adult Literacy Program and the Impact of Adding Paid Internships, Westat and Metis Associates (2011); Evaluation of the Young Adult Internship Program: Analysis of Existing Participant Data. 4 “Workforce Innovations: Outcome Analysis of Outreach, Career Advancement and Sector-Focused Programs” (Henderson et al., 2010); “The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: How Effective Are Different Approaches Aiming to Increase Employment Retention and Advancement? Final Impacts for Twelve Models” (Hendra et al., 2010 ); 2“Implementation and Second-Year Impacts for Lone Parents in the UK Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) Demonstration” (Riccio et al., 2008); “Advancement Strategies to Help Low-Wage Workers: Impact Results of the Work Advancement and Support Center (WASC) Demonstration” (van Dok et al., 2010).
Executive Summary | 29
President & CEO, Full Employment Council, Kansas City, Missouri
Clyde McQueen, President and CEO of Full Employment Council, is excited that Kansas City, Missouri, has seized an opportunity to fill a gap in the services available to disconnected young people. According to Mr. McQueen, the introduction of Project Rise to Kansas City through the CEO Social Innovation Fund initiative is a sign that the landscape of services for these young adults is changing for the better. Mr. McQueen is particularly energized by the support his city has provided to the project. “Sly James, the Mayor of Kansas City, has jumped behind Project Rise,” says Mr. McQueen. Mayor James also appointed an Advisory Committee comprised of ten local leaders to promote Project Rise to potential funders, employers, and others in Kansas City, and to draw attention to the needs and potential of disconnected youth.
Mr. McQueen is confident that Project Rise will improve the lives of program participants. “Project Rise is the most unique model that I have been a part of in the last 20 years,” says Mr. McQueen, “because the combination of earning and learning appeals to participants.” Mr. McQueen believes Project Rise helps participants understand the connection between their education and potential career opportunities. Disconnected youth face many hurdles, and Mr. McQueen and his staff are keenly aware of how these hurdles hinder participants’ ability to focus on learning. The Project Rise model removes these barriers by working with young adults to help them obtain healthcare, secure childcare, and find housing. Mr. McQueen is convinced that Project Rise will become a key tool for re-engaging disconnected young people. “The youth in this program will be ambassadors to others,” asserts Mr. McQueen, “carrying forward their messages of success and growth.”
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Executive Director, Towards Employment, Cleveland and Youngstown, Ohio
Towards Employment is one of four providers offering the WorkAdvance sector-focused workforce program as part of the CEO Social Innovation Fund initiative. “WorkAdvance has been well-received in Ohio. It is great to be part of a national effort that is employer-driven and seeks to help those who have been left behind,” says Jill Rizika, the Executive Director of Towards Employment. “Employers and engagement partners are thrilled to be part of this.” According to Ms. Rizika, Towards Employment “chose manufacturing and healthcare because they are the drivers in the region, and both have opportunities for a wide range of individuals. The manufacturing sector is a large part of Ohio’s economy, and the healthcare sector is growing rapidly. The sector-driven approach is critical,” says Ms. Rizika. “The advantage is that it meets employer needs and has a positive impact on the target population.” To illustrate the impact of WorkAdvance on program participants, Ms. Rizika shares the story of a dislocated worker. The participant had over a decade of manufacturing experience before being laid off. He struggled to find a place to live and eventually ended up in a halfway house. Through the comprehensive wrap-around supports offered by WorkAdvance, Towards Employment is working with the jobseeker to address his challenges, provide him with new skills, and place him on a path to advancement in the manufacturing sector. “Employers are in dire need of investment to prepare workers for jobs that need to be done, and there is a large potential workforce that doesn’t have the twenty-first century skills that employers need,” says Ms. Rizika. The WorkAdvance model offers training to fill the skills gap while connecting participants to the jobs that offer growth potential. Ms. Rizika explains that working with employers is essential. “The collaboration helps us to understand needs and trends. We help screen and train candidates, and generate job leads together.”
National Replication: The SIF | 31
clear career ladders. Almost 200 individuals have been served to date. Each provider focuses on a specific sector and has developed deep relationships with employers, training providers, local colleges, and other industry stakeholders. • Jobs-Plus sites in New York and San Antonio have recruited and served individuals from the target public housing developments, informing them about the employment services that they offer. • Family Rewards providers have enrolled over 800 families in Memphis and New York into this conditional cash transfer program. Local government agency partners have identified potentially eligible families on public assistance with children in ninth or tenth grade, the target population for this program. The provider organizations have begun working with these families to explain the program and help them identify how they can earn the cash rewards.
The Mayor’s Fund/CEO SIF providers are:
• BronxWorks, Children’s Aid Society, and Seedco (Bronx, NY)* • Porter-Leath, Urban Strategies Memphis HOPE, and Seedco (Memphis, TN)*
• BronxWorks (Bronx, NY) • San Antonio Housing Authority (San Antonio, TX)
• Catholic Charities of Kansas City - St. Joseph (Kansas City, MO) • F.E.G.S (Bronx, NY) • Full Employment Council (Kansas City, MO) • Henry Street Settlement (New York, NY) • CUNY Kingsborough Community College (Brooklyn, NY) • Rutgers University T.E.E.M Gateway (Newark, NJ)
Eighteen provider organizations were selected through a rigorous competitive process to deliver CEO’s five Social Innovation Fund programs across the eight cities. These providers represent the best in their communities, and are the backbone of the SIF program. The leaders of two of these organizations, Towards Employment and Full Employment Council, are featured in this report. In addition to expanding successful anti-poverty programs, a major goal of the SIF is to “scale-up” and expand the capacity of provider organizations. To support the providers, CEO, MDRC, and OFE provide technical assistance that improves the implementation of program models while building staff and organizational capacity. Through this technical assistance, providers engage regularly with CEO and MDRC implementation teams, share best practices with each other, and take advantage of customized training on issues such as data collection, recruitment and outreach, working with employers and government partners, and grant management.
• Community Action Project of Tulsa County (Tulsa, OK)* • Food Bank for New York City, with Ariva (New York, NY)* • Newark Now (Newark, NJ) • United Way of San Antonio & Bexar County (San Antonio, TX)
• Madison Strategies Group (Tulsa, OK)* • Per Scholas (Bronx, NY)* • St. Nicks Alliance (Brooklyn, NY)* • Towards Employment and Compass Family & Community Services (Cleveland & Youngstown, OH)*
*Site undergoing randomized control trial evaluation
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Ceo sIf aCCoMPlIsHMenTs 2011
Rigorous, Competitive Provider Selection 5 RFPs released in 8 cities for a total of 14 competitions • 57 proposals received • 70 reviewers • 18 organizations selected Programs Launched 18 programs launched • 167 staff serving SIF participants • 5 TA providers engaged Key Early Implementation Indicators 5,411 participants served • Family Rewards: 833 families served, including 3,009 individuals · Recruitment began in September 2011 · 333 new bank accounts opened*
*As of January 12, 2012
• Jobs-Plus: 262 public housing residents served · Both sites launched by November 2011 · 32 residents placed in new employment • Project Rise: 197 young adults enrolled · All sites began by August 2011 · Over $100,000 earned through internships • SaveUSA: 1,662 savings accounts opened · Offered at VITA sites during the 2011 tax season · $891,000 saved • WorkAdvance: 226 individuals served** · All sites opened by November 2011 · 40 individuals placed in new employment
**Includes all individuals in the Program Group and individuals enrolled before the start of random assignment.
Private Funds Leveraged Engaged over 25 philanthropic partners, who committed nearly $50 million in match funds Evaluations Launched 5 comprehensive evaluation plans developed • Study participants enrolled for all three random assignment programs: • Family Rewards study enrollees: 1,668 (Program Group: 833; Control Group: 835) • SaveUSA study enrollees*: 2,482 (Opened SaveUSA Account: 1,662; Control Group: 820)
*Includes accounts opened in 4 cities and control group members in NYC and Tulsa
• WorkAdvance study enrollees: 352 (Program Group: 183; Control Group: 169) Random assignment has been completed for SaveUSA in New York and Tulsa, and Family Rewards in New York Spreading the News Over 40 articles on the SIF programs • 27 presentations on SIF at conferences • More than 30 meetings with policymakers
National Replication: The SIF | 33
Newark Mayor Cory Booker at Newark SaveUSA launch event
San Antonio Mayor Julián Castro with Lourdes Castro Ramirez, Executive Director of the San Antonio Housing Authority
Building Evidence for Public Policy
The five CEO SIF replications are designed to affect lasting change in how anti-poverty programs are supported at all levels of government. Therefore, rigorous evaluations of the CEO SIF programs are fundamental to the success of the initiative. The five models have already demonstrated impacts in New York City, but the SIF evaluations will establish whether these models can have an impact under different conditions, in different cities, with different populations. CEO and MDRC have developed policy-relevant evaluation strategies for each of the programs to answer pressing questions about what works to move individuals and families out of poverty.
homeownership, which are often beyond the means of individuals with low incomes. US Senator Menendez (New Jersey) has proposed an approach similar to SaveUSA called the “Saver’s Bonus” that would offer a tangible and meaningful incentive to taxpayers interested in beginning to save for more short term goals, such as financial or health emergencies. The rigorous randomized control trial evaluation of SaveUSA by MDRC will provide compelling evidence about whether such a savings program reduces hardship and debt and fosters economic security and will be integral to advancing the model toward national adoption. The WorkAdvance evaluation is designed to address critical policy issues in workforce development. Despite a relatively weak labor market, critical positions are going unfilled in key sectors because of a mismatch between the skills employers need and the skills of jobseekers. The lessons learned from the WorkAdvance approach could influence Federal policy and funding streams, such as the Workforce Investment Act (WIA). Positive results could help to produce systemic change toward proven, effective strategies that help low-income populations and disadvantaged workers find a long term route out of poverty. The WorkAdvance model benefits employers by addressing industry skill gaps and assisting with human resource needs. The randomized control trial evaluation of this approach is expected to show the effectiveness of demand driven training. At a time when Federal funding for workforce programs is being reduced, these evaluation results
“For far too long, widespread poverty has been regarded as a troubling but inevitable condition of life in American cities, and that’s something that our administration a long time ago decided was something we could not accept.” Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg
For example, OFE designed the SaveUSA program to advance a national model to increase savings amongs low-income workers. Current Federal saving incentives are geared towards long-term savings goals such as retirement, education, and
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Assistant to Mayor Julián Castro, San Antonio, Texas
Through her role as Assistant to Mayor Julián Castro, Frances Gonzalez has been closely involved with the CEO Social Innovation Fund (SIF) initiatives in San Antonio. She believes that SaveUSA and JobsPlus both reflect the city’s priorities. “The SaveUSA program is an ideal offering to San Antonio tax filers that can further the value of their tax return, and it has had a positive effect on our Volunteer Income Tax Assistance participants,” says Ms. Gonzalez. She adds, “The Jobs-Plus program provides a model that will link a largely underserved community with job training, job readiness skills, and other services in close proximity to housing authority properties.” Ms. Gonzalez fully expects the CEO SIF programs to thrive in San Antonio. “The reaction to both
programs has been positive,” she says. “It is expected that SaveUSA will continue to enjoy strong enrollment and the Jobs-Plus program has already received a positive reaction from the business community and local community-based organizations.” Ms. Gonzalez also praised the ability and commitment of the SaveUSA and Jobs-Plus program providers, the United Way of San Antonio and Bexar County and the San Antonio Housing Authority, respectively. Ms. Gonzalez thanks CEO for their assistance, saying “CEO and the New York City staff have lent a great deal of support to the San Antonio Mayor’s Office, providers, and partner cities.” She continues, “The relationship with CEO is a strong partnership based on information exchange and support. The strides New York City has made can benefit other cities.”
National Replication: The SIF | 35
can show the value of investing in quality job training and placement programs. Ultimately the learnings from the project will help the field better understand what works to increase the impact of workforce programming nationwide. The randomized control trial evaluation of Family Rewards will examine whether the offer of monetary rewards and support for accomplishing education, employment and health milestones leads to better outcomes for families. Family Rewards builds on the lessons learned from the earlier implementation in New York City. The evaluation will determine if the program refinements will improve outcomes for participants. The SIF Family Rewards program specifically targets recipients of cash assistance (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families or “TANF”) and food stamps (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or “SNAP”), hoping to gain insight into how conditional cash transfers might complement existing social safety net programs to encourage economic stability, improve health outcomes, and improve children’s school performance. In a previous pilot, the Jobs-Plus program increased earnings not only for participants, but for all residents of the targeted public housing development, relative to a comparison group.5 Results of this replication, combined with the findings from the earlier demonstration, may help shape future workforce or safety net services for deeply impoverished and still economically isolated public housing residents. A core element of JobsPlus is to remove the disincentive to work that is a by-product of basing public housing rents on a percentage of income. The Federal Earned Income Disallowance (EID) addresses this issue and allows tenants who have been out of work to accept a job without having their rent increase right away. Jobs-Plus sites will aggressively promote the opportunity of the EID to participants. The evaluation will examine how the EID is used in both SIF sites. New York City recently announced funding for up to seven additional Jobs-Plus sites as part of the Young Men’s Initiative. These new sites will provide additional momentum and an opportunity to further develop toolkits and lessons for highquality replication.
The implementation and evaluation of Project Rise in three cities will shed light on how to re-engage very disconnected young adults into the worlds of education and work. Through the development and study of the education-conditioned internship component of the model, the findings are expected to provide the Federal government and others with a strategy that is effective at reaching this very difficult to serve population, and helping them to successfully transition to GED, unsubsidized employment and beyond. The Project Rise evaluation will examine implementation and participant outcomes.
“The Social Innovation Fund represents an opportunity to change the public debate about whether social programs can work in urban areas,” Berlin explained, “about whether we can really make a difference for people.” Gordon Berlin President, MDRC
The CEO SIF program models and their evaluations have already attracted the interest of a number of Federal policymakers. CEO has held conversations about the programs with representatives of the Departments of Health and Human Services, Treasury, Labor, and Housing and Urban Development, and the White House Office of Management and Budget. These agencies are interested in how the CEO models can inform their work. They anticipate using evaluation results to identify best practices and inform future policy. The SIF project is also a dialogue with local and national funders who, in addition to providing necessary funding, are also thoughtful community stakeholders, deeply committed to improving the efficacy of both public and private spending. These funders have responded enthusiastically to the collaboration with Federal and local government, as well as the evaluation and implementation support offered by MDRC and CEO to providers.
5 Riccio, James, Mobilizing Public Housing Communities for Work: Origins and Early Accomplishments of the Jobs-Plus Demonstration. (New York, NY: MDRC, 1999).
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Building Momentum for What Works
The CEO SIF and the rigorous evaluations of the program models provide two key opportunities: a forum through which cities and providers can learn from each others’ innovations, and a chance to make a strong case for effective anti-poverty strategies. MDRC will evaluate the implementation and impact of the programs and, with CEO, share lessons learned to improve policies and practices that can impact economic status. Each of the partners collaborating on the CEO SIF project provide unique expertise and perspectives. The CEO SIF Learning Network capitalizes on these distinctive resources. By working with partners on a learning agenda, the robust CEO SIF Learning Network will sustain best practices and encourage additional investment in proven programs. Public forums provide opportunities for the wider antipoverty community to learn about and respond to the lessons from the SIF project. Findings will be widely disseminated through reports, policy briefings, conference presentations, and other methods. At the first annual gathering of SIF stakeholders, representatives of all 18 providers, donors, and partner cities discussed the value of the SIF programs to their communities. Mayor Bloomberg explained why he believes this kind of investment is overdue, saying “For far too long, widespread poverty has been regarded as a troubling but inevitable condition of life in American cities, and that’s something that our administration a long time ago decided was something we could not accept.” Memphis Mayor AC Wharton, Jr. joined the event to explain how he thought Memphis could learn from New York City’s experiences— and vice versa. Gordon Berlin, President of MDRC, challenged the audience to reflect on the enormous responsibility that comes with this honor. “As SIF winners we have an opportunity to change the public debate about whether social programs can work in urban areas,” Berlin explained, “about whether we can really make a difference for people.” Through the Learning Network, CEO is seizing this opportunity. A community began to take shape as attendees learned about the work of their fellow providers,
and the potential impact of the SIF. Each of the five program teams had opportunities to share their aspirations for their programs and to discuss program design and implementation. Many providers visited New York City program sites, to see models in action, and meet staff and program participants. It was clear from this gathering that partners are eager to learn from each other, and to share experiences with fellow providers and with the wider social service community. The Learning Network will host a similar convening of all partners annually. CEO and the SIF Learning Network host forums to explore and share innovative strategies and best practices. For one such forum, CEO gathered national and local experts to discuss sector-focused workforce development programs. The sector approach—which works closely with employers in targeted industries—has solid evaluations to support its growing national prominence. WorkAdvance is CEO’s SIF sector project. The forum’s panel included CEO Executive Director Veronica White, Commissioner Robert Walsh of New York City’s Department of Small Business Services, Shelia Maguire of P/PV, and Plinio Ayala of WorkAdvance provider Per Scholas. Pat Jenny of the New York Community Trust represented The New York City Workforce Funders group, a SIF provider under the National Fund for Workforce Solutions/Jobs for the Future intermediary. Other panelists included Carl Hum of the Brooklyn Chamber of Commerce, Andy Van Kleunen of the National Skills Coalition, and Philip Weinberg of the New York City Workforce Investment Board. The connection to employers and strategic focus on growth industries is a powerful response to the popular opinion that too many job training programs are ineffective. This event is an example of the policy conversations related to CEO’s SIF work that further the conversation about the potential of the models. CEO and MDRC have also presented the SIF projects and evaluation plans at several national research conferences, to elected officials, and to other policymakers. A complete list of CEO presentations at conferences can be found in Appendix D.
National Replication: The SIF | 37
Kansas City Mayor Sly James at the Kansas City Project Rise press conference
MaYoRal sUPPoRT of THe soCIal InnoVaTIon fUnD
Under Mayor Bloomberg’s leadership and through the Social Innovation Fund, the NYC Center for Economic Opportunity has created a network of mayors committed to reducing poverty through innovative new programs. As the only local government funded by the SIF, the CEO project provides a unique opportunity for these mayors and their cities to work together to expand and test promising anti-poverty programs. During this first start-up year, mayors have found a variety of ways to express their support for the SIF programs, including holding press conferences and attending kick-off events. One member of this network is Mayor AC Wharton, Jr. of Memphis, who explained why it is important to collaborate with Mayor Bloomberg in this effort, saying, “When things get rough in New York City, they get rough in Memphis, Tennessee. That’s the real world we’re living in today.” Mayor Wharton’s commitment to innovation and the SIF stems from his belief in its impacts: “No, we cannot save the world, but we can empower the people and the people will save the world.” Newark Mayor Cory Booker has also collaborated with New York City government on several projects. SaveUSA is a strong example of this collaboration and his interest in asset development. Kansas City Mayor Sly James (pictured) hosted a Project Rise press conference and praised the project as an important new tool to address his city’s drop-out crisis. Mayor Bloomberg has described the potential of this partnership well, saying: “We can help more Americans become independent individuals and parents to invest in their own success, and the success of their families and their communities.”
Poverty Research: Policy Affects Poverty
Left: Students at St. Nicks Alliance’s WorkAdvance site Above: St. Nicks Alliance WorkAdvance participants
he federal poverty measure has long been the subject of criticism. Its poverty line, the income threshold that defines who is poor, is woefully out of date. Moreover, the scope of the resources that it counts as income disregards the impact of the many social programs that support low-income families. In contrast, the Ceo Poverty Measure provides a more realistic picture of poverty in new York City.
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In 2006, the Commission for Economic Opportunity, convened by Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, recommended that the City create an alternative measure of poverty. The Mayor embraced the idea, and poverty measurement became a core part of the NYC Center for Economic Opportunity’s mission. The CEO methodology is based on a set of recommendations offered by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1995 (the CEO-NAS methodology). CEO issued its first report on the alternative measure for New York City in 2008, its second in 2010, and its third and most recent report in the spring of 2011. The most recent report examines the change in the CEO poverty rate for New York City from 2005 through 2009. Additional annual estimates are expected in 2012 and future years.
While tax liabilities reduce the resources that could be used to meet a family’s needs, many low-income families benefit from refundable tax credits. For them, the income tax system can result in a net income gain. The CEO measure also counts the value of in-kind benefits, such as food stamps and housing subsidies. But families also have unavoidable expenses that diminish their capacity to obtain the basic necessities represented in the poverty threshold. The CEO measure, therefore, subtracts the costs of commuting to work, childcare, and out-of-pocket medical expenditures in the tally of available resources. Despite these subtractions, CEO’s resource measure still exceeds the pre-tax cash for lower-income families. At the 20th percentile of their respective distributions, pre-tax cash income equals $24,087 in 2009, while CEO’s measure of available income comes to $29,601 in that year.1
The CEO Poverty Measure
Defining who is poor requires two judgments. One is where to draw the poverty line, to determine just how much income is enough for a family to meet its basic needs. This amount is referred to as the “threshold.” A second judgment is about what resources should be considered as income available to families to meet these basic needs. The official poverty measure assumed that basic needs are equal to three times the cost of a minimal food budget, adjusted for family size, whereas the CEO measure takes into account clothing, shelter, and utilities, as well as food. Unlike the official threshold, which is uniform across the nation, the CEO threshold reflects the relatively high cost of housing in New York City. These two methods produce different thresholds. For a two-adult, two-child family the official threshold in 2009 was $21,756. In comparison, the 2009 CEO threshold was higher, at $29,477.
The New York City Poverty Rate
The difference in the thresholds and the definition of resources result in different poverty rates. Figure 1 illustrates the official and CEO thresholds, resources, and poverty rates for 2009. The official poverty rate places 17.3 percent of New Yorkers below the poverty line, compared to 19.9 percent using the CEO measure. The CEO poverty rate exceeds the official rate because the effect of the higher CEO threshold outweighs the impact of the higher level of resources accounted for in the CEO measure. This is something that CEO has found in each year for which it estimated the poverty rate.
Findings from the Most Recent Report
The U.S. economy entered what is now known as the “Great Recession” in December 2007. In New York City, however, it took longer for the effects of the recession to be felt due to existing policies, and the initial impact was less severe than for the nation as a whole. Time lags in the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS), the primary data source used to estimate the CEO poverty rate, mean that the 2011 study (which included data through 2009) was the first CEO report to capture the effects of the economic downturn. CEO’s
How does CEO Measure Resources?
A family is poor when its resources fall below the poverty line. The official measure limits resources to pre-tax cash: income from wages, salaries, self-employment, interest and dividends, rent, and assistance that takes the form of cash, such as unemployment benefits. The CEO measure is more inclusive. First, it counts cash income after taxes.
1 For comparative purposes, these income figures are stated in family size-adjusted dollars.
Poverty Research | 41
2011, 2010, and 2008 poverty research reports are listed in Appendix B of this report and can be downloaded from the CEO website.
Policy Affects Poverty
The 2011 report shows that the CEO poverty rate for New York City was statistically unchanged from 2008 to 2009. The report focused on the impact of policy responses in offsetting what might have been a sharp spike in the local poverty rate due to the Great Recession. These policy responses include the effect of new or expanded tax credit programs, the Federally-mandated increase in SNAP benefit levels, and New York City’s efforts to increase SNAP participation. An estimate of the combined impact of these three policy responses is summarized in Figure 2, which compares the CEO estimate of the 2009 poverty rate against a hypothetical poverty rate that omits the impact of these policies. Had it not been for these policy responses, the CEO poverty rate for New York City would have jumped from 19.6 percent in 2008 to 22.6 percent in 2009. Instead, policy affected poverty and the initiatives resulted in a 19.9 percent poverty rate for 2009. The 0.3 percentage point difference between 2008 and 2009 is too small to be statistically meaningful.
Figure 1: Comparing Thresholds, Resources, & Poverty Rates, 20092
$29,477 $29,601 $24,087 $21,756 17.3% 19.9%
Official NYC CEO
Official NYC CEO
Official NYC CEO
Sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Department of Housing & Urban Development, and ACS PUMS as augmented by CEO.
Figure 2: Had it not Been for the Policy Response: Actual and Hypothetical CEO Poverty Rates
23% 22% 21% 20% 19% 18%
Recessions can have two effects on family resources. When unemployment rises, the number of people in poverty may increase as their earnings fall. At the same time, countervailing social policies, such as Unemployment Insurance, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and tax credits, are in place to alleviate this lost income. A critical shortcoming of the official poverty measure is that it only accounts for assistance that takes the form of cash, such as Unemployment Insurance. The benefit of the CEO Poverty Measure is that it captures the effects of non-cash assistance, and thus it also includes food stamps and tax credits.
Source: ACS PUMS as augmented by CEO.
2 Resources are adjusted for family size and composition and measured at the 20th percentile. Findings from Policy Affects Poverty (CEO, March 2011).
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The CEO poverty rate did rise in 2009 for one key group: New Yorkers living in single-parent families. While single-parent families are only 16.5 percent of the total City population, they are disproportionately represented among the poor. CEO estimates that 28.7 percent of New York’s poor are members of single parent families. The CEO poverty rate for single-parent families, already higher than the citywide rate, rose 3.2 percentage points, from 31.4 percent in 2008 to 34.6 percent in 2009. The decline in employment, evident for many groups of New Yorkers, was particularly steep for the heads of these families. The loss of employment, in turn, cut these families off from one of the expanding program areas that have helped so many others — tax credits. These credits are conditioned on having earned income. The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), the Making Work Pay Tax Credit, and childcare credits are only available to tax filers who have been working. In a recession, two-parent families have a better chance than single parent families of having at least one employed adult, making them eligible for
Workforce1 Transportation Sector Career Center participants during a training session
these important credits. This provides the family some insulation against poverty. A family with only one potential wage earner will lose all access to the tax programs once the family head becomes unemployed. Thus, the family is hit by a double blow: lost credits as well as lost earnings.
One clear message arises from the recent research on the CEO Poverty Measure: policy affects poverty. The most recent report shows that, to a large degree, economic stimulus programs and policy initiatives aimed at bolstering family income were successful at averting an increase in poverty from 2008 to 2009. The significance of these programs is clearly demonstrated using an NAS-CEO type of poverty measure, and speaks to the need for wider adoption of this methodology. To the extent that policymakers can see where stimulus programs have helped or failed the poor, they are better able to identify policy prescriptions. Recent programs have stressed the need for work as a path out of poverty, conditioning benefits (such as tax credits) on employment. As the economy contracts and work becomes harder to find, data show that some families are facing the loss of both jobs and benefits. It is therefore more important than ever to find ways to link the poor to employment and pursue new job creation programs.
Healthy Bodegas marketing campaign
Poverty Research | 43
The Year in Review
The CEO team continues to share knowledge and present findings to the wider poverty research and policy community. In 2011, CEO staff presented at several conferences, forums, and working sessions convened by a range of organizations, including the U.S. Census Bureau, the Center for American Progress, the New School for Social Research, the Population Association of America, the National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics, and the Association for Public Policy and Management. A full list of CEO conference presentations can be found in Appendix D of this report.
In November 2011, the Census Bureau released a report on the new Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM). The SPM is based on the same methodology proposed by NAS and pioneered by CEO. Unfortunately, the new Federal measure is not available at the local level and does not use a Census data set that could provide these estimates. Therefore, CEO will continue to produce local poverty estimates for New York City. In creating the SPM, the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Census Bureau further refined the methodology proposed by NAS. CEO has prepared and circulated a technical paper that compares the current CEO and SPM methodologies and suggests ways in which the CEO measure should be adjusted to reflect the latest research and to bring CEO’s poverty estimates into closer alignment with the Federal measure. CEO’s 2012 report will incorporate these refinements, enhancing comparability between the nationwide and New York City-specific poverty rate estimates. In addition, the report will update the CEO measure to include 2010 data. This data will provide further insight on the lingering effects of the recession on poverty in New York City.
Employment Works participants during a class session
Young Adult Internship Program participants at graduation
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appendix a. Program Descriptions
Since its inception, CEO has supported over 50 programs. This section provides a short description of each program and groups them by the following categories: Successful Programs, Pilot Programs, Completed/Discontinued Programs, and Social Innovation Fund Programs. See Appendix C for Program Performance Data. CEO programs are supported by a $100 million annual Innovation Fund, a public-private fund that supports the operation and evaluation of CEO’s anti-poverty programs. Over one-half of CEO’s Innovation Fund dollars are City Tax Levy (CTL), funding which CEO allocates directly to partner agencies. The budget figures below represent CTL funding in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. CEO also manages a five-year $5.7 million per year grant from the Corporation for National and Community Service. Many CEO programs receive additional support from Federal, State, and philanthropic sources. Agency partners also provide their own in-kind support, such as fiscal, administrative, and supervisory resources.
at all six CUNY community colleges and serves approximately 1,300 students each year. Advance at Work (formerly Career Advancement Program) A program administered by the Department of Small Business Services (SBS). CEO FY11 Budget: $1,040,000 (plus Federal funds) Advance at Work developed the skills of lowwage workers to help them advance in the labor market. The program helped participants increase their income and move up the career ladder by offering an array of services including individual advancement coaching, access to training and education programs, enrollment in work supports, income and asset building information, and job placement. SBS discontinued this program in early 2011, but Advance at Work practices were integrated into ongoing SBS programs. Elements of the Advance at Work program were also incorporated into CEO’s new Social Innovation Fund (SIF) WorkAdvance program in New York and three other cities. Community Partners (formerly Community–Based Organization Outreach) A program administered by the Department of Small Business Services (SBS). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (Federally-funded) Community-based organizations (CBOs) assist large numbers of jobseekers, but many organizations lack strong employer connections and a clear linkage to the public workforce system. To address this, the Community Partners initiative facilitates connections between job-ready CBO clients and specific job openings at the City’s Career Centers. EITC Mailing A program administered by the Department of Finance (DOF). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A To ensure that all eligible New Yorkers receive the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), the City Department of Finance mails pre-populated amended tax returns to potentially-qualified households who did not claim the benefit on their
Programs with strong impacts and agency commitments; programs and resources fully integrated into City agencies. Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (CUNY ASAP) A program administered by the City University of New York (CUNY). CEO FY11 Budget: $6,800,000 (plus private funds) CUNY ASAP assists students in earning associate’s degrees within three years by providing a range of academic and support services. Program features include advisement and tutoring, tuition waivers, free textbooks, and MetroCards. In addition, the program offers consolidated course schedules to accommodate students’ work schedules, and career and employment specialists to help students with job placement and career development. The program also supports students who wish to transfer to four-year colleges. Over onehalf of the students who started ASAP in 2007 graduated within 3 years. The program is offered
left: CUNY Prep students at graduation
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submitted returns. Recipients are asked to verify their income and dependent child information, provide their Social Security number, and sign and mail the amended return to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in order to apply for the Credit. DOF provides ongoing support for this initiative. NYC Training Guide A program administered by the Department of Small Business Services (SBS). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A The NYC Training Guide is a web-based research tool that matches jobseekers with appropriate training programs to promote skill development and career advancement. The Guide provides detailed information about training courses and providers, enabling jobseekers to fully consider their training options and decide whether a course meets their needs. The Guide promotes transparency among training providers, incorporating information on course outcomes and measuring customer satisfaction through participant reviews. CEO supported the development of this web-based tool that is searched hundreds of thousands of times each year. Office of Financial Empowerment A program administered by the Department of Consumer Affairs (DCA). CEO FY11 Budget: $1,832,400 (plus private funds) The Office of Financial Empowerment (OFE) is the nation’s first municipal office with the mission to educate, empower, and protect city residents with low to moderate-incomes, enabling them to build assets and make the most of their financial resources. OFE’s strategies include increasing access to high-quality financial education, improving access to income-boosting tax credits, connecting low-income households to safe and affordable banking and asset building products and services, and enforcing and improving protections in the financial services marketplace. OFE leads a coalition of cities, Cities for Financial Empowerment, dedicated to financial empowerment for residents and is a prominent voice in the national discussion on consumer protection and asset development. OFE manages multiple programs, including the four highlighted below.
• Financial Empowerment Centers: These Centers offer free, one-on-one financial education and counseling to low-income New York City residents. • Financial Education Network: The Financial Education Network serves as an umbrella for networking, professional development, and marketing for this field. The network is comprised of organizations interested in work in financial education, including for-profit banks that offer seminars about various savings tools, non-profit debt consolidation companies, NYC agencies that integrate some level of financial education into their social services, philanthropy, and organizations in related fields that regularly make referrals to the FEN (e.g. foreclosure prevention organizations). The following initiatives are included under the Financial Education Network: Financial Education Directory, Financial Education and Counseling Training, and OFE Financial Education Forums. Over 150 organizations are part of the FEN. • Tax Filing Opportunities: Offering multiple ways for working New Yorkers to receive the tax credits they deserve through quick and easy tax preparation either for free or low cost. Partners in FY2011 included the City’s free Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) network, free online self tax preparation through Intuit and the Beehive, and a coupon program with H&R Block offering basic tax preparation at a dramatically reduced rate. • SaveUSA (formerly $aveNYC): The SaveUSA program offers eligible individuals a 50 percent match if they deposit a portion of their tax refund into a “SaveUSA Account” and maintain the initial deposit for approximately one year. SaveUSA builds on early promising findings from $aveNYC. SaveUSA is being implemented through the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) in New York and three other cities, and will be offered during the 2011-2013 tax seasons.
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School-Based Health Centers A program administered by the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH). CEO FY11 Budget: $1,258,000 (plus State and private funds) With CEO funding, new School-Based Health Centers (SBHCs) were established at six high-need high school campuses. These SBHCs provide a comprehensive range of services including primary care, acute care, health education, vaccinations, and chronic disease management. The Centers also offer a non-stigmatized environment for obtaining reproductive and mental health services. SBHCs provide free care to students regardless of their insurance status. CEO’s support helped to leverage additional funding to enhance reproductive health services in high school SBHCs across the City. Sector-Focused Career Centers A program administered by the Department of Small Business Services (SBS). CEO FY11 Budget: $5,527,000 (plus Federal funds) The Sector-Focused Career Centers utilize an innovative strategy that focuses workforce development services on a single economic sector. The Centers meet the needs specific to businesses within the targeted sector and provide low-income workers with access to good jobs in industries with career advancement opportunities. The Centers focus on transportation, manufacturing, and health care. This initiative is being expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI) and helped inform the development of the WorkAdvance program, which is being replicated through the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) in New York and three other cities.
placement with paid advocates. These advocates provide intense mentoring, as well as the structure and guidance participants need to develop selfefficacy. This program is being established through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Arches A new program administered by the Department of Probation (DOP). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (program to launch in 2012) Arches Transformative Mentoring is a curriculumbased group mentoring intervention that helps young probationers ages 16 to 24 transform attitudes and behaviors that have led to criminal activity. Arches serves young people whose needs go far beyond the traditional mentoring approach of companionship, confidence-building and minor academic, social or career guidance. This program is being established through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Business Solutions Training Funds A program administered by the Department of Small Business Services (SBS). CEO FY11 Budget: $899,000 (plus Federal funds) Business Solutions Training Funds provides New York City employers with funding to develop the skills of their workers. Businesses provide funding to match the training award and agree to provide wage gains to employees who complete the trainings. CEO and Federal funding help businesses train, retain, and promote their lowwage employees. This program is being expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Child Care Tax Credit A program administered by the Department of Finance (DOF), in collaboration with New York State (NYS). 2010 Tax Year: $9,620,000 The New York City Child Care Tax Credit provides eligible low-income families with a refundable tax credit to help pay for child care expenses. When combined with the Federal and State child care tax credits, a New York City family can receive over $6,100 to help offset the cost of childcare in a given year. New York City is one of the only two cities
CEO provides active oversight and evaluation for programs in this category. Advocate Intervene Mentor (AIM) A new program administered by the Department of Probation (DOP). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (program to launch in 2012) AIM pairs 14 to 18-year-old youth on probation who face the highest probability of out-of-home
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nationwide to offer this local credit. The credit is available to all qualifying New York City families and take-up for the program has ranged from 50,210 households in the first year to approximately 23,000 in Tax Year 2010. Community Education Pathways to Success (CEPS) An expanded program administered by the Department of Probation (DOP). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (program to launch in 2012) CEPS is a model that has successfully raised the literacy levels of young adults. DOP will use this intervention to target high-risk young adults under direct probation supervision who live in a DOP Neighborhood Opportunity Network (NeON) community. Through this highly-structured program, which combines high-quality instruction, personal support, and career development within a youth development framework, participants engage with their community, prepare for employment, improve their productivity, and reduce the risk of re-offending and long-term poverty. This program is being expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Cornerstone Mentoring Program A new program administered by the Department of Youth and Community Development (DYCD). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (program to launch in 2012) The goal of the Cornerstone Mentoring Program is to support youth in the fifth through ninth grades during the transition from elementary to middle school and from middle school to high school by cultivating positive personal relationships and community involvement. This group mentoring program will enhance existing services at DYCD Cornerstone Program sites at 25 New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) Community Centers throughout the five boroughs. This program is being established through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). CUNY Fatherhood Academy A new program administered by City University of New York (CUNY). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (program to launch in 2012) The CUNY Fatherhood Academy aims to strengthen families by promoting responsible fatherhood and
economic stability through education, employment, and personal development for 18 to 24-year-old fathers. The program at LaGuardia Community College will serve 200 low-income fathers from across the City. This program is being established through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). CUNY Preparatory (CUNY Prep) A program administered by the City University of New York (CUNY). CEO FY11 Budget: $3,575,000 CUNY Prep is a model program that offers outof-school youth ages 16 to 18 the opportunity for full-time study in order to obtain a GED and enroll in college. While enrolled in the program, students may earn college credit at CUNY’s Hostos Community College. A separate evening program is available for older students and working adults. ECHOES A new program administered by the Department of Probation (DOP) and the Administration of Children’s Services (ACS). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (program to launch in 2012) ECHOES (Every Child Has an Opportunity to Excel and Succeed) is a new alternative-toplacement after-school program for juveniles who have been adjudicated delinquent and would otherwise be placement-bound. The program is designed to ensure that participants remain in their communities and that they develop the competencies needed to lead law-abiding lives. DOP will partner with a communitybased organization to facilitate work readiness, which includes subsidized weekend and summer work experience in addition to intensive case management and evidence-based practices of youth development. This program is being established through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Employment Works A program administered by the Department of Small Business Services (SBS), in collaboration with the Department of Probation (DOP). CEO FY11 Budget: $2,950,000 Employment Works provides education, training, and support services to prepare probationers
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for employment, with the goal of placing and retaining participants in employment and reducing recidivism. The program places more than 650 probationers annually, the majority in jobs paying $9.00 or more per hour. This program is being expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Food Handlers Certification Program A program administered by the Department of Correction (DOC), in collaboration with the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH). CEO FY11 Budget: $24,000 The Food Handlers Certification Program offers Food Protection certification courses to individuals currently detained or sentenced to Rikers Island, the City’s jail. Instructors from the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conduct a 15-hour training course and administer the industryrecognized certification exam. Food Policy Coordinator A program administered by the Office of the Mayor. CEO FY11 Budget: $75,000 A position established as a joint effort by Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and the New York City Council, the Food Policy Coordinator is an ombudsperson working in the Mayor’s Office to improve food security, increase the availability of healthy food in low-income neighborhoods, and coordinate citywide efforts to improve the sustainability of its food system. The Coordinator pursues an integrated, multi-agency strategy to promote access to and utilization of food support programs such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (food stamps) and the School Meals Program. The Coordinator also works to improve the healthfulness of meals served by City agencies and promote healthy food retail access and demand. Healthy Bodegas Initiative A program administered by the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH). CEO FY11 Budget: $182,000 (plus State funds) The Healthy Bodegas program aims to promote
healthy eating by increasing the availability, quality, and variety of healthy foods at food retail locations in targeted low-income neighborhoods. The program works with food retail owners to improve the provision and promotion of many healthy items, including low-fat milk, fresh fruits, and vegetables, and also works with community groups to increase consumer demand for these products. IMPACT: Peer Mentoring for Young Adult Literacy A new program administered by the City University of New York (CUNY). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (program to launch in 2012) IMPACT aims to improve GED pass rates and matriculation into college by young men of color. IMPACT builds peer mentoring and alumni support networks into the City’s adult literacy programs at two CUNY campuses, Hostos Community College and Medgar Evers College. The program is a replication of a successful GED peer mentoring model (Future Now/IMPACT) in operation at CUNY’s Bronx Community College. This program is being established through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Increase Food Stamp Employment and Training Funds (FSET) for Workforce Development A program administered by the Department of Small Business Services (SBS), in collaboration with the Human Resources Administration (HRA). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A Food Stamp Employment Training Funds (FSET) are Federal funds available to reimburse the costs of employment services for food stamp recipients that are drawn down by the City’s Human Resources Administration (HRA). For this initiative, SBS developed a process with HRA to draw down these funds to contribute to workforce development services. In FY10, this initiative generated $107,696 in Federal funds. Jobs-Plus Administered by Human Resources Administration (HRA). CEO FY11 Budget: $430,000 (plus additional City and private funds) CEO works with several City agencies to support Jobs-Plus, a place-based comprehensive
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employment services program for residents of targeted New York City Housing Authority developments. The model serves all working age residents of a targeted housing development or cluster of developments using a three-part strategy: on-site access to employment-related services, rent-based and other work incentives that allow residents to keep more of their earnings, and activities that promote community support for work through neighbor-to-neighbor outreach. In FY11 the Hostos program, located at Jefferson Houses in East Harlem, also offered subsidized employment supported by a private grant. JobsPlus program is being expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Jobs-Plus is also being implemented through the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) in New York and one other city. Justice Community A new program administered by the Department of Probation (DOP). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (program to launch in 2012) Justice Community seeks to encourage courtinvolved young adults’ successful attachment to education, work, and community engagement; reduce crime and recidivism; and help build stronger, safer, and more empowered communities. The program is built around subsidized community benefit projects that incorporate education, work, and group and civic engagement experiences to help participants see themselves as positive community role models. Participants will also learn about their legal rights in effort to reduce barriers to future employment. This program is being expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Justice Scholars A new program administered by the Department of Probation (DOP). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (program to launch in 2012) The Justice Scholars program serves young adults involved in the criminal justice system who need educational assistance. The program features multiple tracks, including options for young adults who are in high school or working towards a GED,
in need of basic education classes, or ready for post-secondary education. The program features educational services, tutoring, career exploration, case management, peer support, financial incentives, and placement and follow-up services. This program is being expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Language Access A program administered by the Mayor’s Office of Operations, in collaboration with the Mayor’s Office of Immigrant Affairs (MOIA). CEO FY11 Budget: $33,000 (plus private funds) The Language Access program provides City agencies with technical assistance and guidance to more effectively serve the 600,000 low-income New Yorkers who have Limited English Proficiency (LEP). Assistance includes staff training, translation and interpretation services, quality assurance, data collection, outreach, and plain language communication strategies. The initiative aims to improve access to public services for LEP residents in compliance with Local Law 73 and privacy laws established by Executive Order 41. MillionTreesNYC Training Program A program administered by the Department of Parks and Recreation (Parks). CEO FY11 Budget: $250,000 (plus private funds) The MillionTreesNYC Training Program is a sevenmonth paid training that prepares unemployed, out-of-school youth for green jobs. Trainees choose one of three tracks, arboriculture, ecological restoration, or landscape design and gardening, to develop marketable skills in climbing and pruning, tree planting, re-forestation techniques, and horticulture.1 The program provides support services to current and former trainees including mentorship, career development services, and skills development services. A 2009 grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture enabled graduates to be placed in subsidized green jobs.
1 In FY 2012, MillionTrees streamlined its program by focusing on the two tracks with highest placement rate, arboriculture and ecological restoration.
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Nursing Career Ladder: Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) Program A program administered by the Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) and the Department of Education (DOE). CEO FY11 Budget: $1,000,000 The Nursing Career Ladder initiatives prepare low-income individuals who are currently living at or below 130 percent of the Federal poverty level for sustainable careers in nursing. The Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) program expands the Department of Education’s accelerated elevenmonth training course at Goldwater Hospital on Roosevelt Island. Once they complete the program and obtain their professional license, participants are placed in LPN positions at HHC hospitals or other healthcare facilities. Participants earn approximately $40,000 annually. Program enrollees receive full tuition and support services as needed. Nursing Career Ladder: Registered Nurse/Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN/BSN) Program A program administered by the Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC). CEO FY11 Budget: $740,000 (plus Federal funds) The Nursing Career Ladder initiatives prepare lowincome individuals who are currently living at or below 130 percent of the Federal poverty level for sustainable careers in nursing. As with the Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) program, enrollees in the RN/ BSN Program receive full tuition and counseling services as needed. Participants are supported through the completion of pre-clinical and clinical coursework to earn a Bachelor of Science degree in Nursing. Graduates commit to working as an RN at HHC hospitals for four years. NYC Justice Corps A program administered by the City University of New York (CUNY). CEO FY11 Budget: $2,946,000 The NYC Justice Corps brings young adults involved with the criminal justice system together with their communities to identify and address unmet community needs. Through reparative service to their communities, internships, and employment and education opportunities, the program provides
Corps members with practical skills, social support, and leadership training. By actively partnering with the NYC Justice Corps, communities participate in the success and reintegration of their young people as contributing members of society. The program aims to improve the education and employment outcomes of Corps members, reduce recidivism, and support community development in specific New York City neighborhoods. This program is being expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards A program administered by the NYC Center for Economic Opportunity (CEO), in partnership with MDRC. CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (privately-funded) Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards was the first Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program in the nation. The pilot offered families cash payments to reduce short-term material hardship and build human capital in the long-term. This familyfocused program offered rewards for activities related to children’s education, preventative healthcare, and parents’ employment and training. The three-year demonstration ended in 2010, but the evaluation will continue for an additional two years. A second-generation pilot is being implemented as part of the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) in New York and one other city. Opportunity NYC-Work Rewards A program administered by the NYC Center for Economic Opportunity (CEO), in partnership with the Department of Housing Preservation and Development (HPD), the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA), and MDRC. CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (privately-funded) The Work Rewards demonstration provided work and job training incentives to adults living in subsidized housing from 2007 to 2010. Participants were recipients of Section 8 housing vouchers. This three-year initiative tested different combinations of employment assistance and financial incentives. Some Work Rewards participants were also enrolled in the Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program, a Federal program that encourages work and savings. Works Rewards is undergoing a random assignment
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evaluation scheduled to conclude in 2014, representing the first rigorous study of the Federal Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program. This program helped to inform the development of the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) Family Rewards program being implemented in New York and one other city. Project Ceasefire A new program administered by the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) and the Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (program to launch in 2012) Ceasefire seeks to reduce gun violence in target communities by employing a public health model. The program employs individuals with strong community relationships as outreach workers to identify young men ages 16 to 25 who are involved in violence, with the goal of stopping future conflicts before they happen or preventing escalation of violence. The program builds on the successful evidence-based model designed by the University of Illinois at Chicago. This approach coordinates a wide range of efforts from community partners, hospitals, schools, business, law enforcement, and social services to reduce gun violence and gang retaliation. This program is being established through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Teen ACTION A program administered by the Department of Youth and Community Development (DYCD). CEO FY11 Budget: $4,138,000 Teen ACTION (Achieving Change Together In Our Neighborhood) is an after school program designed to help young people cultivate an ethic of service; develop life skills and critical thinking skills; reduce risky behaviors that may result in teen pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV/ AIDS); encourage use of health and mental health services; and promote commitment to academic achievement. Teen ACTION participants work with staff, community advocates, and experts to research social, emotional, and environmental issues affecting their schools or communities. A comprehensive curriculum was created for this program to support participants as they
conceptualize and implement service projects. Teen and Young Adult Health Program A new program administered by Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (program to launch in 2012) This initiative works with HHC health care providers to improve their ability to meet the health needs of young adults and address health promotion, prevention, and treatment of medical conditions. Providers, including physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician’s assistants, social workers, HIV/AIDS counselors, and dietitians, will be trained on best practices for adolescent health. To further improve access to care, HHC will develop strategies to expand the days and times that HHC locations offer teen-specific services and also create peer education initiatives where young adults work with their peers to encourage utilization of services and provide health education information. This program is being established through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). Young Adult Internship Program A program administered by the Department of Youth and Community Development (DYCD). CEO FY11 Budget: $8,620,000 The Young Adult Internship Program offers youth who are out of school and out of work the opportunity to develop essential workforce skills through a combination of educational workshops, counseling, and short-term paid internships. After completing the program, participants receive help in finding the most appropriate next step — whether it is school, advanced training, or employment. This program is being expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). This program also helped to inform the development of the new Social Innovation Fund (SIF) Project Rise program in New York and two other cities.
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Young Adult Literacy Program A program administered by the Department of Youth and Community Development (DYCD), in partnership with the Brooklyn Public Library, the New York Public Library, and the Queens Public Library. CEO FY11 Budget: $1,818,000 (plus private funds) The Young Adult Literacy Program tailors curriculum and instructional approaches to the needs and interests of disconnected young adults ages 17 to 24 who read at pre-GED levels. The program offers literacy and numeracy classes, work readiness skills, assistance transitioning to GED classes and/or employment, paid internships, and support services to promote sustained participation. Program providers include community-based organizations, and the New York, Brooklyn and Queens public libraries. This program is being expanded through the Young Men’s Initiative (YMI). This program also helped to inform the development of the new Social Innovation Fund (SIF) Project Rise program in New York and two other cities. Youth Financial Empowerment A program administered by the Administration for Children’s Services (ACS). CEO FY11 Budget: $96,000 (plus State and private funds) The Youth Financial Empowerment program teaches financial literacy skills to youth who are aging out of the foster care system. The program also provides matching funds to contributions made by youth into Individual Development Accounts (IDAs). Program participants receive matching funds of up to $2,000 by saving $1,000 in the IDA. These savings can be applied to secure and maintain stable housing, to pursue educational and vocational opportunities, and to establish small enterprises.
COMPLETED OR DISCONTINuED PROgRAMS
These completed or discontinued programs no longer receive CEO funding. ACCESS NYC Marketing and Outreach A program administered by Health and Human Services (HHS) Connect and the Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications (DoITT). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A The Center for Economic Opportunity supported several strategies to help launch and promote the City’s online benefit screening tool, ACCESS NYC. Outreach strategies included trainings, marketing campaigns, and computer give-aways to non-profit organizations. ACCESS NYC screens for a number of benefits and work supports, and is now a well-established human services tool. The various outreach strategies likely supported early use by providers, but proved difficult to effectively evaluate beyond basic metrics that showed that the campaigns were implemented as planned. The City Hiring Initiative A program administered by the Human Resources Administration (HRA). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A This program sought to increase the number of cash assistance recipients placed into entry-level positions with City agencies and their contractors. The program model was insufficiently developed and budget reductions meant fewer appropriate job vacancies. As a result, the program attained few job placements. CUNY Performance Based Scholarships A program administered by the City University of New York (CUNY). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A CUNY Performance Based Scholarships offered monetary rewards to students for successful course completion while enrolled at the Borough of Manhattan Community College and Hostos Community College. The program targeted lowincome community college students between the ages of 22 and 35 who were eligible to
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receive the Federal Pell Grant, taking at least one developmental course, and who were enrolled for at least six credits for the semester. The initiative was part of a larger multi-state MDRC evaluation. A report on the study was published in May 2011, showing that the program had a positive impact on full-time enrollment. e311 Language Access Campaign A program administered by the Office of the Mayor. CEO FY11 Budget: N/A The e311 Marketing Campaign was part of the City’s Language Access initiatives and efforts to promote social services available through the City’s 311 phone service. The campaign was successfully implemented and there was an increase in 311 call volume during the campaign. There was also a modest increase in non-English calls. This time-limited, single-year marketing and outreach campaign did not justify a long term evaluation investment by CEO. Early Childhood Policy and Planning Positions A program administered by the Department of Education (DOE) and the Administration for Children’s Services (ACS). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A CEO funded staff positions at the Department of Education (DOE) and the Administration for Children’s Services (ACS) to work on early childhood planning. These individuals were well-regarded by their agencies and contributed to an expansion of pre-kindergarten slots. The impact of two staff positions could not adequately be measured, so CEO funding was discontinued. DOE and ACS continue to coordinate policy without the CEOfunded staff. Rikers Island Educational Expansion A program administered by the Department of Education (DOE) and the Department of Correction (DOC). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A The Rikers Island Educational Expansion initiative increased basic literacy, numeracy, GED preparation and testing, and vocational training for inmates
ages 19 to 24. The program resulted in a limited number of GEDs. Learning Independence for Empowerment (LIFE) Transitions Program A program administered by the Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A The LIFE Transitions Program provided transitional services to youth leaving juvenile detention to return to their communities. Community-based organizations provided workshops to youth in secure detention and continued these workshops after the youth returned to their communities. The curriculum was designed to build positive attitudes toward educational achievement, encourage prosocial activities, and teach youth about careers and economic independence. An evaluation of the program was unable to detect any positive impact on participating youth. Model Education: CUNY Catch A program administered by the Department of Correction (DOC) and City University of New York (CUNY). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A This program was one of several education and employment programs developed by CEO for courtinvolved young adults. In partnership with three community colleges, the CUNY Catch program provides young inmates with post-incarceration educational services, including pre-GED, GED, and college preparatory classes. The CUNY Catch program did not meet performance targets. Model Education: Mentoring A program administered by the Department of Correction (DOC). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A This program was one of several education and employment programs developed by CEO for court-involved young adults. This initiative provided young, male inmates on Rikers Island, the City’s jail, with mentoring services, including representation by mentors at court appearances to provide testimony on individual achievements. The program also provided post-discharge transitional
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services leading to educational and/or job training opportunities. This mentoring program did not meet performance targets. Model Education: Supportive Basic Skills CEO FY11 Budget: N/A A program administered by the Department of Correction (DOC). This program was one of several education and employment programs developed by CEO for courtinvolved young adults. The Supportive Basic Skills initiative offered basic literacy instruction and case management to youth exiting Rikers Island, the City’s jail. The provider was unable to serve and improve the reading skills of a sufficient number of participants. Non-Custodial Parents Initiatives CEO FY11 Budget: N/A A program administered by the Human Resources Administration (HRA). The City’s Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE) developed several new outreach strategies to engage low-income non-custodial parents in the child support enforcement system. The programs had limited impacts. OCSE continues to work with this hard-to-reach population. Opportunity NYC: Spark A program administered by the Department of Education (DOE), in partnership with the Education Innovation Laboratory at Harvard University (Ed Labs). CEO FY11 Budget: N/A (privately-funded) The Spark program was a two-year pilot developed and evaluated by the Education Innovation Laboratory at Harvard University, in collaboration with the NYC Department of Education. This school-based strategy aimed to improve academic achievement by providing small monetary incentives to public elementary and middle school students for achievement on periodic assessment tests.
SOCIAL INNOvATION FuND (SIF) PROgRAMS
National pilots with strong evidence, supported by Federal and private funds. CEO provides active oversight and evaluations for programs in this category. Family Rewards Family Rewards aims to break the cycle of poverty by providing temporary cash payments to poor families to boost their income in the short-term, while building their capacity to avoid longer-term and second-generation poverty. The payments are referred to as conditional cash transfers (CCT) because they are contingent upon family members making certain efforts to build human capital, particularly in the areas of education and health. This program is informed by the earlier Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards demonstration which produced a number of positive impacts across a range of education, health, and workforce measures, and had some success in reducing current poverty and material hardship. This second generation features new program elements, including a slimmer model, more feedback, and family guidance. Family Rewards is being implemented through the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) in New York and one other city. Jobs-Plus Jobs-Plus provides a platform to help residents of public housing developments enhance their skills and work histories so that these residents can increase their short and long-term earnings. A distinctive feature of the Jobs-Plus model is its goal to operate at “saturation” levels, meaning that services and work incentives are targeted to all working-age residents in the development, rather than focusing on a subset of eligible individuals. While the Jobs-Plus model has been proven to be effective through a rigorous, seven-year evaluation, the SIF implementation research will examine questions related to Jobs-Plus replication, including how providers adapt the model in new cities and in economic, service, and policy environments that differ from those in the original demonstration. Jobs-Plus is being implemented through the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) in New York and one other city.
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Project Rise Project Rise helps unemployed 18 to 24-year-olds who are currently out of school and lack a high school degree or GED to re-engage in productive activities through a combination of educational opportunities, paid internships, and case management as a pathway to long-term economic self-sufficiency. Project Rise builds on the promising experiences of New York City’s Young Adult Internship Program and the Young Adult Literacy Program. The year-long program is anchored in a paid internship of up to 18 weeks, with entry into and continuation of the internship conditioned on participants’ consistent engagement in an appropriate educational activity. Project Rise is being implemented through the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) in New York and two other cities. SaveUSA The SaveUSA program offers eligible individuals a 50 percent match if they deposit a portion of their tax refund into a “SaveUSA Account” and maintain the initial deposit for approximately one year. The decision by SaveUSA participants to save a portion of their refund, combined with limited access to the account and a significant match, is expected to start the participants on a pathway to longer-term savings and greater financial stability. SaveUSA builds on early promising findings from a similar program — $aveNYC — implemented in New York City by the Department of Consumer Affairs’ Office of Financial Empowerment. SaveUSA is being implemented through the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) in New York and three other cities. WorkAdvance WorkAdvance seeks to boost the earnings of unemployed and low-wage working adults by helping them prepare for and enter quality jobs in selected sectors with opportunities for career growth. Once placed, participants are provided with additional assistance to guide them on a path to career advancement. The program builds on the successful experiences of CEO’s SectorFocused Career Centers and the Advance at Work initiative, as well as evaluation evidence from other successful programs. The goal of WorkAdvance is to prepare, train, place, and sustain unemployed and low-wage workers in quality jobs with benefits, and established career tracks. At the
heart of this approach is a focus on meeting the needs of employers, and on helping workers advance up career ladders. Each WorkAdvance site is grounded in a targeted sector. Program providers have in-depth knowledge of the sector and strong relationships with relevant employers. WorkAdvance is being implemented through the Social Innovation Fund (SIF) in New York and three other cities.
Appendices | 57
appendix b. Research and evaluation Reports
All reports can be found online at www.nyc.gov/ceo. ACCESS NYC Early Implementation Report: ACCESS NYC. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Advance at Work Early Implementation Report: Career Advancement Program (EarnMore). Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Workforce Innovations: An Analysis of Outreach, Career Advancement and Sector-Focused Programs. Westat and Metis Associates, 2010. Business Solutions Training Funds Early Implementation Report: Business Solutions Training Funds. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Center for Economic Opportunity Evidence of Organizational Change: Qualitative Assessment of the NYC Center for Economic Opportunity’s Impact on New York City Agencies and Provider Organizations. Metis Associates, 2009. Innovation and Success: Qualitative Assessment of the NYC Center for Economic Opportunity’s Transition of Proven Programs to City Agencies. Westat and Metis Associates. To be released in early 2012. Community Partners Early Implementation Report: Community-Based Organization Outreach. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Workforce Innovation: An Analysis of Outreach, Career Advancement and Sector-Focused Programs. Westat and Metis Associates, 2010. CUNY ASAP Early Implementation Report: CUNY ASAP (Accelerated Study in Associate Programs). Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Early Outcome Report for the City University of New York (CUNY) Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP). City University of New York, 2009. Results Thus Far and the Road Ahead. A Follow Up Report on CUNY Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP). City University of New York, 2012. CUNY Performance Based Scholarships Promoting Full-Time Attendance Among Adults in Community College. MDRC, 2011. CUNY Prep Early Implementation Report: CUNY Preparatory High School. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Employment Works Employment Works: Evaluation Report. Westat and Metis Associates. To be released early 2012. Healthy Bodegas Early Implementation Report: Healthy Bodegas. NYC Center for Economic Opportunity, 2008. New York City Healthy Bodegas Initiative. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2010.
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LIFE Transitions Program Early Implementation Report: Learning Independence for Empowerment (LIFE) Transitions Program. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Learning Independence for Empowerment (LIFE) Transitions Program Community Component: Final Assessment Report. Westat and Metis Associates, 2010. Model Education Programs Early Implementation Report: Model Education-CUNY Catch. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Early Implementation Report: Model Education-Mentoring. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Early Implementation Report: Model Education-Supportive Basic Skills Program. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. MillionTreesNYC Training Program MillionTrees Training Program Participant Focus Group Summary Report. Metis Associates, 2009. Nursing Career Ladders: LPN Program Early Implementation Report: Nursing Career Ladders: Licensed Practical Nurse Program. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Participant Feedback on the NYC CEO Licensed Practical Nurse Program. Westat and Metis Associates. To be released early 2012. Nursing Career Ladders: RN/BSN Program CEO Nursing Career Ladder RN Program Review. Westat and Metis Associates. To be released early 2012. NYC Justice Corps Final Report of Year One of NYC Justice Corps Program Implementation. Westat and Metis Associates, 2009. Final outcome evaluation to be released late 2012. Office of Financial Empowerment Early Implementation Report: Office of Financial Empowerment. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Neighborhood Financial Services Study. Office of Financial Empowerment, 2008. Progress Report on the First Three Years, 2006-2009. Office of Financial Empowerment, 2009. The $aveNYC Account: Innovation in Asset Building-A Research Brief. Office of Financial Empowerment, 2009. Municipal Financial Empowerment: A Supervitamin for Public Programs: Strategy 1: Integrating Professional Financial Counseling. Office of Financial Empowerment, 2011. Office of the Food Policy Coordinator Early Implementation Report: Office of the Food Policy Coordinator. NYC Center for Economic Opportunity, 2008. Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards A Preliminary Look at Early Education Results of the Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards Program. MDRC, 2009.
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Toward Reduced Poverty Across Generations: Early Findings from New York City’s Conditional Cash Transfer Program. MDRC, 2009. Learning Together: How Families Responded to Education Incentives in New York City’s Conditional Cash Transfer Program. MDRC, 2011. Poverty Research The CEO Poverty Measure: A Working Paper by the NYC Center for Economic Opportunity. NYC Center for Economic Opportunity, 2008. The CEO Poverty Measure, 2005-2008. NYC Center for Economic Opportunity, 2010. Policy Affects Poverty: The CEO Poverty Measure, 2005-2009. NYC Center for Economic Opportunity, 2011. Rikers Island Educational Expansion Early Implementation Report: Educational Expansion on Rikers Island. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. School-Based Health Centers Early Implementation Report: School Based Health Centers. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Sector-Focused Career Centers Workforce Innovations: Outcome Analysis of Outreach, Career Advancement and Sector-Focused Programs. Westat and Metis Associates, 2010. Spark Fryer, Roland G., Financial Incentives and Student Achievement: Evidence From Randomized Trials. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2010. Teen ACTION Early Implementation Report: Teen ACTION (Achieving Change Together In Our Neighborhood). Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Teen ACTION Youth Survey Pilot: Summary of Findings. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Teen ACTION: Evaluation Report. To be released early 2012. Young Adult Internship Program Early Implementation Report: Young Adult Internship Program. Westat and Metis Associates, 2008. Evaluation of the Young Adult Internship Program: Analysis of Participant Data. Westat and Metis Associates, 2009. Young Adult Literacy Program CEO Young Adult Literacy Program and the Impact of Adding Paid Internships. Westat and Metis Associates, 2011. Evaluation of the CEO Young Adult Literacy Program: Student Persistence and Gains, July 2009 – December 2010. Westat and Metis Associates. To be released early 2012.
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appendix C. Program Performance Data
FISCAL YEAR 2011 Actual Advance at Work (SBS) Number Enrolled Number of Unique Individuals Receiving Upgrades Number of New Work Supports/Benefits Received Number of Career Upgrades/Promotions Business Solutions Training Funds (SBS) Number of Awards Number of Trainees (Projected) Average Wage Gain (among trainees with wage gain) Number of Trainees Receiving a Wage Gain Number of Low-Income Incumbent Trainees Amount of Dollars Awarded ($ in Millions) Amount of Dollars Contributed by Employers ($ in Millions) Number of Trainees Completing Training (Includes grants awarded in FY 2010) Percent of Incumbent Trainees Receiving a Wage Gain Childcare Tax Credit (DOF )3 Number of Households Receiving Credits Total Amount Received by Families ($ in Millions) Average Amount Claimed Community Partners (SBS) Number of Referrals Number of Job Placements CUNY ASAP (CUNY) Number Enrolled Cohort 1 (Fall 2007): Three-Year Graduation Rate Cohort 2 (Fall 2009): Two-Year Graduation Rate Cohort 3 (Fall 2010): One-Year Retention 1,280 54.8% 27.5% 78.7% >24.1% >7.2% >66.7% 227% 382% 118% 11,470 4,527 7,674 3,026 23,053 $9.62 $417.48 31,084 $15.58 $501.33
FISCAL YEAR 2010 % to Target Actual
805 495 35 466
2,128 1,672 803 948
17 387 15% 354 164 $0.69 $0.50 460 86%
500 8% 450 350 $1.00 $0.35 387 75%
77% 188% 79% 47% 69% 143% 119% 115%
41 1,370 8% 1,302 891 $2.02 $1.38 191 52%
1. The Advance at Work program was discontinued by the Department of Small Business Services in December 2011. The performance data represent 2 quarters (July - December 2011). 2. The CEO allocation to Business Solutions Training Funds was decreased between FY 2010 and FY 2011, therefore targets and performance were lower in FY 2011 than in FY 2010. 3. The FY 2011 figures shown are preliminary for Tax Year 2010. The FY 2010 figures shown represent tax year 2009.
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FISCAL YEAR 2011 Actual CUNY Preparatory School: Day Program (CUNY) Number of New Students Served Number of Continuing Students Served Number of Students who Took the GED Number of Students who Passed the GED Exam Number Enrolled in College Number of Students in Subsidized Internships Average Internship Stipend Received CUNY Preparatory School: Evening Program (CUNY) Number of New Students Served Number of Continuing Students Served Number of Students who Took the GED Number of Students who Passed the GED Earned Income Tax Credit Mailing (DOF) Number of Households Receiving the Credit Total Credit Received ($ in Millions) Average Amount Claimed Employment Works (SBS) Number New Enrollees5 Number Served Number of Job Placements Number Placed in Employment at $9 or more per hour Number Retained at 6 months Number Retained at 12 months Financial Empowerment Center (OFE/DCA) Number of New Clients Intake Number of Counseling Sessions Percent of Clients Returning for 2 or more Sessions Total Savings Accumulated since in Counseling Percent of Participants who Improved their Credit Score Total Debt Reduced 5,073 10,296 40% $330,574 13% $3,521,146 10,000 103% 1,258 2,037 784 427 332 284 680 476 349 285 106% 84% 95% 100% 7,093 $5.70 $803.64 224 65 141 105 4
FISCAL YEAR 2010 % to Target Actual
285 197 179 141 81 33 $1,358
134 67 -
105% 121% -
400 126 181 124 70 -
360 142 181 112
4,256 $3.47 $814.00
1,454 1,771 762 437 404 159
5,551 9,422 35% $194,524
4. The FY 2011 actual figures are based on 2010-2011 academic year. 5. While the number of new participants enrolled declined, the total number being served in FY 2011 (including participants served who had enrolled the previous year) increased.
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FISCAL YEAR 2011 Actual Financial Education Network (OFE/DCA) Number of Financial Education Inquiries (311 and Financial Education Directory Searches) Number of Individuals who Attended Professional Development Forums Number Who Completed the OFE/CUNY Financial Counselor Training Number of FEN Organizations that Received Capacity Building Support Number of People Served at those Sites Receiving Capacity Building Support Food Handlers Training Program (DOC) Number of Test Takers (Served) Number Certified in Food Protection Healthy Bodegas (DOHMH) Total Number of Bodegas Reached Number of Star Bodegas that Completed Campaign Number of Workshops, Presentations, Cooking Demonstrations, and other Events Percent of Stores Increasing their Stock of Healthy Foods Percent of Stores Increasing their Promotion of Healthy Foods Jobs-Plus (CUNY/HRA/NYCHA) Number Served Number of Placements or Promotions Employment Retention after 3-months MillionTreesNYC Training Program (DPR) Number of Trainees Enrolled Number of Certifications Received Number Placed into Jobs or College 33 25 21 30 33 110% 76% 756 236 113 206 161 115% 57% 110 58 76 79% 100% 120 60 60 85% 95% 92% 97% 127% 93% 105% 727 712 500 500 145% 142% 22,148 140 52 16 40,501 28,000 79% Target % to Target
FISCAL YEAR 2010 Actual
25,257 82 42 -
113 56 79 88% 98%
545 117 31
33 28 24
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FISCAL YEAR 2011 Actual Nurse Career Ladders: LPN Program (HHC/DOE) Number of Student Enrolled Number of Students Graduated Number Passed the LPN Exam from prior year’s cohort Number of Job Placements as LPNs from prior year’s cohort Nurse Career Ladders: RN/BSN Program (HHC) Number of Students at the Start of the Academic Year Number of Clinical Students Retained at the End of the Academic Year Number of Dropouts Before the End of the Academic Year Number of Program Graduates6 NYC Justice Corps (CUNY) Number Enrolled Number Completed Job Readiness Training Number Completed Community Benefit Service Number of Program Graduates Number of Post-Corps Placements8 Number Retained at 6 months Post Program NYC Training Guide (SBS) Number of Site Visitors10 Number of Report Cards (provider outcomes) Number of Student Reviews SaveUSA (Social Innovation Fund)11 Number of Save USA Accounts Opened Average Initial Deposit into SaveUSA Accounts Number of SaveUSA Accounts that remained Open Average Potential Match Earned for SaveUSA Accounts12 1,662 $533 1,130 $284 343,097 432 2,204 9 7
FISCAL YEAR 2010 % to Target Actual
40 40 33 26
40 40 40 40
100% 100% 83% 65%
40 39 36 34
47 32 9 6
73 47 26 -
160 155 153 89 42 -
147 122 90 76 54
109% 125% 99% 55% -
254 243 188 135 69 15
570,042 556 22,557
6. The Nurse Career Ladders: RN/BSN Program is a four-year subsidized nursing program. The first graduates received their degrees in Spring 2011. 7. FY 2011 figures are based on Program Year 3 which ended in December 2011. Final FY 2011 post-Corps job and education placement data will be available March 2012. 8. Post-Corps placements reflect placements within 90 days of program completion. Full data available Spring 2012. 9. Post-Corps retention data for all cohorts will be available Fall 2012. 10. The NYC Training Guide had fewer visitors in FY 2011 due to a reduction in Individual Training Grant vouchers distributed by SBS in this year. 11. The SaveUSA program was offered in New York City, Tulsa, Newark, and San Antonio. 12. Figures are based on the lastest data provided by financial institution partners as of September 2011.
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FISCAL YEAR 2011 Actual School-Based Health Centers (DOHMH) Number Enrolled Number of Clinic Visits Number of Health Education Visits Number of Mental Health Visits Number of Reproductive Health Visits Sector-Focused Career Centers - Healthcare (SBS) Number Newly Enrolled Number of Placements or Promotions Number of Job Placements Number of Job Promotions Number Placements at $10/Hour or Above Number Enrolled in Training13 Number Completed Training
FISCAL YEAR 2010 % to Target Actual
9,870 25,377 1,503 3,210 11,476
8,070 29,255 3,084 2,921 10,838
2,230 368 340 28 320 67 0
475 357 118 238 -
77% 95% 24% 134% -
1,450 236 210 26 177 175 79
Sector-Focused Career Centers - Manufacturing (SBS) Number Newly Enrolled Number of Placements or Promotions Number of Job Placements Number of Job Promotions Number Placements at $10/Hour or Above Number Enrolled in Training15 Number Completed Training
1,083 286 238 48 196 14 0
250 205 45 154 -
114% 116% 107% 127% -
781 72 69 3 43 94 43
Sector-Focused Career Centers - Transportation (SBS) Number Newly Enrolled Number of Placements or Promotions Number of Job Placements Number of Job Promotions Number Placements at $10/Hour or Above Number Enrolled in Training17 Number Completed Training18 3,405 1,426 1,108 318 887 159 78 1,300 1,050 250 788 150 113 110% 106% 127% 113% 106% 69% 2,972 1,365 1,020 345 803 339 251
13. Training enrollments were reduced during FY 2011 due to a reduction in Federally funded Individual Training Grant vouchers. 14. Participants are scheduled to complete training in FY 2012. 15. Training enrollments were reduced during FY 2011 due to a reduction in Federally funded Individual Training Grant vouchers. 16. Participants are scheduled to complete training in FY 2012. 17. Training enrollments were reduced during FY 2011 due to a reduction in Federally funded Individual Training Grant vouchers. 18. Participants are scheduled to complete training in FY 2012.
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FISCAL YEAR 2011 Actual Tax Campaign (OFE/DCA) Number of OFE Tax Pilot Program Returns Filed Number of VITA Returns Completed (of organizations within coalition) Number of Tax Assistance-Related Inquiries (311 and website) Teen ACTION (DYCD) Number Served19 Number of Service Hours Completed Young Adult Internship Program (DYCD) Number Enrolled Number Placed in Internships Number Completed Internship Number Placed in Education/Employment Number Retained after 9 months Young Adult Literacy Program (DYCD/Public Libraries) Number of Program Participants Number Newly Enrolled Number of Literacy Gains
FISCAL YEAR 2010 % to Target Actual
19,520 72,712 144,873
3,626 68,981 56,188
1,360 1,352 1,232 734 621
1,360 1,360 1,020 952 790
100% 99% 121% 77% 79%
1,360 1,348 1,249 850 653
1,142 678 302 262 95 285 431
480 240 -
141% 126% -
1,207 635 292 101 172 -
Number of Numeracy Gains21 Number Graduated to a Higher GED Class Number Referred to Employment or Job Training Total Number of Students in Internships Youth Financial Empowerment (ACS)
Number of Program Participants Since Pilot Started Number of New Enrollees Number Placed in the Financial Literacy Workshop Number Completed the Financial Literacy Workshop Total Number of Individual Development Accounts (IDA) Opened Number of New IDAs Open
513 343 304 250 276 162
600 375 238
185 154 134 166
19. The number of Teen ACTION slots was reduced in FY 2011. 20. Number of Literacy Gains reported only includes gains 1 full grade level or higher. 21. Number of Numeracy Gains reported only includes gains 1 full grade level or higher. 22. The Youth Financial Empowerment targets are based on the program’s 5-year pilot target.
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appendix D. 2011 Conferences and Presentations
AARP Preparing for an Aging Workforce: 2011 Workforce Symposium Effective Strategies for Retaining Older Employees Veronica White (CEO) Annual Convention of the Allied Social Science Associations A New Supplemental Poverty Measure for the United States Mark Levitan (CEO) Association of Public Policy Analysis and Management Annual Fall Research Conference Advancing Low Wage Workers David Berman (CEO) Innovations in Savings: Policy Implications from Experiments in the Field Mitchell Kent (OFE) The Impact of Conditional Cash Transfers on Family Well-being and Children’s Development Allegra Blackburn-Dwyer (CEO) Using Local Area Data to Evaluate Economic Well Being Mark Levitan (CEO) Center for American Progress Overcoming Barriers to Innovation Roundtable Veronica White (CEO) Center for Financial Security: Financial Literacy Research Consortium Conference Impact of Financial Counseling on Financial Stability: Analysis of the New York City Model Cathie Mahon (OFE) and Monica Martinez (OFE) CEOs for Cities The Opportunity Challenge Veronica White (CEO) Corporation for National and Community Service: National Conference on Volunteering and Service Pathways to Innovation: Social Innovation Fund Evaluation Kristin Morse (CEO) Federal Reserve Bank of New York Community Development Credit Union Roundtable Cathie Mahon (OFE) Grantmakers for Effective Organizations: Scaling What Works Using Evidence to Elevate Promising Programs Allegra Blackburn-Dwyer (CEO) and Sinead Keegan (CEO) Institute for Research on Poverty Estimating the Impact of Food Stamps on the Poverty Rate Using a National Academy of Sciences-Style Poverty Measure for New York City Daniel Scheer (CEO)
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John Jay College of Criminal Justice Prisoner Reentry Institute Roundtable Occasional Series on Reentry Research Veronica White (CEO) Living Cities Asset Building at Scale Convening Cathie Mahon (OFE) Microfinance USA Conference Cities for Financial Empowerment Cathie Mahon (OFE) New School for Social Research, Milano School for Public Policy Using the American Community Survey to Create a National Academy of Sciences Style Poverty Measure Mark Levitan (CEO) National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics Annual Conference Center for Economic Opportunity’s Innovative Anti-Poverty Initiatives David Berman (CEO) Coordinating Workforce Services for Public Housing Residents: The Jobs-Plus Program Kate Dempsey (CEO) New York City Mayor’s Workforce Coordination Initiative Kristin Misner (Office of the Mayor) Role of Food Stamps and Tax Credits in Alleviating Poverty Mark Levitan (CEO) National Council of La Raza Workforce Development Forum Jefferson Houses Jobs-Plus Workforce Innovations from a Place-Based Employment Program in East Harlem Kate Dempsey (CEO) National Community Tax Coalition Bi-Annual Conference Mapping the Future: A Roadmap to Helping Families Achieve Economic Success Tamara Lindsay (OFE) National League of Cities: Municipal Leadership for Reengaging Disconnected Youth New York City and Philadelphia Data Driven Decisions that Lead to Policy Change and Strategies for African American and Latino Male Initiatives Alan Farrell (Office of the Mayor) and Carson Hicks (CEO) New York Association of Training and Employment Professionals Youth Academy Conference Young Adult Literacy Program and Recent Evaluation Findings Carson Hicks (CEO) New York City Employment and Training Coalition Summit Overview of the City’s New Young Men’s Initiative and the Expanded Young Adult Internship Program Kate Dempsey (CEO) and Dorick Scarpelli (CEO) New York Mortgage Coalition The Power of Collaboration Veronica White (CEO)
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New York Coalition of CDFIs Statewide Conference Innovations and Opportunities to Promote Community and Consumer Financial Justice David Friedman (OFE) New York University Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Policy Accenture Executive Briefing Series Making Changes That Last Veronica White (CEO) New York University Langone Medical Center Second Annual Innovations in Healthcare Symposium Innovations in Business of Health Care: Incentives as System Drivers Veronica White (CEO) New York University, Center for an Urban Future, and MDRC Can Incentives Alleviate Poverty? Veronica White (CEO) Nexus Global Young Philanthropist Summit Connecting the Dots: Local to Global Moses Magali (CEO) Pathways to Prosperity Conference on Asset-Building and Financial Education Tax Time Savings: Lessons from $aveNYC Janelle Clay (OFE) Population Association of America Annual Conference The Great Recession’s Impact on New York City: What Does the Center for Economic Opportunity’s Poverty Measure Tell us that the Official Measure Does Not? Mark Levitan (CEO) Social Impact Exchange Conference on Scaling Scaling Poverty Alleviation Veronica White (CEO) The Museum of the City Of New York and City Limits War on Poverty 2.0: The Urban Challenge Veronica White (CEO) Women of Color Policy Network Opportunity Series and the Center for American Progress Measuring Our Progress in Reducing U.S. Poverty Mark Levitan (CEO) Women of Color Policy Network Opportunity Series Swimming Upstream: Race, Place and the Problem of Persistent Poverty in America Kristin Morse (CEO) U.S. Census Bureau and the Urban Institute State Poverty Measurement Using the American Community Survey Mark Levitan (CEO)
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U.S Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families: Northeast Family Strengthening Conference Beyond Job Readiness: Helping the Working Poor with Career Advancement David Berman (CEO) The Promise of Asset Building: Transforming Wealth in Poor Communities Cathie Mahon (OFE) U.S Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families: Annual Welfare Research and Evaluation Conference The Performance of Safety Net Programs in the Recession: A New York City Perspective Mark Levitan (CEO) Social Innovation Fund: Building the Evidence for Effective Solutions to Poverty Carson Hicks (CEO) and Cathleen Mahon (OFE) U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration: Working Collaboratively to Provide Work and Learn Opportunities for Young Adults Engaging Young People in New York City Carson Hicks (CEO)
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Donors and In-Kind Contributors Altman Foundation, American International Group, Aspen Institute, Bloomberg Philanthropies, Blue Ridge Foundation, The Broad Foundation, BNY Mellon, Capital One Services, Annie E. Casey Foundation, Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative, Catholic Charities Archdiocese of San Antonio, Citigroup, Citi Foundation, William J. Clinton Foundation, Corporate Fuel Advisors, Corporation for National and Community Service, Ira W. DeCamp Foundation, Cleveland H. Dodge Foundation, Con Edison, E*Trade, Fidelity Investments, Ford Foundation, Fund for Our Economic Future, Goldman Sachs Urban Investment Group, H&R Block, Marc Haas Foundation, Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, F.B. Heron Foundation, Insurance Industry Charitable Foundation, IRP/RIDGE Center for National Food and Nutrition Assistance Research, George Kaiser Family Foundation, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Henry R. Kravis, Kresge Foundation, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Living Cities, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Mayor’s Fund to Advance New York City, City of Memphis, Morgan Stanley, M&T Bank, NeighborWorks through a grant from CIT, New Yorkers for Children, New York Community Trust, Nicholson Foundation, Oak Hill Advisors, Open Society Foundations, Passport to Success through a grant from Casey Family Programs, Pinkerton Foundation, Robin Hood Foundation, The Rockefeller Foundation, Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors, David Rockefeller Fund, Arthur Ross Foundation, The Fan Fox and Leslie R. Samuels Foundation, Jessica Seinfeld, Starr Foundation, Surdna Foundation, Tiger Foundation, Laurie M. Tisch Illumination Fund, Tulsa Community Foundation, United Way of Greater Kansas City, United Way of New York City, United Way of San Antonio and Bexar County, University of North Carolina Center for Community Capital, and Victoria Foundation. Commission for economic opportunity Lawrence Aber, Diane Baillargeon, Lilliam BarriosPaoli, Stanley Brezenoff, Geoffrey Canada, David Chen, Florence Davis, Jamie Dimon,
Michael Fishman, Floyd Flake, Ester Fuchs, Fatima Goldman, William Goodloe, Colvin Grannum, Paloma Hernandez, David Jones, Carter McClelland, Ronay Menschel, Gail Nayowith, Richard Parsons, Judith Rodin, William Rudin, David Saltzman, John Sanchez, Alan Siskind, Kevin Sullivan, Mindy Tarlow, Merryl Tisch, Maria Torres, Jeremy Travis, Terry Troia, and Nancy Wackstein. new York City Government Partners Administration for Children’s Services, Brooklyn Public Library, City University of New York, Department for the Aging, Human Resources Administration, Department of City Planning, Department of Consumer Affairs, Department of Correction, Department of Education, Department of Finance, Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Department of Homeless Services, Department of Housing Preservation and Development, Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications, Department of Parks and Recreation, Department of Probation, Department of Small Business Services, Department of Youth and Community Development, Health and Hospitals Corporation, Law Department, Mayor’s Fund to Advance New York City, New York City Economic Development Corporation, New York City Housing Authority, Mayor’s Office of Adult Literacy, Mayor’s Office of Contract Services, Mayor’s Office of Immigrant Affairs, Mayor’s Office of Legislative Affairs, Mayor’s Office of Operations, New York City Council, New York Public Library, Office of Management and Budget, Office of the Mayor, and Queens Public Library. Ceo staff David Berman, Allegra Blackburn-Dwyer, Ana Cunningham, Jennifer Cunningham-Povolny, Kate Dempsey, Christine D’Onofrio, Carmen Genao, Annel Hernandez, Carson Hicks, Susanne James, Sinead Keegan, John Krampner, Mark Levitan, Moses Magali, Kristin Morse, Dorick Scarpelli, Daniel Scheer, Todd Seidel, Carl Urness, Jerome White, and Veronica White. Ceo Interns Rashi Kumar and Laura Noonan.
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NYC Justice Corps participants at graduation
nyc.gov/ceo Michael R. Bloomberg Mayor
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