Comparing Instructional Design Models



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Lynn Torrence EDUC 533 June 2010 Comparing Instructional Design Models and Strategies Instructional Design Model vs. Instructional Strategy Quality instruction can be ensured through instructional design. Instructional design is the development of specifications using learning and theory, through analyzing needs, setting goals and finding a method for delivering information (Berger and Kam, 1996). Effective instructional design relies on instructional models and strategies to meet such specific needs. Often confused as synonymous because both models and strategies focus on improved student learning through meaningful expectations and instruction, models and strategies are not identical. According to Instructional Design, an instructional model helps determine the current state and needs of students, set goals and create activities to meet stated goals. The main difference between instructional models and instructional strategies is the specific experience and activities for understanding that instructional strategies provides students, helping them acquire knowledge, intellectual skills and/or new attitudes. Strategies are often determined after analyses of current practice and established performance objectives. In essence, a method is the action plan-- a guideline to organize and structure the process, while a strategy is the delivery plan-- specific experiences which provide students with learning and understanding. Again, both instructional models and strategies are key components of quality teaching. Instructional Design Models One of the first instructional design models came in the form of the ADDIE model. The ADDIE model is a systematic design to guide educators through five phases; (1) Analysis, (2) Design, (3) Development, (4) Implementation, and (5) Evaluation. Revised and modified numerous times, ADDIE has mutated into many different models, with the majority still focusing Lynn Torrence EDUC 533 June 2010 on the five phases. Two models, ASSURE and Understanding by Design (UbD), are modified from the ADDIE model and will be compared against the original. ASSURE is also a sequential model, each step laying the foundation for proceeding to the next. ASSURE still focuses on understanding current student abilities, objectives, content and evaluation. The ASSURE differences include required student involvement and necessary extended reflection. UbD, developed by Wiggins and McTighe, is a three stage, backward design model, which focus is still very similar to ADDIE. UbD’s Backward design first identifies desired results, then develops assessments and activities to ensure students are working toward the essential skills wanted. Backward design is different from many models because others develop plans based on assessment needs, not essential goals or questions. Differences between UbD and ADDIE are the unique characteristics of UbD; assessment is usually performance based tasks instead of formative or summative assessment, and student reflections of rethinking and revising based on self-evaluation. Overall, both instructional design models are very similar to the ADDIE model, one major difference being student involvement in evaluation. And of course, UbD’s backward planning design. The table below compares two instructional design models against the ADDIE model, with an asterisk, *, representing a difference. Lynn Torrence EDUC 533 June 2010 Table 1: Instructional Design Models ADDIE ASSURE Understanding by Design Analysis Learning Problem Goals/Objectives Audience Needs Existing Knowledge Design Learning Objectives Overall Nature (look, feel, etc.) Development Creating content Analyze Learners Audience Needs: demographics, competencies, learning styles State Objectives Select instructional methods, media, materials Stage 1- Desired Results Establish Goals Essential Questions Stage 1- Desired Results Essential Questions Stage 3- Learning Plan Lesson expectations Prior knowledge Stage 3- Learning Plan Equip students Experience/Explore Implementation Training/Learning Activities Materials Used Utilize media and materials *Require learner participation active participation to ensure engagement in activities (not a necessary component of ADDIE) Lynn Torrence EDUC 533 June 2010 Table 1: Instructional Design Models ADDIE Evaluation 1. Formative 2. Summative 3. Revision (if needed) ASSURE Evaluate and *Revise Reflect upon lesson, objectives, strategies, materials, and assessment (neglected stage in ADDIE). Understanding by Design Stage 2- Assessment Evidence *Performance Tasks (majority) Formative/Summative Stage 3- Learning Plan *Rethink/Revise (student/teacher) *Student Evaluation Tailor plan to needs * represents difference from ADDIE model Instructional Strategies After deciding on an instructional model for developing a lesson, an instructional strategy is intended to help guide the delivery process of the lesson. Through the years, educators have had a wide spectrum of instructional strategy options; ranging from behaviorism to constructivism theories. Compared below are two instructional strategies, direct instruction (DI) and project-based learning. Direct instruction is a familiar and common model in traditional schooling. Being completely teacher-centered, DI focuses on explicit, sequential instruction combined with guided and independent practice. DI methods are often scripted and easy for a teacher to follow. Student achievement is demonstrated through proving mastery of objectives. On the other hand, project-based learning has a constructivist feel, being a type of inquiry and discovery type learning. The focus is taken from the teacher and mutated into student- Lynn Torrence EDUC 533 June 2010 centered education. Student achievement results from collaboration, creative thinking, and decision-making skills applied in real-world situations. The table below details the different methodology of each instructional strategy, comparing the following; components/process, relative “student-centeredness,” assessment, 21st century influences, and ease of use (including advantages/disadvantages). Table 2: Instructional Strategies Project Based Learning Direct Instruction Components/Process 1. Creating Groups 2. Searching 3. Solving 4. Creating 5. Sharing 1. Program Design 2. Organization of Instruction ← Introduction ← Development ← Guided Practice ← Closure ← Independent Practice ← Evaluation 3. Teacher/Student Interactions Teacher driven (not student centered) Relative “StudentCenteredness” •Student responsibility and engagement in: project creation problem solving process/procedure communication Lynn Torrence EDUC 533 June 2010 Table 2: Instructional Strategies Project Based Learning Assessment Non-Traditional Assessment: •Focus on performance of content and skills •Uses criteria related to the “real-world” •Goal setting through feedback Constructivist Theory Collaboration-Based •Shifts away from tradition, focusing on: interdisciplinary activities student-centered activities •Required skills from student: problem-solving design decision-making •Emphasis on: cooperative learning ADVANTAGES: •Student-driven planning •Process Oriented, with clear objectives •Meets varied student needs •Flexible DISADVANTAGES: •Time consuming preparation •Different approach (possibly unfamiliar for many students) Direct Instruction Formative/Summative Assessment: •Focus on meeting objectives •Administered after every lesson 21st Century Influences Traditional Theory •Explicit Instruction •Sequenced Instruction •Modeling •Guided Practice •Independent practice Ease of Use ADVANTAGES: •Teacher-driven planning (less time consuming than student-driven) •Scripted lessons (easy to follow) •Effective with struggling students DISADVANTAGES: •Meets limited student needs, unless ability grouped •No room for student exploration, creativity or curiosity •Scripted lessons (inflexible) Although both are considered effective in their respectable situations, project-based learning and direct instruction are two significantly different strategies because their theory and implementation methods derive from opposing educational philosophies. Lynn Torrence EDUC 533 June 2010 Conclusion Teachers have a broad list of instructional design models and strategies to choose from, based on the needs and abilities of students. It seems as though most models and strategies derive from a specific educational philosophy or theory completely based on beliefs. Being familiar with a variety of approaches builds a repertoire of teaching tricks which can be adjusted and used to improve student learning depending on individual teacher and student ideals. REFERENCES Berger, C., & Kam, R. (1996). Definitions of Instructional Design. University of Michigan. Retrieved from Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino. (1999). The ASSURE Model. UNC Asheville: North Carolina’s Public Liberal Arts University. Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning. Retrieved from assure.htm. Lynn Torrence EDUC 533 June 2010 Instructional Design Models (n.d). Instructional Design. Retrieved from http:// Learning Theories Knowledgebase. (2010). ADDIE Model at Retrieved from Marchand-Martella, N., R. Martella, & K. Ausdemore. (2005) An Overview of Direct Instruction. New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved from spneeds/inclusion/teaching/marchand martellaausdemore.htm. Project Based Learning. (n.d). Redirection to Equivalent @ Cengage. Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved from students/c2007/background.html#Four Wiggins, G.P. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design (2nd ed). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.